The Language of Medicine 12th Edition answer key (2023)

Table of Contents Instructions for online access Cover image Title Page Copyright Dedication Preface WELCOME TO THE 12TH EDITION OF THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE NEW TO THE 12TH EDITION HOW TO USE THE BOOK ALSO AVAILABLE Acknowledgments Reviewers Chapter 1 Basic Word Structure Objectives in Studying the Medical Language


Word Analysis Exercises Answers to Exercises Chapter 2 Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole Structural Organization of the Body Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants Divisions of the Back (Spinal Column) Positional and Directional Terms Planes of the Body Exercises Answers to Exercises Chapter 3 Suffixes Introduction A Closer Look Exercises Answers to Exercises Chapter 4 Prefixes Introduction A Closer Look Exercises


Answers to Exercises Chapter 5 Digestive System Introduction Anatomy and Physiology Pathology of the Digestive System Pathologic Conditions Exercises Answers to Exercises Chapter 6 Additional Suffixes and Digestive System Terminology Introduction Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures Exercises Answers to Exercises Chapter 7 Urinary System Introduction Anatomy of the Major Organs Physiology: How the Kidneys Produce Urine Urinalysis Pathologic Terminology: Kidney, Bladder, and Associated Conditions Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures


Exercises Answers to Exercises Chapter 8 Female Reproductive System Introduction Organs of the Female Reproductive System Menstruation and Pregnancy Pathology: Gynecologic, Breast, Pregnancy, and Neonatal Clinical Tests and Procedures Exercises Answers to Exercises Chapter 9 Male Reproductive System Introduction Anatomy Pathologic Conditions; Sexually Transmitted Infections Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures Exercises Answers to Exercises Chapter 10 Nervous System Introduction General Structure of the Nervous System


Neurons, Nerves, and Glial Cells The Brain The Spinal Cord and Meninges Pathology Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures Exercises Answers to Exercises Chapter 11 Cardiovascular System Introduction Blood Vessels and the Circulation of Blood Anatomy of the Heart Physiology of the Heart Blood Pressure Pathology: the Heart and Blood Vessels Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures Exercises Answers to Exercises Chapter 12 Respiratory System Introduction Anatomy and Physiology of Respiration Pathology


Clinical Procedures Exercises Answers to Exercises Chapter 13 Blood System Introduction Composition and Formation of Blood Blood Types Blood Clotting Pathology Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures Exercises Answers to Exercises Chapter 14 Lymphatic and Immune Systems Introduction Lymphatic System Immune System Pathologic Conditions Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures Exercises Answers to Exercises


Chapter 15 Musculoskeletal System Introduction Bones Pathology—Bones Joints Pathology—Joints Muscles Pathology—Muscles Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures Exercises Answers to Exercises Chapter 16 Skin Introduction Anatomy of the Skin Accessory Structures of the Skin Pathology Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures Exercises Answers to Exercises Chapter 17 Sense Organs Introduction


The Eye Errors of Refraction Pathology—the Eye Clinical Procedures—the Eye The Ear Pathology—the Ear Clinical Procedures—the Ear Exercises Answers to Exercises Chapter 18 Endocrine System Introduction Thyroid Gland Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Glands Pancreas Pituitary Gland Ovaries Testes Pathology Laboratory Tests Clinical Procedures


Exercises Answers to Exercises Chapter 19 Cancer Medicine (Oncology) Introduction Characteristics of Tumors Carcinogenesis Classification of Cancerous Tumors Pathologic Descriptions Grading and Staging Systems Cancer Treatment Laboratory Tests Clinical Procedures Exercises Answers to Exercises Chapter 20 Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Introduction Radiology Nuclear Medicine Exercises Answers to Exercises


Chapter 21 Pharmacology Introduction Drug Names, Standards, and References Administration of Drugs Drug Actions and Interactions Drug Toxicity Classes of Drugs Exercises Answers to Exercises Chapter 22 Psychiatry Introduction Psychiatric Clinical Symptoms Psychiatric Disorders Therapeutic Modalities Exercises Answers to Exercises Mini-Dictionary A B C D




Glossary Appendix I Plurals Appendix II Abbreviations, Acronyms, Eponyms, and Symbols Abbreviations Acronyms Eponyms Symbols Appendix III Normal Hematologic Reference Values and Implications of Abnormal Results Appendix IV Drugs Illustrations Credits Index Chabner makes medical terminology MEMORABLE… Students… Instructors… Order Now!



Copyright THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE, TWELFTH EDITION ISBN: 978-0-323-55147-2 Copyright © 2021, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmi ed in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publisher's permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency, can be found at our website: This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein).

Notice Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds or experiments described herein. Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made. To the fullest extent of the law, no responsibility is assumed by Elsevier, authors, editors or contributors for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a ma er of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein. Previous editions copyrighted 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007, 2004, 2001, 1996, 1991, 1985, 1981, and 1976.


Library of Congress Control Number: 2020932476 Senior Content Strategist: Linda Woodard Senior Content Development Manager: Luke Held Publishing Services Manager: Julie Eddy Senior Project Manager: Abigail Bradberry Design Direction: Amy Buxton Printed in Canada Last digit is the print number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1



Dedication For Gus, Amari, Solomon, Bebe, Ben, and Louisa You make it all worthwhile.





WELCOME TO THE 12TH EDITION OF THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE The continuing focus of this new edition is its cu ing-edge relevance to real-life medical practice. Drawing on the newest technology, state-ofthe-art medical procedures, and treatments, The Language of Medicine brings medical terminology to life. The newly-drawn dynamic images and up-to-date photography plus compelling patient stories further illustrate medical terminology in action. I am honored that this text continues to be the book instructors return to, year after year, because their students tell them that it works! As a student, you will find that The Language of Medicine speaks to you no ma er what your background or level of education. It is wri en in simple, non-technical language that creates an exceptionally accessible pathway to learning. Since it is a workbook-text combination, you engage and interact on practically every page through writing and reviewing terms, labeling diagrams, and answering questions. Terminology is explained so that you understand medical terms in their proper context, which is the structure and function of the human body in health and disease. Throughout the process of writing this text over its 12 editions, I have listened to hundreds of students and instructors and incorporated their insightful suggestions. Expert medical reviewers have once again helped me to ensure that the terminology included reflects cu ing edge clinical practice. New information and illustrations throughout are the result of recommendations from all those who have so generously provided feedback. My continuing goal in writing The Language of Medicine is to help you not only learn medical terminology but also to enjoy learning! You will find that medical terminology comes alive and stays with you when you use my interactive, logical, and easy-to-follow method. Undeniably, the study of this language requires commitment and hard work, but the benefits are great. Knowledge of medical terminology will give you a strong start in your career.



NEW TO THE 12TH EDITION The biggest bonus for students and instructors is the brand new MINIDICTIONARY at the end of the book. This is a complete list of all medical terms in the text with easy to understand explanations. My thought was to provide an immediate, convenient way for finding definitions, seeing pronunciations, and checking answers to all terminology sections. It also will be a useful reference, not only during your coursework, but as you begin your new medical career!


While the essential elements of The Language of Medicine remain in place, the new 12th edition is even more relevant to real-life medical situations. The 12th edition includes helpful hints to point out important facts and make things clear. There are also new, first-hand stories of medical conditions and procedures. These personal accounts make medical terminology more understandable and relevant.




HOW TO USE THE BOOK The Language of Medicine makes learning easy. The book guides and coaches you step by step through the learning experience. Don't get overwhelmed! Approach learning systematically, step by step. I've helped you study each chapter by organizing the information in small pieces. Icons are provided to help you navigate the sections of the text.






ALSO AVAILABLE Student Evolve Resources (complimentary access included with purchase of this text) The student website accompanying this new edition is packed with activities, games, additional information, and video clips to expand your understanding and test your knowledge. Additionally, on the website, you can hear the terms corresponding to the Pronunciation of Terms section in each chapter (more than 3,000 terms in all). Access your resources at: h p://

MEDICAL LANGUAGE INSTANT TRANSLATOR (for sale separately) The Medical Language Instant Translator is a uniquely useful resource for all allied health professionals and students of medical terminology. It is a pocket-sized medical terminology reference with convenient information at your fingertips!


INSTRUCTOR'S RESOURCE MANUAL The Language of Medicine Instructor's Resource Manual (includes instructor's manual, ExamView test bank, PowerPoints, and an image collection) is available with even more new quizzes, teaching suggestions, crossword puzzles, medical reports, and reference material. The image collection contains all figures and photos from the 12th edition. The instructor materials plus a test bank can be accessed online at h p:// The fundamental features you have come to trust in learning and teaching medical terminology remain strong in this new edition. These are:

• Simple, nontechnical explanations of medical terms. • Workbook format with ample space to write answers. • Explanations of clinical procedures, laboratory tests, and abbreviations related to each body system. • Pronunciation of Terms sections with phonetic spellings and spaces to write meanings of terms. • Practical Applications sections with case reports, operative and diagnostic tests, and laboratory and x-ray reports. • Exercises that test your understanding of terminology as you work through the text step by


step (answers are included). • Review Sheets that pull together terminology to help you study. • Comprehensive glossaries and appendices for reference in class and on the job. Each student and teacher who selects The Language of Medicine becomes my partner in the exciting adventure of learning medical terms. Continuity is crucial. Continue to communicate with me through email ([emailprotected]) with your suggestions and comments so that future printings and editions may benefit. A website connected to The Language of Medicine and dedicated to helping students and teachers is located at h p:// I hope you will tell me about additional resources you would like to see on that website so that we can make it an even more useful part of the learning process. You should know that I still experience the thrill and joy of teaching new students. I love being in a classroom and feel privileged to continue to write this text. I hope that my enthusiasm and passion for the medical language are transmi ed to you through these pages. Work hard, but have fun with The Language of Medicine!




Acknowledgments Maureen Pfeifer has been my extraordinary and indispensable editorial partner for the last 22 years. Her phenomenal expertise in all facets of communication, coordination, production, editing, updating, and management is amazing. She has the unique ability to “make things happen” and “make things right.” Both personally and professionally, I am grateful for her unique insight and capabilities. She is intelligent, calm, and upbeat in the face of any issue affecting The Language of Medicine and its ancillaries. Most of all, I rely on her loyalty and her confidence that we are creating an eminently useful and valuable textbook and resource for both students and instructors. Thank you, Maureen, for everything you do for me, especially when you take things “off my plate.” Bruce A. Chabner, MD, and Elizabeth Chabner Thompson, MD, MPH, continue to be amazing resources to me for expert and upto-date medical advice. Their contributions were essential in reviewing and editing all chapters and glossaries. My devoted friend, Dan Longo, MD, never turned me down for valuable medical advice and editing of chapters. He was also a wonderful resource for helping identify expert reviewers. Jim Perkins, Assistant Professor of Medical Illustration, Rochester Institute of Technology, has been associated with The Language of Medicine since its 6th edition. He has worked with me to create drawings that are not only a ractive but also essential in making the terminology more understandable. I have come to rely on his unique talent for clarity, accuracy, and detail. I am indebted to the many medical reviewers listed on pages xv-xvi who offered essential advice and comments on specific chapters. Their insights and expertise make this 12th edition reflect what is current, accurate, and cu ing edge in medicine today.


The classroom instructors listed on pages xvi-xvii extensively and carefully reviewed the text, and I have listened to their comments, which are integrated into this new edition. Many other instructors contacted me personally through email with helpful suggestions. I am always pleased to hear from students who comment on the book and ask important questions. I try to answer each as quickly and accurately as possible. Thanks to Shulamit Izen, Vashine Kamesan, Stephanie Kitchingham, Alfred Kyrollos, Rachel Recolcolin, Megan Peterson, Christina Sastre, Julia Sjoquist, Victoria Swanson, and Lan Wang. The In Person stories throughout the text are first-hand personal accounts of individuals dealing with illness and medical procedures. The writers of these stories are extraordinarily generous to share their insights and reactions so that we all benefit. A very special thank you to: Stan Ber, Nancy J. Brandwein, Mary Braun, Bruce A. Chabner, Lenore Estrada, Sidra DeKoven Ezrahi, Elizabeth F. Fideler, Tanzie Johnson, Kevin Mahoney, Frank McGinnis, Brenda Melson, John Melson, John Murphy, Laura Claridge Oppenheimer, Carolyn Peter, Bob Rowe, Ruthellen Sheldon, Elizabeth Chabner Thompson, Cathy Ward, and Kemisha White. The superb staff at Elsevier Health Sciences continues to be vital to the success of The Language of Medicine. Luke Held, Content Development Manager, is always responsive, available, and effective in managing the many details of the project. I appreciate Linda Woodard, Senior Content Strategist, for her expert management and steadfast support of my books. I am grateful to Annie Martin, Director, Book Production, Jeff Pa erson, Book Production Manager, and Julie Eddy, Publishing Services Manager, for their superb production efforts. Abbie Bradberry, Book Production Specialist, tirelessly and effectively handled the day-to-day aspects of the production process. Thank you, Abbie! Kim Denando and Amy Buxton, created and directed the design for this edition. I appreciate their expertise and responsiveness. I continue to be impressed by the talents of the entire marketing team, especially Julie Burche , Senior Director of Product


Portfolio Marketing and Samantha Page, Marketing Manager, Product Portfolio Marketing. They do a phenomenal job keeping The Language of Medicine in-step with the needs of instructors and students. Thanks to Manju Thirumalaivasan, Senior Multimedia Producer and Prakash Kannan, Multimedia Team Lead, for their work on the electronic products associated with this new edition. A very special note of gratitude to the extraordinary and devoted sales team at Elsevier Health Sciences, which is beyond compare! Led by Bryan Gripka, Vice President of Sales, this dedicated team works tirelessly to bring my books and learning system to the marketplace. You are the best!!! My family and friends continue to be my greatest comfort and support. The kids, Noonie, Brandon, and Marla, are always “in my corner.” The grandkids, Bebe, Solomon, Ben, Gus, Louisa, and Amari make me feel “on top of the world.” Juliana DoCarmo, by managing so many day-to-day responsibilities, allows me the luxury of being able to work and concentrate. I am grateful for Bob Williams, photographic specialist, who continues to provide expert advice on images throughout the book. My husband, Bruce, has always encouraged my passion for teaching and writing, and given me the space and time to enjoy both. I rely on his calm reassurance and his willingness to answer all questions medical or otherwise. Lastly, our canine kids, Ginger and Fred, remain the love of our lives, providing countless hours of excitement and enjoyment.




Reviewers The following persons reviewed the text and/or the ancillaries: MEDICAL REVIEWERS Elizabeth Chabner Thompson MD, MPH CEO/Founder of Masthead Scarsdale, New York Bruce A. Chabner MD Clinical Director, Emeritus Allen Distinguished Investigator Massachuse s General Hospital Cancer Center Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School Boston, Massachuse s Lisa Caulley MD, MPH Otolaryngology/Head & Neck Surgery The O awa Hospital O awa, Canada Michael J. Curtin MD Medical Director, St. Luke’s Sports Medicine Orthopedic Surgery and Sports Medicine St. Luke's Clinic Boise, Idaho Morris A. Fisher MD A ending Neurologist Edward Hines Jr. Veterans Hospital Hines, Illinois Professor of Neurology Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine Maywood, Illinois Carlos A. Jamis-Dow M.D.


Radiologist Su er Medical Group Sacramento, California Jay Loeffler MD Chief of Radiation Oncology Massachuse s General Hospital Cancer Center Herman and Joan Suit Professor Harvard Medical School Boston, Massachuse s Dan L. Longo MD Deputy Editor New England Journal of Medicine Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School Boston, Massachuse s Neera R. Nathan MD, MSHS Massachuse s General Hospital Boston, Massachuse s Tomas G. Neilan MD, MPH Division of Cardiology Department of Medicine Massachuse s General Hospital Boston, Massachuse s Aparna Parikh MD Massachuse s General Hospital Boston, Massachuse s Mihir Parikh MD Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Boston, Massachuse s Cliff Rosen MD Rosen Laboratory Scarborough, Maine James L. Rosenzweig MD


Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Hebrew Rehabilitation Center Roslindale, MA Henry E. Schniewind MD,

Boston, Massachuse s

Sydney Schoensee PT, DPT, FAAOMPT St. Luke’s Rehabilitation McCall, Idaho Noëlle S. Sherber MD, FAAD Dermatologist Co-Founder, Sherber+Rad Washington, DC Leigh H. Simmons MD Assistant Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School Division of General Internal Medicine Massachuse s General Hospital Boston, Massachuse s Daniel I. Simon MD President, University Hospitals Case Medical Center President, Harrington Heart & Vascular Institute Chief, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine University Hospitals Health System Herman K. Hellerstein Chair of Cardiovascular Research and Professor of Medicine Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine Cleveland, Ohio Jill Smith MD Chief of Ophthalmology Newton-Wellesley Hospital Newton, Massachuse s Daniel Talmasov MD Harvard Longwood Psychiatry Boston, Massachuse s


Beatrix Thompson,

New Haven, Connecticut

Cornelia L. Trimble MD Professor Departments of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Oncology, and Pathology The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions Baltimore, Maryland INSTRUCTOR REVIEWERS Teresa S. Boyer MSN, APN-BC, PMHNP Associate Professor of Nursing Motlow College Lynchburg, Tennessee Cheryl Christopher RHIA Adjunct Borough of Manha an Community College New York, New York Mary Jane Durksen Medical Office Administrator Diploma Lead Virtual Instructor/Courseware Developer AOLC Ontario, Canada Shelba Durston MSN, RN, CCRN, SAFE Professor of Nursing San Joaquin Delta College Stockton, California Erin J. Fi gerald RN, BSN, MBA Norwalk Community College Norwalk, Connecticut Rosalie Griffith RN, MSN, MA.Ed Nursing Success Coordinator Chesapeake College Wye Mills, Maryland Shawn McGowan


Manager, Healthcare Division AOLC Ontario, Canada Angela J. Moore RN, MSN Ed. Assistant Director of Nurses Career Care Institute Lancaster, California José L. Mosqueda Healthcare Lead Instructor Erie Neighborhood House Chicago, Illinois Mary Prorok RN, MSN Instructor South Hills School of Business & Technology Altoona, Pennsylvania Danielle Robel MBA Professor, Health Sciences AAMA, Milwaukee Area Technical College Milwaukee Wisconsin Deb Stockberger MSN, RN Health Division Instructor North Iowa Area Community College Mason City, Iowa Donna J. Wilde MPA, RHIA Professor, Health Informatics and Information Management Shoreline Community College Sea le, Washington Charles K. Williston BA, MS, CPC Instructor Traviss Career Center Lakeland, Florida Lynda Wilson Masters in the Art of Teaching, EMT-Paramedic


Professor of Medical Terminology Valencia College Orlando, Florida Mindy Wray MA, CMA (AAMA), RMA Program Director, Medical Assisting ECPI University Greensboro, North Carolina Carole Zeglin MSEd, BSMT, RMA Associate Professor/Director Medical Laboratory Technology, Medical Assisting, and Phlebotomy/Specimen Processing Programs Westmoreland County Community College Youngwood, Pennsylvania




Basic Word Structure CHAPTER SECTIONS: Objectives in Studying the Medical Language 2 Word Analysis 3 Terminology 6 Practical Applications 16 Exercises 17 Answers to Exercises 24 Pronunciation of Terms 27 Review Sheet 29

CHAPTER GOALS • Identify basic objectives to guide your study of the medical language. • Divide medical words into their component parts. • Learn the meanings of basic combining forms, suffixes, and prefixes of the medical language. • Use these combining forms, suffixes, and prefixes to build medical words.



Objectives in Studying the Medical Language There are three objectives to keep in mind as you study medical terminology:

• Analyze words by dividing them into component parts. Your goal is to learn the tools of word analysis that will make understanding complex terminology easier. Do not simply memorize terms; think about dividing terms into their component parts—the building blocks of terminology. This book shows how to separate both complicated and simple terms into understandable word elements. Medical terms are much like jigsaw puzzles in that they are constructed of small pieces that make each word unique, with one major difference: The pieces can be shuffled up and used in lots of combinations to make other words as well. As you become familiar with word parts and learn what each means, you will be able to recognize those word parts in totally new combinations in other terms. • Relate the medical terms to the structure and function of the human body. Memorization of terms, although essential to retention of the language, should not become the primary objective of your study. A major focus of this book is to explain terms in the context of how the body works in health and disease. Medical terms explained in their proper context also will be easier to remember. Thus, the term hepatitis, meaning inflammation (itis) of the liver (hepat), is be er understood when you know where the liver is and how it functions. No previous knowledge of biology, anatomy, or physiology is needed for this study. Explanations in this book are straightforward and basic. • Be aware of spelling and pronunciation problems. Some medical terms are pronounced alike but are spelled differently, which accounts for their different meanings. For example, ilium and ileum have


identical pronunciations, but the first term, ilium, means a part of the hip bone, whereas the second term, ileum, refers to a part of the small intestine (Figure 1-1). Even when terms are spelled correctly, they can be misunderstood because of incorrect pronunciation. For example, the urethra (u-RE-thrah) is the tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body, whereas a ureter (U-reh-ter) is one of two tubes, each leading from a single kidney and inserting into the urinary bladder. Figure 1-2 illustrates the different anatomy of the urethra and the ureters.

FIGURE 1-1 The terms ileum and ilium can be confusing because they are pronounced alike and refer to body parts located in the same general region of the body. HINT: The ileum, with an “e,” is part of the digestive tract, which has to do with eating.


FIGURE 1-2 Male urinary tract. The terms urethra and ureter can be confusing because they are both tubes of the urinary system, but spellings and pronunciations are different. Notice their locations: two ureters between the kidneys and urinary bladder and one urethra between the urinary bladder and the outside of the body. HINT: Ureter has two “e's” and urethra has just one “e.”


Word Analysis Studying medical terminology is very similar to learning a new language. At first, the words seem strange and complicated, although they may stand for commonly known disorders and terms. For example, cephalgia means “headache,” and an ophthalmologist is an “eye doctor.” Your first job in learning the language of medicine is to understand how to divide words into their component parts. Logically, most terms, whether complex or simple, can be broken down into basic parts and then understood. For example, consider the following term, which is divided into three parts:

The root is the foundation of the word. All medical terms have one or more roots. For example, the root hemat means blood. The suffix is the word ending. All medical terms have a suffix. The suffix -logy means process of study. The combining vowel—usually o, as in this term—links the root to the suffix or the root to another root. A combining vowel has no meaning of its own; it joins one word part to another. It is useful to read the meaning of medical terms starting from the suffix and then going back to the beginning of the term. Thus, the term hematology means process of study of blood. Here is another familiar medical term:

Electrocardiogram, reading from the suffix back to the beginning of the term, means record of the electricity in the heart. Notice that there are two combining vowels—both o—in this term. The first o links the two roots electr and cardi; the second o links the root cardi and the suffix gram. Try another term:


Gastritis, reading from the end of the term (suffix) to the beginning, means inflammation of the stomach. Notice that the combining vowel, o, is missing in this term. This is because the suffix, -itis, begins with a vowel. The combining vowel is dropped before a suffix that begins with a vowel. It is retained, however, between two roots, even if the second root begins with a vowel. Consider the following term:

The entire term means process of study of the stomach and intestines. Notice that the combining vowel is retained between gastr and enter, even though the second root, enter, begins with a vowel. When a term contains two or more roots related to parts of the body, anatomic position often determines which root goes before the other. For example, the stomach receives food first, before the small intestine—so the word is formed as gastroenterology, not “enterogastrology.”

In summary, remember three general rules: 1. READ the meaning of medical terms from the suffix back to the beginning of the term and across. 2. DROP the combining vowel (usually o) before a suffix beginning with a vowel: gastritis, not “gastroitis.” 3. KEEP the combining vowel between two roots: gastroenterology, not “gastrenterology.” In addition to the root, suffix, and combining vowel, two other word parts are commonly found in medical terms. These are the combining form and the prefix. The combining form is simply the root plus the combining vowel. For example, you already are familiar with the following combining forms and their meanings:


Combining forms are used with many different suffixes. Remembering the meaning of a combining form will help you understand unfamiliar medical terms. The prefix is a small part a ached to the beginning of a term. Not all medical terms contain prefixes, but the prefix can have an important influence on the meaning. Consider the following examples:

In summary, the important elements of medical terms are the following: 1. ROOT: foundation of the term 2. SUFFIX: word ending 3. PREFIX: word beginning 4. COMBINING VOWEL: vowel (usually o) that links the root to the suffix or the root to another root 5. COMBINING FORM: combination of the root and the combining vowel


In previous examples you have been introduced to the combining forms gastr/o (stomach), hemat/o (blood), and cardi/o (heart). This section of the chapter presents a list of additional combining forms, suffixes, and prefixes, with examples of


medical words using those word parts. Similar lists are included for each chapter in the book. Write the meaning of the medical term in the space provided. Then check the correct pronunciation for each term with the Pronunciation of Terms list on pages 27 and 28. The Mini-Dictionary, beginning on page 897, includes definitions for all terms in this book. The Evolve website for The Language of Medicine also contains audio pronunciations for each term. Use it! Most medical terms are derived from Greek and Latin roots. Greek, Roman, and Arabic physicians had developed medically useful concepts and associated vocabularies long before the 21st century. Greek and Latin origins for medical terms are presented for your interest on the Evolve website.

Chapter Study Guide 1. Use slashes to divide each term into component parts (aden/oma), and write its meaning (tumor of a gland) in the space provided. Although most medical terms are divided easily into component parts and understood, others defy simple explanation. Information in italics under a medical term helps you define and understand the term. You can check meanings using the MiniDictionary at the end of this book. 2. Complete the Exercises, pages 17 to 23, and check your answers on pages 24 to 26. 3. Practice your pronunciation of each term using the Pronunciation of Terms list, pages 27 and 28. Definitions of each term are in the Mini-Dictionary beginning on page 897. 4. Complete the Review Sheet, pages 29 and 30. Check your answers with the Glossary of Word Parts page 967. Then, test yourself by writing Review Sheet terms and meanings on a separate sheet of paper. 5. Make your own flash cards. Using the Review Sheet as a guide, create flash cards that can be transported wherever you study! 6. Create your own book tabs to have easy access to key concepts and frequently used sections—for example, the Glossary of Word Parts, beginning on page 967. 7. Review terms using the audio pronunciations found on the Evolve website. Notice that you are actively engaging in the learning process by writing terms and their meanings and testing yourself repeatedly. Here is your study mantra: READ, WRITE, RECITE, and REVIEW. I guarantee success if you follow these simple steps. This is a proven method—it really works!

Combining Forms Write the meaning of each medical term in the space provided. Remember: You will find every term phonetically pronounced starting on page 27, and you can hear the pronunciations on the Evolve website.



arthr/o bi/o


cardi/o cephal/o cerebr/o cis/o



cyt/o derm/o dermat/o electr/o encephal/o enter/o

erythr/o gastr/o




adenoma tumor of a gland________________________________________ The suffix -oma means tumor or mass. adenitis ________________________________________ The suffix -itis means inflammation. joint arthritis ________________________________________ life biology ________________________________________ The suffix -logy is composed of the root log (study) and the final suffix -y (process or condition). biopsy ________________________________________ The suffix -opsy means process of viewing. Living tissue is removed from the body and viewed under a microscope. cancerous, carcinoma ________________________________________ cancer A carcinoma is a cancerous tumor. Carcinomas grow from the epithelial (surface or skin) cells that cover the outside of the body and line organs, cavities, and tubes within the body (Figure 1-3A and B). heart cardiology ________________________________________ head cephalic ________________________________________ (seh-FAL-ik) The suffix -ic means pertaining to. A cephalic presentation describes a “head first” position for the delivery of an infant. cerebrum cerebral ________________________________________ (largest part The suffix -al means pertaining to. Figure 1-4 shows the cerebrum and its of the brain) many functional areas. to cut incision ________________________________________ The prefix in- means into, and the suffix -ion means process. excision ________________________________________ The prefix ex- means out. to secrete (to endocrine glands ________________________________________ form and The prefix endo- means within; endocrine glands (e.g., thyroid, pituitary, and give off) adrenal glands) secrete hormones directly within (into) the bloodstream. Other glands, called exocrine glands, release their secretions (e.g., saliva, sweat, tears, milk) through tubes (ducts) to the outside of the body. urinary cystoscopy ________________________________________ bladder; a sac (sis-TOS-ko-pe) The suffix -scopy is a complex suffix that includes the root or a cyst (sac scop, meaning visual examination, and the final suffix -y, meaning process. containing fluid) cell cytology _______________________________________ See Figure 1-5 for examples of blood cells. skin dermatitis _______________________________________ hypodermic _______________________________________ The prefix hypo- means under or below. electricity electrocardiogram _______________________________________ The suffix -gram means record. Abbreviated ECG (or sometimes EKG). brain electroencephalogram _______________________________________ Abbreviated EEG. intestines enteritis _______________________________________ (usually the The small intestine is narrower but much longer than the large intestine small (colon). See Figure 1-1 on page 2, which shows the small and large intestines. intestine) red erythrocyte _______________________________________ The suffix -cyte means cell. Erythrocytes carry oxygen in the blood. stomach gastrectomy _______________________________________ The suffix -ectomy means excision or removal. All or, more commonly, part of the stomach is removed. gastrotomy _______________________________________ The suffix -tomy is another complex suffix, which contains the root tom, meaning to cut, and the final suffix -y, meaning process of. sugar hyperglycemia _______________________________________ The prefix hyper- means excessive, above, or more than normal. The suffix emia means blood condition.



gynec/o hemat/o hem/o

woman, female blood

hepat/o iatr/o

liver treatment, physician



log/o nephr/o

study of kidney

neur/o onc/o

nerve tumor (cancerous)



















diagnosis ______________________________________ The prefix dia- means complete. The suffix -sis means state or condition of. A diagnosis is made after sufficient information has been obtained about the patient's condition. Literally, it is a “state of complete knowledge.” prognosis ______________________________________ The prefix pro- means before. Literally “knowledge before,” a prognosis is a prediction about the outcome of an illness, but it is always given after the diagnosis has been determined. gynecology ______________________________________ hematology ______________________________________ hematoma ______________________________________ In this term, -oma means a mass or collection of blood, rather than a growth of cells (tumor). A hematoma forms when blood escapes from blood vessels and collects as a clot in a cavity or organ or under the skin. See Figure 1-6. hemoglobin ______________________________________ The suffix -globin means protein. Hemoglobin carries oxygen in red blood cells. hepatitis ______________________________________ iatrogenic ______________________________________ The suffix -genic means pertaining to producing, produced by, or produced in. Iatrogenic conditions are adverse effects that result from treatment or intervention by a physician. leukocyte ______________________________________ This blood cell helps the body fight disease. dermatology ______________________________________ nephritis ______________________________________ nephrology ______________________________________ neurology ______________________________________ oncology _______________________________________ oncologist ______________________________________ The suffix -ist means one who specializes in a field of medicine (or other profession). ophthalmoscope ______________________________________ (of-THAL-mo-skope) The suffix -scope means an instrument for visual examination. HINT: Pronunciation helps! The first syllable is “off” and here the “f” sound is spelled “ph.” osteitis ______________________________________ osteoarthritis ______________________________________ This condition of aging is actually a degeneration of bones and joints often accompanied by inflammation. pathology ______________________________________ pathologist ______________________________________ A pathologist examines biopsy samples microscopically and examines dead bodies to determine the cause of death. pediatric ______________________________________ Notice that ped/o is also in the term orthopedist. Orthopedists once were doctors who straightened (orth/o means straight) children's bones and corrected deformities. Nowadays, orthopedists specialize in disorders of bones and muscles in people of all ages. psychology ______________________________________ psychiatrist ______________________________________ radiology ______________________________________ Low-energy x-rays are used for diagnostic imaging. renal ______________________________________ Ren/o (Latin) and nephr/o (Greek) both mean kidney. Ren/o is used with -al (Latin) to describe the kidney, whereas nephr/o is used with other suffixes such as -osis, -itis, and -ectomy (Greek) to describe abnormal conditions and operative procedures. rhinitis ______________________________________








sarcoma ______________________________________ This is a cancerous (malignant) tumor. A sarcoma (Figure 1-7) grows from cells of “fleshy” connective tissue such as muscle, bone, and fat, whereas a carcinoma (another type of cancerous tumor) grows from epithelial cells that line the outside of the body or the inside of organs in the body. to cut resection ______________________________________ The prefix re- means back. A resection is a cu ing back in the sense of cu ing out or removal (excision). A gastric resection is a gastrectomy, or excision of the stomach. clot, clo ing thrombocyte ______________________________________ Also known as platelets, these cells help clot blood. A thrombus is the actual clot that forms, and thrombosis (-osis means condition) is the condition of clot formation. urinary tract, urologist ______________________________________ urine

FIGURE 1-3 A. Carcinoma of the skin. This is a basal cell carcinoma, the most common form of skin cancer. It usually occurs on sun-damaged skin. B. Esophageal carcinoma is a cancerous tumor of the esophagus (tube leading from the throat to the stomach).


FIGURE 1-4 Cerebrum and the functions it controls. A cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or stroke, occurs when blood vessels (vascul/o means blood vessel) are damaged in the cerebrum and blood is prevented from reaching functional areas of the brain. Cells, deprived of oxygen and nutrients, are damaged, causing loss of movement or speech and other signs and symptoms of a CVA.

FIGURE 1-5 Blood cells. Notice red blood cells (erythrocytes), a white blood cell (leukocyte), and clotting cells (thrombocytes or platelets).


FIGURE 1-6 A, Notice the hematoma under the nail. B, Hematoma from broken ribs.

FIGURE 1-7 Sarcoma of muscle in the thigh. (Courtesy Dr. Sam Yoon, Sloan Kettering Hospital, New York City.)



SUFFIX -ac -al -algia

MEANING pertaining to pertaining to pain

-cyte cell -ectomy excision, removal -emia blood condition


pertaining to producing, produced by, or produced in

-globin protein -gram record -ic, -ical pertaining to -ion -ist -itis -logy -oma

process specialist inflammation process of study tumor, mass, swelling


process of viewing


condition, usually abnormal (slight increase in numbers when used with blood cells)


disease condition


instrument to visually examine


process of visually examining

-sis -tomy

state of; condition process of cu ing, incision process, condition


TERMINOLOGY MEANING cardiac ________________________________________ neural _________________________________________ arthralgia ________________________________________ neuralgia ________________________________________ erythrocyte ________________________________________ nephrectomy ________________________________________ leukemia ________________________________________ Literally, this term means “a blood condition of white (blood cells).” Actually, it is a condition of blood in which cancerous white blood cells proliferate (increase in number). carcinogenic ________________________________________ Cigare e smoke is carcinogenic. pathogenic ________________________________________ Many viruses and bacteria are pathogenic organisms. osteogenic sarcoma ________________________________________ This is a malignant tumor produced in bone. hemoglobin ________________________________________ electroencephalogram ________________________________________ gastric ________________________________________ neurologic ________________________________________ Log/o means study of. excision ________________________________________ ophthalmologist ________________________________________ cystitis ________________________________________ endocrinology ________________________________________ hepatoma ________________________________________ A hepatoma (hepatocellular carcinoma) is a malignant tumor of the liver. biopsy ________________________________________ Biopsy specimens are obtained and viewed under a microscope. nephrosis ________________________________________ leukocytosis ________________________________________ This condition, a slight increase in normal white blood cells, occurs as white blood cells multiply to fight an infection. Don't confuse leukocytosis with leukemia, which is a cancerous (malignant) condition marked by high levels of abnormal, immature white blood cells. encephalopathy ________________________________________ (en-sef-ah-LOP-ah-the) adenopathy ________________________________________ (ah-deh-NOP-ah-the) Also known as lymphadenopathy, this condition refers to lymph nodes (collection of stationary cells along the path of lymph vessels) that are are enlarged due to infection or during the spread of malignant (cancerous) tumors. endoscope ________________________________________ Endo- means within. A cystoscope is a type of endoscope. A periscope is a nonmedical term meaning an instrument to visually examine an area around (peri-) an obstacle. endoscopy ________________________________________ (en-DOS-ko-pe) Endoscopy is performed with an endoscope. A common endoscopic procedure is a colonoscopy (colon/o = colon or large intestine). prognosis ________________________________________ osteotomy ________________________________________ (os-te-OT-o-me) gastroenterology ________________________________________



PREFIX MEANING a-, an- no, not, without

aut-, autodiaendoepiex-, exohyperhypo-


TERMINOLOGY MEANING anemia ________________________________________ Anemia is a decreased number of erythrocytes or an abnormality of the hemoglobin (a chemical) within the red blood cells. This results in decreased delivery of oxygen to cells of the body. Anemic patients look so pale that early physicians thought they were literally “without blood.” self, own autopsy ________________________________________ This term literally means “process of viewing by oneself.” Hence, an autopsy is the examination of a dead body with one's own eyes to determine the cause of death and nature of disease. complete, diagnosis ________________________________________ through The plural of diagnosis is diagnoses. within endocrinologist __________________________________ above, upon epigastric __________________________________ epidermis __________________________________ This outermost layer of skin lies above the middle layer of skin, known as the dermis. out, outside excision __________________________________ of, outward exocrine glands __________________________________ excessive, hyperthyroidism __________________________________ above, more The suffix -ism means process or condition. than normal deficient, hypogastric _____________________________________ below, When hypo- is used with a part of the body, it means below. under, less hypoglycemia _____________________________________ than normal In this term, hypo- means deficient. into, in incision _____________________________________ surrounding, pericardium _____________________________________ around The suffix -um means a structure. The pericardium is the membrane that surrounds the heart. before, prostate gland _____________________________________ forward This exocrine gland “stands” (-state) before or in front of the male urinary bladder (see Figure 1-2). It produces semen, which contains fluid and sperm cells. back, resection _____________________________________ backward, This is an operation in which tissue is “cut back” or removed. The Latin resectio again means a trimming or pruning. behind retrocardiac _____________________________________ below, under subhepatic _____________________________________ across, transhepatic _____________________________________ through

Complex Suffixes

Many suffixes, like -scopy, contain an embedded root word. Other examples are opsy (ops is a root) and -logy (log is a root).

Hyperglycemia and Diabetes

Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) most frequently is associated with diabetes. People with diabetes have high blood sugar levels because they lack insulin (in type 1 diabetes) or have ineffective insulin (in type 2 diabetes). Insulin is the hormone normally released by the pancreas (an endocrine gland near the stomach) to “escort” sugar from the bloodstream into cells. Sugar (glucose) is then broken down in cells to release energy. When insulin is not present, sugar cannot enter cells and builds up in the bloodstream (hyperglycemia).


Urologist and Nephrologist

A urologist is a surgeon who operates on the urinary tract and the organs of the male reproductive system. A nephrologist is an internal medicine specialist (nonsurgical) who diagnoses and treats disorders of kidneys. Both urologists and nephrologists are medical doctors.

Ophthalmologist, Optometrist, Optician

An ophthalmologist is a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating (surgically and medically) disorders of the eye. An optometrist is a health care professional who examines (metr/o = to measure) eyes and prescribes corrective lenses and may treat eye diseases. An optician grinds lenses and fits glasses but does not examine eyes, prescribe corrective lenses, or treat eye diseases.

What is Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy?

Chronic (pertaining to over a long period of time) traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a serious brain injury associated with high-impact head trauma (as may be found in football and boxing). The autopsy images below show a normal brain and a brain affected by CTE.


Terms ending in -is (diagnosis, prognosis) form their plural by dropping the -is and adding -es. See Appendix I, page 989, for other rules on formation of plurals.

Understanding Hyperthyroidism

In hyperthyroidism, a hyperactive thyroid gland (an endocrine gland in the neck) secretes a greater than normal amount of thyroxine (thyroid hormone, or T4). Because thyroxine causes cells to burn fuel and release energy, signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism are increased energy level and nervousness, tachycardia (increased heart rate), weight loss, and exophthalmos (bulging eyeballs).


Practical Applications

This section provides an opportunity for you to use your skill in understanding medical terms in this chapter and to increase your knowledge of new terms. Be sure to check your answers with the Answers to Practical Applications on page 27. You should find helpful explanations there.

Specialists Match the abnormal condition in Column I with the physician (specialist) who treats it in Column II. Write the le er of the correct specialist in the space provided. COLUMN I: Abnormal Conditions 1. heart a ack 2. ovarian cysts 3. bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder 4. breast adenocarcinoma 5. iron deficiency anemia 6. retinopathy 7. cerebrovascular accident (stroke) 8. renal failure 9. inflammatory bowel disease 10. prostatic adenocarcinoma

_______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______


COLUMN II: Physicians (Specialists) A. gastroenterologist B. hematologist C. nephrologist D. cardiologist E. oncologist F. gynecologist G. urologist H. ophthalmologist I. neurologist J. psychiatrist

Exercises The exercises that follow are designed to help you learn the terms presented in the chapter. Writing terms over and over again is a good way to study this new language. You will find the answers to these exercises starting on page 24. This makes it easy to check your work. As you check each answer, you not only will reinforce your understanding of a term but often will gain additional information from the answer. Each exercise is designed not as a test, but rather as an opportunity for you to learn the material.

A Complete the following sentences. 1. Word beginnings are called _________________________________. 2. Word endings are called ___________________________________. 3. The foundation of a word is known as the _____________________. 4. A le er linking a suffix and a root, or linking two roots, in a term is the _______________________. 5. The combination of a root and a combining vowel is known as the ___________________________. B Give the meanings of the following combining forms. 1. cardi/o ___________________________________________________ 2. aden/o ___________________________________________________ 3. bi/o _____________________________________________________ 4. cerebr/o _________________________________________________ 5. cephal/o _________________________________________________ 6. arthr/o __________________________________________________ 7. carcin/o _________________________________________________


8. cyst/o __________________________________________________ 9. cyt/o ___________________________________________________ 10. derm/o or dermat/o _______________________________________ 11. encephal/o ______________________________________________ 12. electr/o _________________________________________________ C Give the meanings of the following suffixes. 1. -oma ____________________________________________________ 2. -al _____________________________________________________ _ 3. -itis _____________________________________________________ 4. -logy ____________________________________________________ 5. -scopy ___________________________________________________ 6. -ic _____________________________________________________ _ 7. -gram ____________________________________________________ 8. -opsy ____________________________________________________ D Using slashes, divide the following terms into parts, and give the meaning of the entire term. 1. cerebral ___________________________________________________ 2. biopsy ___________________________________________________


3. adenitis __________________________________________________ 4. cephalic __________________________________________________ 5. carcinoma _________________________________________________ 6. cystoscopy ________________________________________________ 7. electrocardiogram ___________________________________________ 8. cardiology _________________________________________________ 9. electroencephalogram ________________________________________ 10. dermatitis _________________________________________________ 11. arthroscopy ________________________________________________ 12. cytology __________________________________________________ E Give the meanings of the following combining forms. 1. erythr/o __________________________________________________ 2. enter/o ___________________________________________________ 3. gastr/o ___________________________________________________ 4. gnos/o ___________________________________________________ 5. hemat/o __________________________________________________ 6. cis/o _____________________________________________________ 7. nephr/o ___________________________________________________


8. leuk/o ____________________________________________________ 9. iatr/o ____________________________________________________ 10. hepat/o __________________________________________________ 11. neur/o ___________________________________________________ 12. gynec/o __________________________________________________ F Complete the medical term, based on its meaning as provided. 1. white blood cell: _________________________cyte 2. inflammation of the stomach: gastr_________________________ 3. pertaining to being produced by treatment: _________________________genic 4. study of kidneys: _________________________logy 5. red blood cell: _________________________cyte 6. mass of blood: _________________________oma 7. process of viewing living tissue (using a microscope): bi_________________________ 8. pain of nerves: neur_________________________ 9. process of visual examination of the eye: _________________________scopy 10. inflammation of the small intestine: _________________________itis G Select from the combining forms below to match the numbered English terms. Write the correct combining form in the space provided. onc/o ophthalm/o oste/o path/o


psych/o radi/o ren/o rhin/o sarc/o sect/o thromb/o ur/o English Terms 1. kidney ________________________________ 2. disease ________________________________ 3. eye ___________________________________ 4. to cut _________________________________ 5. nose __________________________________ 6. flesh __________________________________ 7. mind __________________________________ 8. urinary tract ____________________________ 9. bone ___________________________________ 10. x-rays ________________________________ 11. clo ing _______________________________ 12. tumor ________________________________ H Underline the suffix in each term, and then give the meaning of the term. 1. ophthalmoscopy _____________________________________________________ __________ 2. ophthalmoscope _____________________________________________________ __________ 3. oncology _____________________________________________________ ________________


4. osteitis _____________________________________________________ __________________ 5. psychosis _____________________________________________________ ________________ 6. thrombocyte _____________________________________________________ _____________ 7. renal _____________________________________________________ ___________________ 8. nephrectomy _____________________________________________________ _____________ 9. osteotomy _____________________________________________________ _______________ 10. resection _____________________________________________________ _______________ 11. carcinogenic _____________________________________________________ ____________ 12. sarcoma _____________________________________________________ ________________ I Match the suffix in Column I with its meaning in Column II. Write the correct meaning in the space provided.


COLUMN I Suffix 1. -algia _______________________________ 2. -ion ________________________________ 3. -emia _______________________________ 4. -gram _______________________________ 5. -scope _______________________________ 6. -osis ________________________________ 7. -ectomy _____________________________ 8. -genic _______________________________ 9. -pathy _______________________________ 10. -tomy ______________________________ 11. -itis ________________________________ 12. -cyte _______________________________ 13. -globin ______________________________

COLUMN II Meaning condition, usually abnormal blood condition cell disease condition process of cu ing, incision inflammation instrument to visually examine pain pertaining to producing, produced by, or produced in process protein record excision, removal (resection)

J Select from the listed terms to complete the sentences that follow. arthralgia carcinogenic cystitis encephalopathy endocrine exocrine hematoma hepatoma (hepatocellular carcinoma) iatrogenic leukemia leukocytosis neuralgia 1. When Paul smoked cigare es, he inhaled a ______________________ substance with each puff. 2. Sally's sore throat, fever, and chills made her doctor order a white blood cell count. The results, indicating infection, showed a slight increase in normal cells, a condition called ______________________. 3. Mr. Smith's liver enlarged, giving him abdominal pain. His radiologic tests and biopsy revealed a malignant tumor, or ______________________. 4. Mrs. Rose complained of pain in her hip joints, knees, and shoulders each morning. She was told that she had painful


joints, or ______________________. 5. Dr. Black was trained to treat disorders of the pancreas, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, and pituitary gland. Thus, he was an expert in the ______________________ glands. 6. Ms. Walsh told her doctor she had pain when urinating. After tests, the doctor's diagnosis was inflammation of the urinary bladder, or ______________________. 7. Elizabeth's overhead tennis shot hit David in the thigh, producing a large _________________. His skin looked bruised and the affected area was tender. 8. Mr. Bell's white blood cell count is 10 times higher than normal. Examination of his blood shows cancerous white blood cells. His diagnosis is _________________________. 9. Mr. Kay was resuscitated (revived from potential or apparent death) in the emergency department after experiencing a heart a ack. Unfortunately, he suffered a broken rib as a result of the physician's chest compressions. This is an example of a/an _________________________ fracture. 10. After playing one season for a professional football team, Bill Smith decided to retire because he worried about the dangers of concussions and head trauma—a condition called CTE, or chronic traumatic _________________________. K Give the meanings of the following prefixes. 1. dia_____________________________________________________ _ 2. pro_____________________________________________________ _ 3. aut-, auto_________________________________________________ 4. a-, an____________________________________________________


5. hyper____________________________________________________ 6. hypo_____________________________________________________ 7. epi_____________________________________________________ _ 8. endo_____________________________________________________ 9. retro_____________________________________________________ 10. trans____________________________________________________ 11. peri_____________________________________________________ 12. ex-, exo_________________________________________________ 13. sub_____________________________________________________ 14. re_____________________________________________________ _ L Underline the prefix in the following terms, and then give the meaning of the entire term. 1. diagnosis _____________________________________________________ _____________ 2. prognosis _____________________________________________________ _____________ 3. subhepatic _____________________________________________________ ____________ 4. pericardium _____________________________________________________


___________ 5. hyperglycemia _____________________________________________________ _________ 6. hypodermic _____________________________________________________ ___________ 7. epigastric _____________________________________________________ _____________ 8. resection _____________________________________________________ _____________ 9. hypoglycemia _____________________________________________________ _________ 10. anemia _____________________________________________________ _____________ M Complete the following terms (describing areas of medicine), based on their meanings as given. 1. study of the urinary tract: ________________________ logy 2. study of women and women's diseases: ________________________ logy 3. study of blood: ________________________ logy 4. study of tumors: ________________________ logy 5. study of the kidneys: ________________________ logy 6. study of nerves: ________________________ logy 7. treatment of children: ________________________ iatrics 8. study of x-rays in diagnostic imaging: ________________________ logy 9. study of the eyes: ________________________ logy 10. study of the stomach and intestines: ________________________ logy


11. study of glands that secrete hormones: ________________________ logy 12. treatment of the mind: ________________________ iatry 13. study of disease: ________________________ logy 14. study of the heart: ________________________ logy N Give the meaning of the underlined word part, and then define the term. 1. cerebrovascular accident ________________________________________________ 2. encephalitis _____________________________________________________ _____ 3. cystoscope _____________________________________________________ ______ 4. transhepatic _____________________________________________________ _____ 5. osteogenic sarcoma _____________________________________________________ _______ 6. hypogastric _____________________________________________________ ______ 7. endocrine glands _____________________________________________________ __ 8. nephrectomy _____________________________________________________ _____ 9. exocrine glands _____________________________________________________ ___ 10. neuralgia _____________________________________________________


_______ O Select from the terms listed below to complete the sentences that follow. anemia biopsy diagnosis leukemia nephrologist neuropathy oncogenic oncologist osteoarthritis pathogenic prognosis psychiatrist psychologist thrombocyte thrombosis urologist 1. Pamela Crick is 72 years old and suffers from a degenerative joint disease that is caused by the wearing away of tissue around her joints. This disease, which literally means “inflammation of bones and joints,” is ____________________________. 2. The __________________________ sample was removed during surgery and sent to a pathologist to be examined under a microscope for a proper diagnosis. 3. A/An ___________________________ performed surgery to remove Mr. Simon's cancerous kidney. 4. Ms. Rose has suffered from diabetes with hyperglycemia for many years. This condition can lead to long-term complications, such as the disease of nerves called diabetic ______________________.


5. A virus or a bacterium produces disease and is therefore a/an _________________________ organism. 6. Jordan has a disease caused by abnormal hemoglobin in his erythrocytes. The erythrocytes change shape, collapsing to form sickle-shaped cells that can become clots and stop the flow of blood. His condition is called sickle cell _____________________. 7. Dr. Max Shelby is a physician who treats carcinomas and sarcomas. He is a/an ______________. 8. Bill had difficulty stopping the bleeding from a cut on his face while shaving. He knew his medication caused him to have decreased platelets, or a low _____________________________ count, and that probably was the reason his blood was not clo ing very well. 9. Dr. Susan Parker told Paul that his condition would improve with treatment in a few weeks. She said his __________________________ is excellent and he can expect total recovery. 10. After fleeing the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, Mrs. Jones had many problems with her job, her husband, and her family relationships. She went to see a _________________, who prescribed drugs to treat her depression. P Circle the correct term to complete each sentence. 1. Ms. Brody had a cough and fever. Her doctor instructed her to go to the (pathology, radiology, hematology) department for a chest x-ray examination. 2. After she gave birth to her fourth child, Ms. Thompson had problems holding her urine (a condition known as urinary incontinence). She made an appointment with a (gastroenterologist, pathologist, urologist) to evaluate her condition. 3. Dr. Monroe told a new mother she had lost much blood during delivery of her child. She had (anemia, leukocytosis, adenitis) and needed a blood transfusion immediately.


4. Mr. Preston was having chest pain during his morning walks. He made an appointment to discuss his new symptom with a (nephrologist, neurologist, cardiologist). 5. After my skiing accident, Dr. Curtin suggested (cystoscopy, biopsy, arthroscopy) to visually examine my swollen, painful knee.


Answers to Exercises A 1. prefixes 2. suffixes 3. root 4. combining vowel 5. combining form B 1. heart 2. gland 3. life 4. cerebrum, largest part of the brain 5. head 6. joint 7. cancer, cancerous 8. urinary bladder 9. cell 10. skin 11. brain 12. electricity C 1. tumor, mass, swelling 2. pertaining to 3. inflammation 4. process of study 5. process of visual examination


6. pertaining to 7. record (image) 8. process of viewing D 1. cerebr/al—pertaining to the cerebrum, or largest part of the brain 2. bi/opsy—process of viewing life (removal of living tissue and viewing it under a microscope) 3. aden/itis—inflammation of a gland 4. cephal/ic—pertaining to the head 5. carcin/oma—tumor that is cancerous (cancerous tumor) 6. cyst/o/scopy—process of visually examining the urinary bladder 7. electr/o/cardi/o/gram—record of the electricity in the heart 8. cardi/o/logy—process of study of the heart 9. electr/o/encephal/o/gram—record of the electricity in the brain 10. dermat/itis—inflammation of the skin 11. arthr/o/scopy—process of visual examination of a joint 12. cyt/o/logy—process of study of cells E 1. red 2. intestines (usually small intestine) 3. stomach 4. knowledge 5. blood 6. to cut 7. kidney


8. white 9. treatment, physician 10. liver 11. nerve 12. woman, female F 1. leukocyte 2. gastritis 3. iatrogenic 4. nephrology 5. erythrocyte 6. hematoma 7. biopsy 8. neuralgia 9. ophthalmoscopy 10. enteritis G 1. ren/o 2. path/o 3. ophthalm/o 4. sect/o 5. rhin/o 6. sarc/o 7. psych/o 8. ur/o 9. oste/o 10. radi/o


11. thromb/o 12. onc/o H 1. ophthalmoscopy—process of visual examination of the eye 2. ophthalmoscope—instrument to visually examine the eye 3. oncology—study of tumors 4. osteitis—inflammation of bone 5. psychosis—abnormal condition of the mind 6. thrombocyte—clo ing cell (platelet) 7. renal—pertaining to the kidney 8. nephrectomy—removal (excision or resection) of the kidney 9. osteotomy—incision of (process of cu ing into) a bone 10. resection—process of cu ing back (in the sense of “cu ing out” or removal) 11. carcinogenic—pertaining to producing cancer 12. sarcoma–tumor of flesh tissue (cancerous tumor found in connective tissue such as bone, fat and muscle) I 1. pain 2. process 3. blood condition 4. record (image) 5. instrument to visually examine 6. condition, usually abnormal 7. excision, removal (resection) 8. pertaining to producing, produced by, or produced in 9. disease condition


10. process of cu ing, incision 11. inflammation 12. cell 13. protein J 1. carcinogenic 2. leukocytosis 3. hepatoma (hepatocellular carcinoma) 4. arthralgia 5. endocrine 6. cystitis 7. hematoma 8. leukemia 9. iatrogenic 10. encephalopathy K 1. complete, through 2. before 3. self, own 4. no, not, without 5. excessive, above, more than normal 6. deficient, below, less than normal 7. above, upon 8. within 9. behind 10. across, through 11. surrounding


12. out 13. below, under 14. back L 1. diagnosis—complete knowledge; a decision about the nature of the patient's condition after the appropriate tests are done 2. prognosis—before knowledge; a prediction about the outcome of treatment, given after the diagnosis 3. subhepatic—pertaining to below the liver. A combining vowel is not needed between the prefix and the root. 4. pericardium—the membrane surrounding the heart 5. hyperglycemia—condition of excessive sugar in the blood 6. hypodermic—pertaining to under the skin 7. epigastric—pertaining to above the stomach 8. resection—process of cu ing back (in the sense of cu ing out) 9. hypoglycemia—condition of deficient (low) sugar in the blood 10. anemia—condition of low numbers of erythrocytes (red blood cells) or deficient hemoglobin in these cells. Notice that the root in this term is em, which is shortened from hem, meaning blood. M 1. urology 2. gynecology 3. hematology 4. oncology 5. nephrology 6. neurology 7. pediatrics (combining vowel o has been dropped between ped and iatr)


8. radiology 9. ophthalmology 10. gastroenterology 11. endocrinology 12. psychiatry 13. pathology 14. cardiology N 1. cerebrum (largest part of the brain). A cerebrovascular accident, or stroke, is damage to the blood vessels of the cerebrum, leading to death of brain cells. 2. brain. Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. 3. urinary bladder. A cystoscope is an instrument used to visually examine the urinary bladder. The cystoscope is inserted into the urethra and urinary bladder. 4. across, through. Transhepatic means pertaining to across or through the liver. 5. flesh. Osteogenic sarcoma is a malignant (cancerous) tumor originating in bone, which is considered a fleshy (connective) tissue of the body. 6. under, below, deficient. Hypogastric means pertaining to below the stomach. 7. within. Endocrine glands secrete hormones within the body. Examples of these are the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands. 8. excision or resection. Nephrectomy is the removal of a kidney. 9. outside. Exocrine glands secrete chemicals to the outside of the body. Examples are the sweat, lacrimal or tear-producing, prostate, and salivary glands. 10. pain. Neuralgia is nerve pain.


O 1. osteoarthritis 2. biopsy 3. urologist (a nephrologist is a medical doctor who treats kidney disorders but does not operate on patients) 4. neuropathy 5. pathogenic 6. anemia 7. oncologist 8. thrombocyte 9. prognosis 10. psychiatrist (a psychologist can treat mentally ill patients but is not a medical doctor and cannot prescribe medications) P 1. radiology 2. urologist 3. anemia 4. cardiologist 5. arthroscopy Answers to Practical Applications 1. D A cardiologist is an internal medicine specialist who takes additional (fellowship) training in the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease. 2. F A gynecologist specializes in surgery and internal medicine to diagnose and treat disorders of the female reproductive system. Ovarian cysts are sacs of fluid that form on and in the ovaries (female organs that produce eggs and hormones). 3. J A psychiatrist is a specialist in diagnosing and treating mental illness. In bipolar disorder (manic-depressive illness),


the mood switches periodically from excessive mania (excitability) to deep depression (sadness, despair, and discouragement). 4. E An oncologist is an internal medicine specialist who takes fellowship training in the diagnosis and medical (drug) treatment of cancer. 5. B A hematologist is an internal medicine specialist who takes fellowship training in the diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders such as anemia and clo ing diseases. 6. H An ophthalmologist trains in both surgery and internal medicine in order to diagnose and treat disorders of the eye. The retina is a sensitive layer of light receptor cells in the back of the eye. Retinopathy can occur as a secondary complication of chronic diabetes (from hyperglycemia). 7. I A neurologist is an internal medicine specialist who takes fellowship training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of nervous tissue (brain, spinal cord, and nerves). A CVA causes damage to areas of the brain, resulting in loss of function. 8. C A nephrologist is an internal medicine specialist who takes fellowship training in the diagnosis and medical treatment of kidney disease. A nephrologist does not perform surgery on the urinary tract, but treats kidney disease with drugs. 9. A A gastroenterologist is an internal medicine specialist who takes fellowship training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Examples of inflammatory bowel disease are ulcerative colitis (inflammation of the large intestine) and Crohn disease (inflammation of the last part of the small intestine). 10. G A urologist is a surgeon who operates on organs of the urinary tract and the male reproductive system (such as the prostate gland). Urologists also prescribe drugs for some conditions. Pronunciation of Terms


The terms you have learned in this chapter are presented here with their pronunciations. The CAPITAL le ers indicate the accented syllable. The meanings for all the terms are in the Mini-Dictionary beginning on page 897. You can also hear each term pronounced on the Evolve website (h p://


TERM adenitis adenoma adenopathy anemia arthralgia arthritis autopsy biology biopsy carcinogenic carcinoma cardiac cardiology cephalic cerebral cystitis cystoscopy cytology dermatitis dermatology diagnosis electrocardiogram electroencephalogram encephalopathy endocrine glands endocrinologist endocrinology endoscope endoscopy enteritis epidermis epigastric erythrocyte excision exocrine glands gastrectomy gastric gastroenterology gastrotomy gynecologist gynecology hematology hematoma hemoglobin hepatitis hepatoma hyperglycemia hyperthyroidism hypodermic hypogastric hypoglycemia iatrogenic incision leukemia leukocyte leukocytosis nephrectomy nephritis nephrology nephrosis

PRONUNCIATION ah-deh-NI-tis ah-deh-NO-mah ah-deh-NOP-ah-the ah-NE-me-ah ar-THRAL-jah ar-THRI-tis AW-top-se bi-OL-o-je BI-op-se kar-sih-no-JEN-ik kar-sih-NO-mah KAR-de-ak kar-de-OL-o-je seh-FAL-ik seh-RE-bral sis-TI-tis sis-TOS-ko-pe si-TOL-o-je der-mah-TI-tis der-mah-TOL-o-je di-ag-NO-sis eh-lek-tro-KAR-de-o-gram eh-lek-tro-en-SEF-ah-lo-gram en-sef-ah-LOP-ah-the EN-do-krin glanz en-do-krin-OL-o-gist en-do-krin-OL-o-je EN-do-skope en-DOS-ko-pe en-teh-RI-tis ep-ih-DER-mis ep-ih-GAS-trik eh-RITH-ro-site ek-SIZH-un EK-so-krin glanz gas-TREK-to-me GAS-trik gas-tro-en-teh-ROL-o-je gas-TROT-o-me gi-neh-KOL-o-jist gi-neh-KOL-o-je he-mah-TOL-o-je he-mah-TO-mah HE-mo-glo-bin hep-ah-TI-tis hep-ah-TO-mah hi-per-gli-SE-me-ah hi-per-THI-royd-izm hi-po-DER-mik hi-po-GAS-trik hi-po-gli-SE-me-ah i-ah-tro-JEN-ik in-SIZH-un lu-KE-me-ah LU-ko-site lu-ko-si-TO-sis neh-FREK-to-me neh-FRI-tis neh-FROL-o-je neh-FRO-sis


TERM neural neuralgia neurologic neurology oncologist oncology ophthalmologist ophthalmoscope osteitis osteoarthritis osteogenic sarcoma osteotomy pathogenic pathologist pathology pediatric pericardium prognosis prostate gland psychiatrist psychology radiology renal resection retrocardiac rhinitis sarcoma subhepatic thrombocyte transhepatic urologist

PRONUNCIATION NU-ral nu-RAL-jah nu-ro-LOJ-ik nu-ROL-o-je ong-KOL-o-jist ong-KOL-o-ge of-thal-MOL-o-jist of-THAL-mo-scope os-te-I-tis os-te-o-ar-THRI-tis os-te-o-JEN-ic sar-KO-mah os-te-OT-o-me path-o-JEN-ik path-OL-o-jist path-OL-o-je pe-de-AH-trik peh-rih-KAR-de-um prog-NO-sis PROS-tayt gland si-KI-ah-trist si-KOL-o-je ra-de-OL-o-je RE-nal re-SEK-shun reh-tro-KAR-de-ac ri-NI-tis sar-KO-mah sub-heh-PAT-ik THROM-bo-site tranz-heh-PAT-ik u-ROL-o-gist

Review Sheet

This Review Sheet and the others that follow each chapter are complete lists of the word elements contained in the chapter. They are designed to pull together the terminology and to reinforce your learning by giving you the opportunity to write the meanings of each word part in the spaces provided and to test yourself. Check your answers with the information in the chapter or in the Glossary (Medical Word Parts—English) at the end of the book. It's a good idea to tab the Glossary so that you can easily locate it.

Combining Forms


COMBINING FORM aden/o arthr/o bi/o carcin/o cardi/o cephal/o cerebr/o cis/o crin/o cyst/o cyt/o derm/o, dermat/o electr/o encephal/o enter/o erythr/o gastr/o glyc/o gnos/o gynec/o hem/o, hemat/o hepat/o iatr/o leuk/o log/o nephr/o neur/o onc/o ophthalm/o oste/o path/o ped/o psych/o radi/o ren/o rhin/o sarc/o sect/o thromb/o ur/o

MEANING _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________



SUFFIX -ac -al -algia -cyte -ectomy -emia -genic -globin -gram -ic, -ical -ion -ist -itis -logy -oma -opsy -osis -pathy -scope -scopy -sis -tomy -y

MEANING _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

Prefixes PREFIX a-, anaut-, autodiaendoepiex-, exohyperhypoinperiproreretrosubtrans-

MEANING _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

Suffixes Meaning Pertaining To

There are many suffixes that mean “pertaining to.” In this chapter, you have learned -ac, -al, -ic, and -ical. For a more comprehensive list, see the Glossary (English to Medical Word Parts), page 967.




Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole CHAPTER SECTIONS: Structural Organization of the Body 32 Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants 46 Divisions of the Back (Spinal Column) 48 Positional and Directional Terms 50 Planes of the Body 52 Terminology 53 Practical Applications 57 Exercises 58 Answers to Exercises 63 Pronunciation of Terms 65 Review Sheet 67

CHAPTER GOALS • Define terms that apply to the structural organization of the body. • Identify the body cavities and recognize the organs contained within those cavities. • Locate and identify the anatomic and clinical divisions of the abdomen. • Locate and name the anatomic divisions of the back. • Become acquainted with terms that describe positions, directions, and planes of the body. • Identify the meanings for new word elements and use them to understand medical terms.



Structural Organization of the Body This chapter provides you with an orientation to the body as a whole— cells, tissues, organs, and systems—along with terminology describing positions and directions within the body. We begin with the smallest living unit, the cell, and build to an understanding of complex body systems. In order to know how organs function in both health and disease, it is important to appreciate the workings of their individual cellular units.

Cells The cell is the fundamental unit of all living things (animal or plant). Cells are everywhere in the human body—every tissue, every organ is made up of these individual units.

Similarity in Cells All cells are similar in that they contain a gelatinous substance composed of water, protein, sugar, acids, fats, and various minerals. Several parts of a cell, described next, are pictured in Figure 2-1 as they might look when photographed with an electron microscope. Label the structures on Figure 2-1. Throughout the book, numbers or le ers in brackets indicate that the boldface term preceding it is to be used in labeling.


FIGURE 2-1 Major parts of a cell. Ribosomes (RI-bo-sohmz) are small granules that help the cell make proteins.

The cell membrane [1] not only surrounds and protects the cell but also regulates what passes into and out of the cell. The nucleus [2] controls the operations of the cell. It directs cell division and determines the structure and function of the cell. Chromosomes [3] are rod-like structures within the nucleus. All human body cells—except for the sex cells, the egg and the sperm (short for spermatozoon)—contain 23 pairs of chromosomes. Each sperm and each egg cell have only 23 unpaired chromosomes. After an egg and a sperm cell unite to form the embryo, each cell of the embryo then has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) (Figure 2-2).


FIGURE 2-2 Egg and sperm cells, each containing 23 chromosomes.

Chromosomes contain regions called genes. There are several thousand genes, in an orderly sequence, on every chromosome. Each gene contains a chemical called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). DNA regulates the activities of the cell according to its sequence (arrangement into genes) on each chromosome. The DNA sequence resembles a series of recipes in code. This code, when passed out of the nucleus to the rest of the cell, directs the activities of the cell, such as cell division and synthesis of proteins. A karyotype is a photograph of an individual's chromosomes, arranged by size, shape, and number (Figure 2-3). Karyotyping can determine whether chromosomes are normal. For example, an obstetrician may recommend amniocentesis (puncture of the sac around the fetus for removal of fluid and cells) for a pregnant woman so that the karyotype of the baby can be examined.


FIGURE 2-3 Karyotype of a normal male. Twenty-three pairs of chromosomes are shown. The 23rd pair is the XY pair present in normal males. In normal females, the 23rd pair is XX. For this karyotype, the chromosomes were treated with chemicals so that bands of light and dark areas are seen.

If a baby is born with a chromosomal abnormality, serious problems can result. In Down syndrome, the karyotype shows 47 chromosomes instead of the normal number, 46 (Figure 2-4). The extra chromosome 21 results in the development of a child with Down syndrome (also called trisomy 21 syndrome). Its incidence is about 1 in every 750 live births, but as the mother's age increases, the presence of the chromosomal abnormality increases.


FIGURE 2-4 A, Karyotype of a Down syndrome female patient showing trisomy 21. There is an extra copy of chromosome 21, in addition to the usual pair, for a total of three (tri-). B, Photograph of a child with the typical facial appearance in Down syndrome. Features include a small, somewhat flat nose and upward slant of the eyes. Other characteristics of patients with Down syndrome are mental deficiency and heart defects.

Continue labeling Figure 2-1. The cytoplasm [4] (cyt/o = cell, -plasm = formation) includes all of the material outside the nucleus and enclosed by the cell membrane. It carries on the work of the cell (e.g., in a muscle cell, it does the contracting; in a nerve cell, it transmits impulses). The cytoplasm contains specialized apparatus to supply the chemical needs of the cell. Mitochondria [a] are small sausage-shaped bodies that provide the principal source of energy for the cell. They use nutrients and oxygen to release energy that is stored in food. During the chemical process called catabolism, complex foods such as sugar and fat are broken down (catameans down) into simpler substances and energy is released by the mitochondria. Thus, catabolism provides the energy for cells to do the work of the body. The endoplasmic reticulum [b] is a network (reticulum) of canals within the cell. These canals are cellular tunnel systems that manufacture proteins for the cell. A ached to the endoplasmic reticulum are ribosomes, which build long chains of proteins. Anabolism, occurring on the endoplasmic reticulum, is the process of building up (ana- means up) large proteins from small protein pieces called amino acids. Examples of important proteins for cell growth are hormones and enzymes. Together, these two processes—anabolism and catabolism—make up the cell's metabolism. Metabolism, then, is the total of the chemical processes occurring in a cell. If a person has a “fast metabolism,” foods such as sugar and fat are used up very quickly, and energy is released.


If a person has a “slow metabolism,” foods are burned slowly, and fat accumulates in cells.

Study Section 1

Practice spelling each term, and know its meaning. anabolism

Process of building up large proteins from small protein pieces called amino acids. Ana- means up, bol means to cast, and -ism is a process. catabolism Process whereby complex nutrients are broken down to simpler substances and energy is released. Cata- means down, bol means to cast, and -ism is a process. cell Structure surrounding and protecting the cell. It determines what enters and membrane leaves the cell. chromosomes Rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contain regions of DNA called genes. There are 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in every cell except for the egg and sperm cells, which contain only 23 individual, unpaired chromosomes. cytoplasm All of the material that is outside the nucleus and yet contained within the cell membrane. DNA Chemical found within each chromosome. Arranged like a sequence of recipes in code, it directs the activities of the cell. endoplasmic Network of canals within the cytoplasm of the cell. Here, large proteins are reticulum made from smaller protein pieces. genes Regions of DNA within each chromosome. karyotype Picture (classification) of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. The chromosomes are arranged in numerical order to determine their number and structure. metabolism Total of the chemical processes in a cell. It includes catabolism and anabolism. Meta- means change, bol means to cast, and -ism means a process. mitochondria Rod-shaped structures in the cytoplasm that provide the principal source of energy (miniature “power plants”) for the cell. Catabolism is the process that occurs in mitochondria. (From the Greek mitos meaning thread and chondrion meaning granule.) HINT: Think of “mighty” mitochondria! nucleus Control center of the cell. It contains chromosomes and directs the activities of the cell.

Anabolic Steroids

These drugs are similar to androgens (male hormones) in their effects on the body. They build up protein within cells.

Metabolism and the Thyroid Gland

The thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormone (thyroxine, or T4), which stimulates metabolism in cells. Increased levels of hormone speed up


metabolism (increased energy and weight loss) and decreased levels of hormone slow down metabolism (sluggishness and weight gain).

Differences in Cells While we have just seen how cells contain similar structures, as they develop in the embryo, cells change to form many different types. Cells are different, or specialized, throughout the body to carry out their individual functions. For example, a muscle cell is long and slender and contains fibers that aid in contracting and relaxing; an epithelial cell (a lining and skin cell) may be square and flat to provide protection; a nerve cell may be long and have various fibrous extensions that aid in its job of carrying impulses; a fat cell contains large, empty spaces for fat storage. These are only a few of the many types of cells in the body. Figure 2-5 illustrates the different sizes and shapes of muscle, epithelial, nerve, and fat cells. The term that describes this change in cells as they mature and specialize is differentiation.

FIGURE 2-5 Types of cells. A, muscle cell; B, epithelial cell; C, nerve cell; and D, fat cell.



It's still a scientific mystery why cells with the same DNA change or specialize into different types of cells in the developing embryo. Factors are thought to influence genes (DNA), leading to differentiation of cells. If we can figure out what causes differentiation as they mature, we may be closer to understanding what happens to cells when they revert to a more primitive, unspecialized form, as in cancer cells.

Tissues A tissue is a group of similar cells working together to do a specific job. A histologist (hist/o = tissue) is a scientist who specializes in the study of tissues. Several different types of tissue are recognized. Tissues of the same type may be located in various regions of the body. Figure 2-6 illustrates four types of tissues.

FIGURE 2-6 Types of tissues. A, Epithelial. B, Muscle. C, Connective tissue (Fat). D, Nerve.


Epithelial Tissue Epithelial tissue, located all over the body, forms the linings of internal organs, and the outer surface of the skin covering the body. It also lines exocrine and endocrine glands and is responsible for the secretions that the glands produce. The term epithelial originally referred to the tissue on (epi-) the breast nipple (thel/o). Now it describes all tissue that covers the outside of the body and lines the inner surface of internal organs.

Muscle Tissue Voluntary muscle is found in arms and legs and parts of the body where movement is under conscious control. Involuntary muscle, found in the heart and digestive system, as well as other organs, allows movement that is not under conscious control. Cardiac muscle is a specialized type of muscle found only in the heart. Contractions of this muscle type can be seen as a beating heart in an ultrasound scan of a 6week-old fetus.

Connective Tissue Examples are adipose (fat) tissue, cartilage (elastic, fibrous tissue a ached to bones), bone, and blood.

Nerve Tissue Nerve tissue conducts impulses all over the body.

Organs Different types of tissue combine to form an organ. For example, an organ such as the stomach is composed of muscle tissue, nerve tissue, and glandular epithelial tissue. The medical term for internal organs is viscera (singular: viscus). Examples of abdominal viscera (organs located in the abdomen) are the liver, stomach, intestines, pancreas, spleen, and gallbladder.

Systems Systems are groups of organs working together to perform complex functions. For example, the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines are organs that do the work of the digestive system to digest food and absorb it into the bloodstream. Figure 2-7 reviews the difference between cells, tissues, organs and systems.


FIGURE 2-7 Cells, tissues, organs and systems.

The body systems with their individual organs are listed next. Learn to spell and identify the organs in boldface. SYSTEM Digestive

ORGANS Mouth, pharynx (throat), esophagus (tube from the throat to the stomach), stomach, intestines (small and large), liver, gallbladder, pancreas Urinary or Kidneys, ureters (tubes from the kidneys to the urinary bladder), urinary excretory bladder, urethra (tube from the bladder to the outside of the body) Respiratory Nose, pharynx, larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), bronchial tubes, lungs (where the exchange of gases takes place) Reproductive Female: Ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus (womb), vagina, mammary glands Male: Testes and associated tubes, urethra, penis, prostate gland Endocrine Thyroid gland (in the neck), pituitary gland (at the base of the brain), sex glands (ovaries and testes), adrenal glands, pancreas (islets of Langerhans), parathyroid glands Nervous Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and collections of nerves Circulatory Heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries), lymphatic vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus gland Musculoskeletal Muscles, bones, and joints Skin and sense Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous (oil) glands; eye, ear, nose, organs and tongue

Study Section 2

Practice spelling each term, and know its meaning.


adipose tissue cartilage

Collection of fat cells.

Flexible connective tissue often a ached to bones at joints. Cartilage forms part of the external ear and the nose. Rings of cartilage surround the trachea. epithelial Skin cells that cover the outside of the body and line the internal surfaces of cells organs. histologist Specialist in the study of tissues. larynx Voice box; located above the trachea. (LAHHINT: Think of the word laryngitis, which means inflammation of the RINKS) voice box, and may result in losing your voice! pharynx Throat. The pharynx serves as the common passageway for food (from the (FAHmouth going to the esophagus) and air (from the nose to the trachea). RINKS) HINT: Note that “y” comes before “n” in both pharynx and larynx. pituitary Endocrine gland at the base of the brain. gland HINT: Be careful spelling pituitary; it contains 2 i's. thyroid Endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck. gland trachea Windpipe (tube leading from the throat and larynx to the bronchial tubes.) ureter One of two tubes, each leading from a single kidney to the urinary bladder. HINT: Spelling clue: Ureter has two e's, and there are two ureters. urethra Tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. HINT: Spelling clue: Urethra has one e, and there is only one urethra. uterus Womb; the organ that holds the embryo/fetus as it develops. viscera Internal organs in the main cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.

Body Cavities A body cavity is a space within the body that contains internal organs (viscera). Label Figure 2-8 as you learn the names of the body cavities. Some of the important organs contained within those cavities are listed as well.


FIGURE 2-8 Body cavities. Ventral (anterior) cavities are in the front of the body (blue). Dorsal (posterior) cavities are in the back (red).


CAVITY ORGANS Cranial [1] Brain, pituitary gland. Thoracic Lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, thymus gland, aorta (large [2] artery). The thoracic cavity is divided into two smaller cavities (Figure 2-9): a. Pleural cavity—space surrounding each lung. The pleura is a double membrane that surrounds the lungs and protects them. If the pleura is inflamed (as in pleuritis or pleurisy), the pleural cavity may fill with fluid. This is called a pleural effusion. b. Mediastinum—centrally located space outside of and between the lungs. It contains the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, thymus gland, bronchial tubes, and many lymph nodes. Continue labeling Figure 2-8. Abdominal The peritoneum is the double-folded membrane surrounding the abdominal [3] cavity (Figure 2-10). It a aches the abdominal organs to the abdominal muscles and surrounds each organ to hold it in place. The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs situated behind the abdominal cavity (retroperitoneal area) on either side of the backbone (see Figures 2-10 and 2-12). The abdominal cavity also contains the stomach, small and large intestines, spleen, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. The diaphragm (a muscular wall) divides the abdominal and thoracic cavities (see Figure 2-8). Pelvic [4] Portions of the small and large intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, urethra, and ureters; uterus and vagina in the female. Spinal [5] Nerves of the spinal cord.

FIGURE 2-9 Thoracic Cavity.


FIGURE 2-10 Abdominal (peritoneal) cavity (side view and in light blue). Notice the peritoneum, which is a membrane surrounding the organs in the abdominal cavity. If there is disease of the abdominal organs, fluid may accumulate in the peritoneal cavity. This fluid is called ascites. The retroperitoneal area is behind the peritoneum. The kidneys are in the retroperitoneal area.

The cranial and spinal cavities are the dorsal (dors/o = back) body cavities because of their location on the back or posterior portion of the body. The thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities are ventral (ventr/o = belly) body cavities because they are on the front (anterior) portion of the body (see Figure 2-8). While the thoracic and abdominal cavities are separated by a muscular wall called the diaphragm, the abdominal and pelvic cavities are not separated and are referred to together as the abdominopelvic cavity. Figures 2-11 and 2-12 show the abdominal and thoracic viscera from anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) views.


FIGURE 2-11 Organs of the abdominopelvic and thoracic cavities, anterior view.


FIGURE 2-12 Organs of the abdominopelvic and thoracic cavities, posterior view.

Study Section 3

Practice spelling each term, and know its meaning.


abdominal Space below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, cavity gallbladder, and intestines; also called the abdomen or peritoneal cavity. cranial cavity Space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull. Cranial means pertaining to the skull. diaphragm Muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities. The diaphragm moves up and down and aids in breathing. dorsal Pertaining to the back. (posterior) mediastinum Centrally located space outside of and between the lungs. pelvic cavity Space below the abdomen containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs. Pelvic means pertaining to the pelvis, composed of the hip bones surrounding the pelvic cavity. peritoneum Double-folded membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity. The peritoneum a aches abdominal viscera to muscles and functions as a protective membrane (containing blood vessels and nerves) around the organs. pleura Double-folded membrane surrounding each lung. Pleural means pertaining to the pleura. HINT: Don't confuse pleural with plural, which means more than one! pleural Space between the pleural layers. cavity spinal cavity Space within the spinal column (backbones) containing the spinal cord. See Figure 2-13. thoracic Space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, cavity esophagus, and other organs. ventral Pertaining to the front. (anterior)

FIGURE 2-13 Spinal Cavity. A disc is a pad of cartilage that acts as a cushion between each backbone of the spinal column.

Peritoneum and Other Membranes


Many vital organs are covered and protected by membranes. The peritoneum surrounds abdominal viscera (liver, small and large intestines, stomach), and the pleura covers the lungs. You can visualize the way organs are surrounded by a double membrane by imagining your fist pushing deep into a soft balloon. The balloon is then in two layers folded over your fist, just the way the pleura surrounds the lungs and the peritoneum surrounds the abdominal organs. Double wrapping around organs provides protection and cushioning, as well as a site for a achment to muscles. In the event of inflammation or disease of organs or membranes, fluid may collect in the space between the membranes surrounding the organs. This collection of fluid in the pleural cavity is called a pleural effusion. A collection of fluid in the peritoneal cavity is called ascites.


Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants Regions Doctors divide the abdominopelvic area into nine regions. Label these regions in Figure 2-14.

FIGURE 2-14 Abdominopelvic regions. These regions can be used clinically to locate internal organs.

Right hypochondriac region [1]: right upper region below (hypo-) the cartilage (chondr/o) of the ribs that extend over the abdomen Left hypochondriac region [2]: left upper region below the rib cartilage Epigastric region [3]: region above the stomach Right lumbar region [4]: right middle region near the waist Left lumbar region [5]: left middle region near the waist Umbilical region [6]: region of the navel or umbilicus Right inguinal region [7]: right lower region near the groin (inguin/o = groin), which is the area where the legs join the trunk


of the body. This region also is known as the right iliac region because it lies near the ilium (the upper portion of the hip bone). Left inguinal region [8]: left lower region near the groin. Also called the left iliac region. Hypogastric region [9]: middle lower region below the umbilical region.

Quadrants The abdominopelvic area can be divided into four quadrants by two imaginary lines—one horizontal and one vertical—that cross at the midsection of the body. Figure 2-15 shows the four abdominopelvic quadrants; add the proper abbreviation on the line under each label on the diagram.


FIGURE 2-15 Abdominopelvic quadrants. Write the abbreviation for each quadrant on the line provided.

Right upper quadrant (RUQ)—contains the liver (right lobe), gallbladder, part of the pancreas, parts of the small and large intestines Left upper quadrant (LUQ)—contains the liver (left lobe), stomach, spleen, part of the pancreas, parts of the small and large intestines Right lower quadrant (RLQ)—contains parts of the small and large intestines, right ovary, right fallopian tube, appendix, right ureter Left lower quadrant (LLQ)—contains parts of the small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter


Divisions of the Back (Spinal Column) The spinal column is composed of a series of bones that extend from the neck to the tailbone. Each bone is a vertebra (plural: vertebrae). Label the divisions of the back on Figure 2-16A as you study the following:

FIGURE 2-16 A, Anatomic divisions of the back (spinal column). A disc is a small pad of cartilage between each backbone. B, MRI (magnetic resonance image) of a herniated disc at the L4-L5 level of the spinal column.


DIVISION OF ABBREVIATION LOCATION THE BACK Cervical [1] C Neck region. There are seven cervical vertebrae (C1 to C7). Thoracic [2] T Chest region. There are 12 thoracic vertebrae (T1 to T12). Each bone is joined to a rib. Lumbar [3] L Loin (waist) or flank region (between the ribs and the hipbone). There are five lumbar vertebrae (L1 to L5). Sacral [4] S Five bones (S1 to S5) are fused to form one bone, the sacrum. Coccygeal [5] The coccyx (tailbone) is a small bone composed of four fused pieces.

Do not confuse the spinal column (backbones or vertebrae) with the spinal cord (nerves surrounded by the column). The spinal column is bone tissue, whereas the spinal cord is nervous tissue. The spaces between the vertebrae (intervertebral spaces) are identified according to the two vertebrae between which they occur— for example, the L5–S1 space is between the fifth lumbar vertebra and the first sacral vertebra; T2–3 is between the second and third thoracic vertebrae. Within the space and between vertebrae is a small pad called a disc. The disc, composed of water and cartilage, is a shock absorber. Occasionally, a disc may move out of place (herniate) and put pressure on a nerve (see Figure 2-16B). This “slipped disc” can cause pain in an area of the body affected by the nerve.

Study Section 4

Practice spelling each term, and know its meaning.

Abdominopelvic Regions hypochondriac epigastric lumbar umbilical inguinal hypogastric

Right and left upper regions beneath the ribs. Middle upper region above the stomach. Right and left middle regions near the waist. Central region near the navel. Right and left lower regions near the groin. Also called iliac regions. Middle lower region below the umbilical region.

Abdominopelvic Quadrants RUQ LUQ RLQ LLQ

Right upper quadrant. Left upper quadrant. Right lower quadrant. Left lower quadrant.

Divisions of the Back


cervical thoracic lumbar sacral coccygeal

Neck region (C1 to C7). Chest region (T1 to T12). Loin (waist) region (L1 to L5). Region of the sacrum (S1 to S5). Region of the coccyx (tailbone).

Related Terms vertebra vertebrae spinal column spinal cord disc

Single backbone. HINT: There are two e's in vertebra Backbones. (VER-teh-bray) Bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity. Nervous tissue within the spinal cavity. Pad of cartilage between vertebrae.


Positional and Directional Terms Label Figure 2-17 to identify the following positional and directional terms.


FIGURE 2-17 Positional and directional terms. Note that the standing figure is in the anatomic position, with the palms of the hands facing outward and the fifth (little) finger in a medial position (closer to the center of the body). The thumb is lateral.


LOCATION Anterior (ventral) [1] Posterior (dorsal) [2] Deep [3]

RELATIONSHIP Front side of the body. Example: The forehead is on the anterior (ventral) side of the body. Back side of the body. Example: The back of the head is posterior (dorsal) to the face. Away from the surface. Example: The stab wound penetrated deep into the abdomen. On the surface. Example: Superficial veins can be viewed through the skin.

Superficial [4] Proximal [5] Near the point of a achment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure. Example: The proximal end of the thigh bone (femur) joins with the hip socket. Distal [6] Far from the point of a achment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure. Example: At its distal end, the femur joins with the knee. Inferior [7] Below another structure. Example: The feet are at the inferior part of the body. They are inferior to the knees. Superior [8] Above another structure. Example: The head lies superior to the neck. Cephalic (pertaining to the head) also means above another structure. Medial [9] Pertaining to the middle, or nearer the medial plane of the body. Example: When in the anatomic position (palms of the hands facing outward), the fifth (li le) finger is medial. Lateral [10] Pertaining to the side. Example: When in the anatomic position (palms of the hands facing outward), the thumb is lateral. Supine [11] Lying on the back. Example: The patient lies supine during an examination of the abdomen and, in females, during a pelvic (gynecologic) exam. See Figure 2-21 on page 62. Prone [12] Lying on the belly. Example: The backbones are examined with the patient in a prone position. A patient lies on his/her stomach in the prone position.


Planes of the Body A plane is an imaginary flat surface. Label Figure 2-18 to identify the following planes of the body:

FIGURE 2-18 Planes of the body. The figure is in the anatomic position. Note the views of the body represented by each plane.


PLANE Frontal (coronal) plane [1] Sagi al (lateral) plane [2] Transverse (axial) plane [3]

LOCATION Vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions. A common chest x-ray view is a PA (posteroanterior—viewed from back to front) view, which is in the frontal (coronal) plane. See Figure 2-18. Lengthwise vertical plane dividing the body or structure into right and left sides. The midsagi al plane divides the body into right and left halves. A lateral (side-to-side) chest x-ray film is taken in the sagi al plane. Horizontal (cross-sectional) plane running across the body parallel to the ground. This cross-sectional plane divides the body or structure into upper and lower portions. A CT (computed tomography) scan is one of a series of xray pictures taken in the transverse (axial or cross-sectional) plane.

Study Section 5

Practice spelling each term, and know its meaning. anterior (ventral) deep distal frontal (coronal) plane inferior lateral medial posterior (dorsal) prone proximal sagi al (lateral) plane

Front surface of the body. Away from the surface. Far from the point of a achment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure. Vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions. Below another structure; pertaining to the lower portion of the body. Pertaining to the side. Pertaining to the middle or near the medial plane of the body. Back surface of the body.

Lying on the belly (face down, palms down). Near the point of a achment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure. Lengthwise, vertical plane dividing the body or structure into right and left sides. From the Latin sagi a, meaning arrow. As an arrow is shot from a bow it enters the body in the sagi al plane, dividing right from left. The midsagi al plane divides the body into right and left halves. superficial On the surface. superior Above another structure; pertaining to the head. (cephalic) supine Lying on the back (face up, palms up). HINT: Lying supine is on your spine transverse Horizontal (cross-sectional) plane dividing the body into upper and lower (axial) portions. plane


Divide each term into its component parts, and write its meaning in the space provided.


Combining Forms

FIGURE 2-19 The cervix is the lower portion or neck of the uterus.



COMBINING MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING FORM abdomin/o abdomen abdominal The abdomen is the region below the chest containing internal organs (such as the liver, intestines, stomach, and gallbladder). adip/o fat adipose The suffix -ose means pertaining to or full of. Another combining form meaning fat is lip/o. Lipids are fats. anter/o front anterior The suffix -ior means pertaining to. cervic/o neck (of the cervical body or of The cervix is the neck of the uterus. See Figure 2-19. the uterus) chondr/o cartilage chondroma (type of This is a benign tumor. connective chondrosarcoma tissue) This is a malignant tumor. The root sarc indicates that the malignant tumor arises from a type of flesh or connective tissue. chrom/o color chromosomes These nuclear structures absorb the color of dyes used to stain the cell. The suffix -somes means bodies. Literally, this term means “bodies of color,” because this is how they appeared to researchers who first saw them under the microscope. coccyg/o coccyx coccygeal (tailbone) crani/o skull craniotomy cyt/o cell cytoplasm The suffix -plasm means formation. dist/o far, distant distal dors/o back dorsal portion of the body hist/o tissue histology ili/o ilium iliac (upper part See Figure 2-20 for a picture of the ilium. of the hip bone) inguin/o groin inguinal kary/o nucleus karyotype The suffix -type means classification or picture. later/o side lateral lumb/o lower back lumbosacral medi/o middle medial nucle/o nucleus nucleic pelv/i pelvis pelvic The pelvis includes all the bones that surround the pelvic cavity (Figure 2-20). pharyng/o pharynx pharyngeal (throat) The pharynx (FAH-rinks) is the common passageway for food from the mouth and air from the nose. poster/o back, posterior behind proxim/o nearest proximal sacr/o sacrum sacral


COMBINING MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING FORM sarc/o flesh sarcoma spin/o spine, spinal backbone thel/o, theli/o nipple epithelial cell This cell, originally identified in the skin of the nipples, lies on body surfaces, externally (outside the body) and internally (lining cavities and organs). thorac/o chest thoracic thoracotomy trache/o trachea, tracheal windpipe umbilic/o navel, umbilical umbilicus ventr/o belly side ventral of the body vertebr/o vertebra(e), vertebral backbone(s) viscer/o internal visceral organs

Prefixes PREFIX MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING anaup anabolism In this cellular process, proteins are built up from simpler substances (amino acids). catadown catabolism Complex nutrients are broken down into simpler substances and energy is released. epiabove epinephrine The suffix -ine means a substance. Epinephrine is a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands, located above (epi-) the kidneys (nephr/o). It is used as a treatment (as with an EpiPen®) for severe allergic reactions. It opens airways and increases heart rate in medical emergencies. hypobelow hypochondriac region The Greeks thought that organs (liver and spleen) in the hypochondriac region of the abdomen were the origin of imaginary illnesses—hence the term hypochondriac, a person with unusual anxiety about his or her health and with symptoms not a ributable to any disease process. interbetween intervertebral A disc is an intervertebral structure. intrawithin intravenous The abbreviation for intravenous is IV. metachange metabolism Literally, to cast (bol/o) a change (meta-), meaning the chemical changes (processes) that occur in a cell.



The following are some new suffixes introduced in this chapter. See the Glossary (Medical Word Parts—English) at the end of the book for additional suffixes meaning “pertaining to.” SUFFIX -eal -iac -ior -ism -ose -plasm -somes -type

MEANING pertaining to pertaining to pertaining to process, condition pertaining to, full of formation bodies picture, classification


The term cervical can have two different meanings depending on where it is used. In a gynecologic report, cervical means the lower portion or neck of the uterus (cervix). In a spinal radiologic report about cervical vertebrae, cervical refers to the neck of the body.

Pelvis Comparison of Female and Male The female pelvis is wider and more massive than the male pelvis. The female pelvic opening is a larger, rounded, oval shape, whereas the male pelvic opening is deep, narrow, and funnel- or heart-shaped. Thus, the female pelvis can accommodate the fetus during pregnancy and its downward passage through the pelvic cavity in childbirth.

Epinephrine and Adrenaline

These are the SAME hormone! Two different names for the same substance secreted by the adrenal glands (above the kidneys).

Practical Applications

Be sure to check your answers with the Answers to Practical Applications on page 64.


X-ray Views Circle the correct answers in the following sentences related to each xray view of the chest.



1. This is a/an (coronal, sagi al, axial) view. The heart lies (anterior, posterior, dorsal) to the vertebrae.


2. This is a/an (coronal, sagi al, axial) view. It is a/an (CT, traditional xray) image.


3. This is a/an (coronal, sagi al, axial) view. It is a/an (lateral, transverse, anterior/posterior) image.

Surgical Procedures


Match the surgical procedure in Column I with an indication for performing it in Column II. Note: You are not looking for the exact meaning of each surgical procedure, but rather why it would be performed. COLUMN I Procedures 1. Craniotomy 2. Thoracotomy 3. Discectomy 4. Mediastinoscopy 5. Tracheotomy 6. Laryngectomy 7. Arthroscopy 8. Laparoscopy (peritoneoscopy) *Lymph †A

_______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

COLUMN II Indications A. Emergency effort to remove foreign material from the windpipe B. Inspection and repair of torn cartilage in the knee C. Removal of a diseased or injured portion of the brain D. Inspection of lymph nodes* in the region between the lungs E. Removal of a squamous cell† carcinoma in the voice box F. Open heart surgery, or removal of lung tissue G. Inspection of abdominal organs (lapar/o means abdomen) and removal of diseased tissue H. Relief of symptoms from a bulging intervertebral disc

nodes are collections of tissue containing white blood cells called lymphocytes.

squamous cell is a type of epithelial cell.


Exercises Remember to check your answers carefully with the Answers to Exercises, page 63.

A The listed terms are parts of a cell. Match each term with its correct meaning. cell membrane chromosomes cytoplasm DNA endoplasmic reticulum genes mitochondria nucleus 1. material of the cell located outside the nucleus and yet enclosed by the cell membrane _____________________________________________ _____________________________________ 2. regions of DNA within each chromosome _____________________________________________ __ 3. small sausage-shaped structures that are the principal source of energy for the cell _____________________________________________ _____________________________________ 4. network of canals within the cytoplasm; the site of protein synthesis _________________________ 5. structure that surrounds and protects the cell ___________________________________________ 6. control center of the cell, containing chromosomes _______________________________________


7. chemical found within each chromosome _____________________________________________ __ 8. rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contain regions called genes _______________________ B Use medical terms or numbers to complete the following sentences. 1. A picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell is a/an _________________________________. 2. The number of chromosomes in a normal male's muscle cell is ____________________________. 3. The number of chromosomes in a female's egg cell is ____________________________________. 4. The process of building up proteins in a cell is __________________________________________. 5. Complex nutrients are broken down to similar substances and energy is released _____________________________________________ ____________________________________. 6. The total of the chemical processes in a cell is __________________________________________. 7. A scientist who studies tissues is a/an _____________________________________________ ____. 8. The medical term for internal organs is _____________________________________________ ___. C Match the listed body parts or tissues with their correct descriptions that follow. adipose tissue


cartilage epithelial tissue larynx pharynx pituitary gland pleura thyroid gland trachea ureter urethra uterus 1. voice box _____________________________________________ ____________________________ 2. membrane surrounding the lungs _____________________________________________ ________ 3. throat _____________________________________________ _______________________________ 4. tube from the kidney to the urinary bladder ____________________________________________ 5. collection of fat cells _____________________________________________ ___________________ 6. endocrine organ located at the base of the brain _________________________________________ 7. windpipe _____________________________________________ ____________________________


8. flexible connective tissue a ached to bones at joints _____________________________________ 9. skin cells that cover the outside of the body and line internal organs ________________________ 10. endocrine gland surrounding the windpipe in the neck ___________________________________ 11. womb _____________________________________________ _______________________________ 12. tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body ___________________________ D Name the five cavities of the body. 1. cavity surrounded by the skull _____________________________________________ ___________ 2. cavity in the chest surrounded by the ribs _____________________________________________ _ 3. cavity below the chest containing the stomach, liver, and gallbladder ________________________ 4. cavity surrounded by the hip bones _____________________________________________ _______ 5. cavity surrounded by the bones of the back _____________________________________________ E Select from the following to define the terms listed. space surrounding each lung space between the lungs muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities


membrane surrounding the abdominal organs area below the umbilicus (as well as below the stomach) area above the stomach area of the navel areas near the groin nervous tissue within the spinal cavity bony tissue surrounding the spinal cavity pad of cartilage between two adjoining vertebrae 1. hypogastric region _____________________________________________ ____________________ 2. mediastinum _____________________________________________ _________________________ 3. spinal cord _____________________________________________ ___________________________ 4. diaphragm _____________________________________________ ___________________________ 5. intervertebral disc _____________________________________________ ____________________ 6. pleural cavity _____________________________________________ _________________________ 7. spinal column _____________________________________________ ________________________


8. inguinal regions _____________________________________________ ______________________ 9. peritoneum _____________________________________________ __________________________ 10. umbilical region _____________________________________________ ______________________ 11. epigastric region _____________________________________________ ______________________ F Name the five divisions of the back. 1. region of the neck _____________________________________________ _____________________ 2. region of the chest _____________________________________________ ____________________ 3. region of the waist _____________________________________________ _____________________ 4. region of the sacrum _____________________________________________ ___________________ 5. region of the tailbone _____________________________________________ __________________ G Give the meanings of the following abbreviations.


1. LLQ _____________________________________________ _________________________________ 2. L5–S1 _____________________________________________ _______________________________ 3. RUQ _____________________________________________ ________________________________ 4. C3–C4 _____________________________________________ _______________________________ 5. RLQ _____________________________________________ ________________________________ H Give the opposites of the following terms. 1. deep _______________________________ 2. proximal ____________________________ 3. supine ______________________________ 4. medial ______________________________ 5. dorsal ______________________________ 6. superior ____________________________ I Select from the following medical terms to complete the sentences below. distal frontal (coronal) inferior lateral midsagi al


proximal superior (cephalic) transverse (axial) vertebra vertebrae 1. The kidney lies to side of or ______________________ of the spinal cord. 2. The ___________ end of the thigh bone (femur) joins with the kneecap (patella). 3. The ___________ plane divides the body into an anterior and a posterior portion. 4. Each backbone is a/an _____________________________________________ ______________. 5. Several backbones are _____________________________________________ ______________. 6. The diaphragm lies __________________________ to the organs in the thoracic cavity. 7. The __________________________ plane divides the body into right and left halves. 8. The ______________________ end of the upper arm bone (humerus) is at the shoulder. 9. The ________________________ plane divides the body into upper and lower portions. 10. The pharynx is located ____________________________________________ to the esophagus. J Give meanings for each of the following.


1. craniotomy _____________________________________________ ___________________________ 2. cervical _____________________________________________ ______________________________ 3. chondroma _____________________________________________ ___________________________ 4. chondrosarcoma _____________________________________________ _______________________ 5. nucleic _____________________________________________ ______________________________ 6. epinephrine _____________________________________________ __________________________ 7. intravenous _____________________________________________ __________________________ 8. pharyngeal _____________________________________________ ___________________________ 9. laryngitis _____________________________________________ ____________________________ K Give the medical term for the following definitions. Pay a ention to spelling! 1. space below chest containing liver, stomach, gallbladder, and intestines _____________________


2. flexible connective tissue a ached to bones at joints _____________________________________ 3. rod-shaped structures in the cell nucleus, containing regions of DNA _______________________ 4. muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities ___________________________________ 5. voice box _____________________________________________ ___________________________ 6. vertical plane dividing the body into right and left sides __________________________________ 7. pertaining to the neck _____________________________________________ _________________ 8. tumor (benign) of cartilage _____________________________________________ ____________ 9. control center of the cell; directs the activities of the cell _________________________________ 10. pertaining to the windpipe _____________________________________________ _____________ L Complete each term based on the meaning provided. 1. pertaining to internal organs: __________________________ al 2. tumor of flesh tissue (malignant): __________________________ oma


3. pertaining to the chest: __________________________ ic 4. picture of the chromosomes in the cell nucleus: __________________________ type 5. sausage-shaped cellular structures in which catabolism takes place: mito ___________________ 6. space between the lungs: media __________________________ 7. endocrine gland at the base of the brain: __________________________ ary gland 8. pertaining to skin (surface) cells: epi __________________________ 9. pertaining to far from the beginning of a structure: __________________________ al 10. on the surface of the body: super __________________________ M Circle the correct term to complete each sentence. 1. Dr. Curnen said the (inguinal, superior, superficial) wound barely scratched the surface. 2. Because the liver and spleen are on opposite sides of the body, the liver is in the (RUQ, LUQ, LLQ) of the abdominopelvic cavity and the spleen is in the (RUQ, LUQ, RLQ). 3. When a gynecologist performs a pelvic examination, the patient lies on her back in the (ventral, dorsal, medial) lithotomy position (Figure 2-21).


FIGURE 2-21 Dorsal lithotomy position. Lithotomy means incision to remove a stone (lith/o = stone). This supine position is used for pelvic (gynecologic) examinations and for removal of stones from the urinary tract.

4. Sally complained of pain in the area surrounding her navel. The doctor described the pain as (periumbilical, epigastric, hypogastric). 5. After sampling the fluid surrounding her 16-weekold fetus and reviewing the chromosomal picture, the doctor explained to Mrs. Jones that the fetus had trisomy 21. The diagnosis was made by analysis of an abnormal (urine sample, x-ray film, karyotype). 6. The (spinal, sagi al, abdominal) cavity contains digestive organs. 7. The emergency department physician suspected appendicitis when Brandon was admi ed with sharp (LLQ, RLQ, RUQ) pain. 8. Susan had hiccups after rapidly eating spicy Indian food. Her physician explained that the hiccups were involuntary contractions or spasms of the (umbilicus, diaphragm, mediastinum), resulting in uncontrolled breathing in of air. 9. Maria's coughing and sneezing were a result of an allergy to animal dander that affected her (respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary) system.


10. While ice skating, Natalie fell and landed on her bu ocks. She had persistent (cervical, thoracic, coccygeal) pain for a few weeks but no broken bones on x-ray examination.


Answers to Exercises A 1. cytoplasm 2. genes 3. mitochondria 4. endoplasmic reticulum 5. cell membrane 6. nucleus 7. DNA 8. chromosomes B 1. karyotype 2. 46 (23 pairs) 3. 23 4. anabolism 5. catabolism 6. metabolism 7. histologist 8. viscera C 1. larynx 2. pleura


3. pharynx 4. ureter 5. adipose tissue 6. pituitary gland 7. trachea 8. cartilage 9. epithelial tissue 10. thyroid gland 11. uterus 12. urethra D 1. cranial 2. thoracic 3. abdominal 4. pelvic 5. spinal E 1. area below the umbilicus 2. space between the lungs 3. nervous tissue within the spinal cavity 4. muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities 5. pad of cartilage between two adjoining vertebrae


6. space surrounding each lung 7. bony tissue surrounding the spinal cavity 8. areas near the groin 9. membrane surrounding the abdominal organs 10. area of the navel 11. area above the stomach F 1. cervical 2. thoracic 3. lumbar 4. sacral 5. coccygeal G 1. left lower quadrant (of the abdominopelvic cavity) 2. between the fifth lumbar vertebra and the first sacral vertebra (a common place for a herniated disc) 3. right upper quadrant (of the abdominopelvic cavity) 4. between the third and fourth cervical vertebrae 5. right lower quadrant (of the abdominopelvic cavity) H 1. superficial 2. distal 3. prone


4. lateral 5. ventral (anterior) 6. inferior I 1. lateral 2. distal 3. frontal (coronal) 4. vertebra 5. vertebrae 6. inferior 7. midsagi al 8. proximal 9. transverse (axial) 10. superior (cephalic) J 1. craniotomy—incision of the skull 2. cervical—pertaining to the neck of the body or the cervix of the uterus 3. chondroma—tumor of cartilage (benign or noncancerous tumor) 4. chondrosarcoma—flesh tumor of cartilage (cancerous, malignant tumor) 5. nucleic—pertaining to the nucleus


6. epinephrine—substance (hormone) secreted by the adrenal glands (epi- = above; nephr- = kidney) 7. intravenous—pertaining to within a vein 8. pharyngeal—pertaining to the pharynx (throat) 9. laryngitis—inflammation of the larynx (voice box) K 1. abdomen or abdominal cavity 2. cartilage 3. chromosomes 4. diaphragm 5. larynx 6. sagi al—note spelling with two t's 7. cervical 8. chondroma 9. nucleus 10. tracheal L 1. visceral 2. sarcoma 3. thoracic 4. karyotype 5. mitochondria—memory tip: catabolism and mitochondria, cat and mouse!


6. mediastinum 7. pituitary gland 8. epithelial 9. distal 10. superficial M 1. superficial 2. RUQ; LUQ 3. dorsal; often called the dorsolithotomy position 4. periumbilical 5. karyotype 6. abdominal 7. RLQ 8. diaphragm 9. respiratory 10. coccygeal Answers to Practical Applications X-ray Views

1. sagi al, anterior 2. axial, CT 3. coronal, anterior/posterior Surgical Procedures


1. C A trephine is a type of circular saw used for craniotomy. 2. F 3. H Endoscopic discectomy is performed through a small incision on the back, lateral to the spine. All or a portion of the disc is removed. 4. D A small incision is made above the breastbone and an endoscope is inserted to inspect the lymph nodes around the trachea. 5. A 6. E 7. B 8. G A small incision is made near the navel, and a laparoscope is inserted. Laparoscopy, or minimally invasive surgery, is used to examine organs and perform many surgical operations, such as removal of the gallbladder or appendix or tying off of the fallopian tubes. Laparoscopy is also called peritoneoscopy. Pronunciation of Terms

The terms you have learned in this chapter are presented here with their pronunciations. The CAPITAL le ers indicate the accented syllable. The meanings for all the terms are in the Mini-Dictionary beginning on page 897. You can also hear each term pronounced on the Evolve website (h p://


TERM abdomen abdominal cavity adipose anabolism anterior cartilage catabolism cell membrane cephalic cervical chondroma chondrosarcoma chromosome coccygeal coccyx cranial cavity craniotomy cytoplasm deep diaphragm disc distal dorsal endoplasmic reticulum epigastric region epinephrine epithelial cells frontal plane genes histology hypochondriac regions hypogastric region iliac inferior inguinal regions intervertebral intravenous karyotype laryngitis larynx lateral lumbar regions lumbar spine lumbosacral medial mediastinum metabolism mitochondria nucleic nucleus pelvic cavity peritoneum

PRONUNCIATION AB-do-men ab-DOM-ih-nal KAV-ih-te AH-dih-pohs ah-NAB-o-liz-im an-TE-re-or KAR-tih-lij kah-TAB-o-liz-im sel MEM-brayn seh-FAL-ik SER-vih-kul kon-DRO-mah kon-dro-sar-KO-mah KRO-mo-sohm kok-sih-JE-al KOK-siks KRA-ne-al KAV-ih-te kra-ne-OT-o-me SI-to-plaz-im deep DI-ah-fram disk DIS-tal DOR-sal en-do-PLAZ-mik reh-TIK-u-lum ep-ih-GAS-trik RE-jen ep-ih-NEF-rin ep-ih-THE-le-al sels FRUN-tal playn jeenz his-TOL-o-je hi-po-KON-dre-ak RE-jens hi-po-GAS-trik RE-jen IL-e-ak in-FE-re-or IN-gwih-nal RE-jens in-ter-ver-TE-bral in-trah-VE-nus KAIR-e-o-type lah-rin-JI-tis LAH-rinks LAT-er-al LUM-bar RE-jens LUM-bar spine lum-bo-SA-kral ME-de-al me-de-ah-STI-num meh-TAB-o-lism mi-to-KON-dre-ah nu-CLA-ik NU-cle-us PEL-vik KAV-ih-te per-eh-to-NE-um


TERM pharyngeal pharynx pituitary gland pleura pleural cavity posterior prone proximal sacral sacrum sagi al plane sarcoma spinal cavity spinal column spinal cord superficial superior supine thoracic cavity thoracotomy thyroid gland trachea tracheal transverse plane umbilical region ureter urethra uterus ventral vertebra vertebrae vertebral viscera visceral

PRONUNCIATION fah-ren-JE-al FAH-rinks pih-TU-ih-ter-e gland PLUR-ah PLUR-al KAV-ih-te pos-TE-re-or prohn PROKS-ih-mal SA-kral SA-krum SAJ-ih-tal playn sar-KO-mah SPI-nal KAV-ih-te SPI-nal KOL-um SPI-nal kord su-per-FIH-shul su-PE-re-or su-PINE thor-AH-sik KAV-ih-te thor-ah-KOT-o-me THI-royd gland TRA-ke-ah TRA-ke-al tranz-VERS playn um-BIL-ih-kal RE-jen U-reh-ter u-RE-thrah U-ter-us VEN-tral VER-teh-brah VER-teh-bray ver-TE-bral VIS-er-ah VIS-er-al

Review Sheet

Write the meaning of each combining form, prefix, or suffix in the space provided, and test yourself. Check your answers with the information in the chapter or in the Glossary (Medical Word Parts—English), at the end of the book.

Combining Forms


COMBINING FORM abdomin/o adip/o anter/o cervic/o chondr/o chrom/o coccyg/o crani/o cyt/o dist/o dors/o hist/o ili/o inguin/o kary/o laryng/o later/o lumb/o medi/o nucle/o pelv/i pharyng/o poster/o proxim/o sacr/o sarc/o spin/o thel/o, theli/o thorac/o trache/o umbilic/o ventr/o vertebr/o viscer/o

MEANING ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

Prefixes PREFIX anacataepihypointermeta-

MEANING ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________



SUFFIX -al -eal -ectomy -iac -ior -ism -oma -ose -plasm -somes -tomy -type

MEANING ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

Label the regions and quadrants (use abbreviations) of the abdominopelvic cavity. Check your answers in the chapter, pages 46 and 47.

Name the divisions of the spinal column. Check your answers on page 48. neck region (C1 to C7) __________________________________________________________ ____________ chest region (T1 to T12) __________________________________________________________ _________ lower back (loin) region (L1 to L5) __________________________________________________________ _ region of the sacrum (S1 to S5) __________________________________________________________ ___ tailbone region __________________________________________________________ __________________


Name the planes of the head as pictured below. Check your answers on page 52.

vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions __________________________________________________________ _____________ horizontal plane that divides the body into upper and lower portions __________________________________________________________ _____________ vertical plane that divides the body into right and left portions __________________________________________________________ _____________ Name the positional and directional terms. Check your answers on pages 50-51. front of the body __________________________________________________________ _________________


back of the body __________________________________________________________ __________________ away from the surface of the body __________________________________________________________ _ on the surface of the body __________________________________________________________ ________ far from the point of a achment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure __________________________________________________________ ______________________________ near the point of a achment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure __________________________________________________________ ______________________________ below another structure __________________________________________________________ _______________ above another structure __________________________________________________________ ____________ pertaining to the side __________________________________________________________ _____________ pertaining to the middle __________________________________________________________ _____________ lying on the belly __________________________________________________________ ________________ lying on the back __________________________________________________________ _______________ Give the meanings of the following terms that pertain to the cell. Check your answers with Study Section 1, page 35. chromosomes __________________________________________________________ ______________


mitochondria __________________________________________________________ _________________ nucleus __________________________________________________________ ______________________ DNA __________________________________________________________ _____________________ endoplasmic reticulum __________________________________________________________ ______ cell membrane __________________________________________________________ ________ catabolism __________________________________________________________ ___________________ anabolism __________________________________________________________ _______________________ metabolism __________________________________________________________ _____________________ Give the term that suits the meaning provided. Check your answers with Study Section 3, page 45. membrane surrounding the lungs ________________________________________________________ membrane surrounding the abdominal viscera ____________________________________________________ muscular wall separating the thoracic and abdominal cavities _____________________________________ space between the lungs, containing the heart, windpipe, aorta ______________________________________ backbone __________________________________________________________ _______________ pad of cartilage between each backbone and the next ________________________________________________ FYI: Here are common abnormalities of the spinal column.





Suffixes CHAPTER SECTIONS: Introduction 72 Combining Forms 72 Suffixes and Terminology 74 A Closer Look 82 Practical Applications 88 Exercises 88 Answers to Exercises 96 Pronunciation of Terms 98 Review Sheet 100

CHAPTER GOALS • Define new suffixes and review those presented in previous chapters. • Gain practice in word analysis by using these suffixes with combining forms to build and understand terms. • Identify the functions of the different types of blood cells in the body.



Introduction In this chapter you will encounter many of the most common suffixes in the medical language. As you work through the entire book, these suffixes will appear often. An additional group of suffixes is presented in Chapter 6. Additional combining forms are presented in this chapter to use in making words with suffixes. Your mastery of this material and your analysis of the words in the section on Suffixes and Terminology will increase your medical language vocabulary.

Combining Forms

Use the following list of combining forms as you write the meanings of terms starting on page 74.


COMBINING FORM abdomin/o acr/o acu/o aden/o adip/o amni/o angi/o arteri/o arthr/o axill/o bi/o blephar/o bronch/o carcin/o cardi/o chem/o chondr/o chron/o col/o cyst/o encephal/o erythr/o hem/o hepat/o hydr/o inguin/o isch/o lapar/o laryng/o leuk/o lymph/o mamm/o mast/o morph/o muc/o my/o myel/o necr/o nephr/o neur/o neutr/o nucle/o ophthalm/o opi/o oste/o ot/o path/o

MEANING abdomen extremities, top, extreme point sharp, severe, sudden gland fat amnion (sac surrounding the embryo in the uterus) vessel artery joint armpit life eyelid bronchial tubes (two tubes, one right and one left, that branch from the trachea to enter the lungs) cancer heart drug, chemical cartilage time colon (large intestine) urinary bladder brain red blood liver water, fluid groin to hold back abdomen, abdominal wall larynx white lymph Clear fluid that bathes tissue spaces and is contained in lymph vessels and nodes throughout the body. breast breast shape, form mucus muscle spinal cord; bone marrow Context of usage indicates the meaning intended. death (of cells or whole body) kidney nerve neutrophil (a white blood cell) nucleus eye opium bone ear disease


COMBINING FORM peritone/o phag/o phleb/o plas/o pleur/o pneumon/o pulmon/o radi/o rect/o ren/o rhin/o sarc/o splen/o staphyl/o strept/o thorac/o thromb/o tonsill/o trache/o ven/o

MEANING peritoneum to eat, swallow vein formation, development pleura (membrane surrounding lungs and adjacent to chest wall) lungs lungs x-rays rectum kidney nose flesh spleen clusters twisted chains chest clot tonsils trachea (windpipe) vein

Encephal/o, Cerebr/o, Cephal/o, Crani/o, and Psych/o Don't confuse the meanings of these combining forms! Encephal/o = brain Cerebr/o = cerebrum (largest part of the brain) Cephal/o = head Crani/o = skull Psych/o = mind

Larynx and Other Parts of the Body Ending in x coccyx = tailbone larynx = voice box pharynx = throat phalanx = finger or toe


To make combining forms for parts of the body that end in x, substitute g for x: coccyg/o laryng/o pharyng/o phalang/o

Suffixes and Terminology Noun Suffixes After the meaning of each suffix, terminology illustrates the use of that suffix. Recall the basic rule for building a medical term: Use a combining vowel, such as o, to connect the root to the suffix. However, drop the combining vowel if the suffix begins with a vowel—for example, gastr/itis, not “gastr/o/itis.” Beginning on page 82, more detail is given about specific terms. This section, called A Closer Look, will give you a fuller understanding of the terminology.


SUFFIX -algia



hernia (see A Closer Look: Hernia, page 82) puncture to remove fluid


-coccus (singular) -cocci (plural)

berry-shaped bacterium (plural: bacteria)






excision, removal, resection blood condition



condition of producing, forming

(Video) The Language of Medicine Ch1: Basic Word Parts/Intro to Medical Terminology

TERMINOLOGY MEANING arthralgia ______________________________________ otalgia ______________________________________ neuralgia ______________________________________ myalgia ______________________________________ Fibromyalgia is a common chronic disorder that involves widespread pain in muscles and fibrous tissues around joints. rectocele ______________________________________ cystocele ______________________________________

thoracentesis ______________________________________ Notice that this term is shortened from thoracocentesis. amniocentesis ______________________________________ The amnion is the sac (membrane) surrounding the embryo (fetus after the 8th week) in the uterus. Fluid accumulates within the amnion and may be withdrawn for analysis between the 12th and 18th weeks of pregnancy. See Figure 3-1. abdominocentesis ______________________________________ This procedure is more commonly known as abdominal paracentesis (para- means beside or near). A tube is placed through an incision in the abdomen and fluid is removed from the peritoneal cavity (beside the abdominal organs). streptococcus ______________________________________ staphylococci ______________________________________ (stah-fih-lo-KOK-si) Microbiologists often refer to bacteria in clusters as “staph.” See A Closer Look: Streptococci, Staphylococci, and Other Bacteria, page 83. erythrocyte ______________________________________ See A Closer Look: Blood Cells, page 84. leukocyte ______________________________________ thrombocyte ______________________________________ pleurodynia ______________________________________ Pain in the chest wall muscles that is aggravated by breathing. laryngectomy ______________________________________ mastectomy ______________________________________ anemia ______________________________________ ischemia ______________________________________ Literally, to hold back (isch/o) blood (-emia) from a part of the body or tissue. Because of a decrease in blood supply (blood clot in a vessel or narrowing and closing off of a vessel), tissue becomes ischemic and can even die if it is deprived of oxygen long enough. HINT: You may be familiar with a TIA (transient ischemic a ack), which is a “mini-stroke” that occurs when blood is held back from tissue in the brain. carcinogenesis ______________________________________ pathogenesis ______________________________________ angiogenesis ______________________________________


SUFFIX -gram -graph -graphy -itis

-logy -lysis

-malacia -megaly





MEANING record

TERMINOLOGY MEANING electroencephalogram ______________________________________ mammogram ______________________________________ instrument electroencephalograph for recording ______________________________________ process of electroencephalography recording ______________________________________ angiography ______________________________________ inflammation bronchitis ______________________________________ myelitis ______________________________________ Myel/o means spinal cord in this term. tonsillitis ______________________________________ Tonsils (notice the spelling with one le er, whereas the combining form has a double le er) are lymphatic tissue in the back of the throat. See Figure 3-2. thrombophlebitis ______________________________________ Also called phlebitis. study of ophthalmology ______________________________________ morphology ______________________________________ breakdown, hemolysis ______________________________________ destruction, Normal breakdown of red blood cells. Excessive destruction of separation red blood cells can lead to a type of anemia called hemolytic anemia. softening osteomalacia ______________________________________ chondromalacia ______________________________________ enlargement acromegaly ______________________________________ See A Closer Look: Acromegaly, page 86. splenomegaly _______________________________________ tumor, mass, myoma _______________________________________ collection of A benign tumor. fluid myosarcoma _______________________________________ A malignant tumor. Muscle is a type of flesh (sarc/o) tissue. multiple myeloma _______________________________________ Myel/o means bone marrow in this term. This malignant tumor occurs in bone marrow tissue throughout the body. hematoma _______________________________________ to view biopsy _______________________________________ necropsy _______________________________________ This term is used in veterinary medicine. An autopsy is a necropsy performed on humans. condition, necrosis _______________________________________ usually hydronephrosis abnormal _______________________________________ leukocytosis _______________________________________ disease cardiomyopathy condition _______________________________________ Primary disease of the heart muscle in the absence of a known underlying etiology (cause).


SUFFIX -penia




-ptosis -rrhea -sclerosis -scope -scopy



MEANING deficiency

TERMINOLOGY MEANING erythropenia _______________________________________ neutropenia _______________________________________ In this term, neutr/o indicates neutrophil (a type of white blood cell). thrombocytopenia _______________________________________ fear acrophobia _______________________________________ Fear of heights. Acr/o means extremities, in the sense of extreme or far points. HINT: Think of acrobats who perform highwire acts. agoraphobia _______________________________________ Agora means marketplace. This is an anxiety disorder marked by fear of being outside of home alone, being in open or enclosed places, or using public transportation. development, achondroplasia formation, _______________________________________ growth This is an inherited disorder or can be the result of a mutation (change) in a specific gene. Bones of the arms and legs do not grow to normal size because of a defect in cartilage and bone formation. Dwarfism results, marked by short limbs but normal-sized head and trunk and normal intelligence. See Figure 3-3. surgical angioplasty _______________________________________ repair An interventional cardiologist opens a narrowed blood vessel (artery) using a balloon that is inflated after insertion into the vessel. Stents, or slo ed tubes, are then put in place to keep the artery open. drooping, blepharoptosis _________________________________ falling, Physicians use ptosis (TO-sis) alone to indicate drooping of prolapse the upper eyelids or the breasts. See Figure 3-4. flow, rhinorrhea ________________________________ discharge hardening arteriosclerosis _________________________________ In atherosclerosis (a form of arteriosclerosis), deposits of fat (ather/o means fa y material) collect in an artery. instrument laparoscope _________________________________ for visual examination process of laparoscopy _________________________________ visual See Figure 3-5B below and A Closer Look: Laparoscopy, examination page 86. (with an endoscope) controlling, metastasis _________________________________ stopping Meta- means beyond. A metastasis is the spread of a malignant tumor beyond its original site to a secondary organ or location. hemostasis _________________________________ Blood flow is stopped naturally by clo ing or artificially by compression or suturing of a wound. A hemostat is a surgical clamp used in operating rooms to stop blood flow. opening to colostomy _________________________________ form a tracheostomy _________________________________ mouth (stoma)


SUFFIX -therapy



MEANING treatment

TERMINOLOGY MEANING hydrotherapy _________________________________ chemotherapy _________________________________ radiotherapy _________________________________ High-energy radiation is used to treat, not diagnose, illness. incision, laparotomy _________________________________ cu ing into Also referred to as a “lap,” this procedure is creation of a large incision into the peritoneal cavity, often performed on an exploratory basis. Don't confuse laparotomy with laparoscopy. See Figure 3-5. phlebotomy _________________________________ tracheotomy _________________________________ See A Closer Look: Tracheotomy, page 87. development, hypertrophy _________________________________ nourishment (hy-PER-tro-fe) Cells increase in size, not number. Muscles of weight lifters often hypertrophy. atrophy _________________________________ Cells decrease in size. Muscles atrophy when immobilized in a cast and not in use.


FIGURE 3-1 Amniocentesis. Under ultrasound guidance (imaging based on high-frequency sound waves), the physician inserts a needle through the uterine wall and amnion, into the amniotic cavity. Amniotic fluid, containing fetal cells, is withdrawn and grown (cultured) for microscopic analysis. A karyotype is made to study chromosomes. Fluid is examined for chemicals that indicate fetal defects.


FIGURE 3-2 Tonsillitis. This shows streptococcal tonsillitis with intense erythema (redness) of the tonsils (see arrows) and a creamy-yellow exudate (pus containing leukocytes and bacteria). Normally, tonsils contain lymphocytes that fight bacteria. When they become infected and inflamed, tonsillectomy may be necessary.

FIGURE 3-3 Achondroplasia. A boy with achondroplasia. His abnormalities include short stature with normal length of the trunk, short limbs and fingers, bowed legs, prominent forehead, and depressed nasal bridge. (Courtesy A.E. Chudley, MD, Section of Genetics and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Children's Hospital, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.)


FIGURE 3-4 Ptosis of the upper eyelid (blepharoptosis). This condition may be congenital (appear at birth), can occur with aging, or may be associated with stroke (cerebrovascular accident), cranial nerve damage, and other neurologic disorders. The eyelid droops because of muscle weakness.

FIGURE 3-5 A. Laparotomy. This large incision was closed with surgical staples. B. Laparoscopy. The abdomen is examined making small incisions and using a laparoscope. This procedure is often used to examine and remove organs such as the appendix and gallbladder.

The following are shorter noun suffixes that usually are a ached to roots in words.


SUFFIX MEANING -er one who -ia

-ist -oid -ole -ule -um, ium -us -y

TERMINOLOGY MEANING radiographer _________________________________ A technologist who assists in the making of diagnostic x-ray pictures. condition leukemia _________________________________ This is a group of cancers that begins in bone marrow and results in high numbers of abnormal, immature white blood cells. pneumonia _________________________________ specialist nephrologist _________________________________ resembling, opioid _________________________________ derived from adenoids _________________________________ See A Closer Look: Adenoids, page 87. li le, small arteriole _________________________________ See Figure 3-6. li le, small venule _________________________________ See Figure 3-6. structure, pericardium _________________________________ tissue This membrane surrounds the heart. structure, mucus _________________________________ substance esophagus _________________________________ Eso- means within or inward. condition, nephropathy _________________________________ process (neh-FROP-ah-the)

FIGURE 3-6 Relationship of blood vessels. An artery carries blood rich in oxygen from the heart to the organs of the body. In the organs, the artery narrows to form arterioles (small arteries) that branch into capillaries (the smallest blood vessels). Through the thin walls of capillaries, oxygen leaves the blood and enters cells. Thus, the capillaries branching into venules (small veins) carry blood low in oxygen. Venules lead to a vein that brings oxygen-poor blood back to the heart.

Adjective Suffixes No simple rule will explain which suffix meaning “pertaining to” is used with a specific combining form. Concentrate on identifying the suffix in each term; then write the meaning of the term. For a list of suffixes meaning “pertaining to,” see the Glossary of Word Parts beginning on page 967.


SUFFIX MEANING -ac, -iac pertaining to -al pertaining to

-ar -ary

pertaining to pertaining to

-eal -genic

pertaining to pertaining to producing, produced by or in -ic, -ical pertaining to

-ose -ous -tic

TERMINOLOGY MEANING cardiac _________________________________ peritoneal _________________________________ inguinal _________________________________ myocardial _________________________________ A myocardial infarction (MI) is a heart a ack. An infarction is an area of dead tissue (necrosis) resulting from ischemia (lack of blood supply to that tissue).pleural _________________________________ tonsillar _________________________________ pulmonary _________________________________ axillary _________________________________ Axillary lymph nodes are found in the armpit and are important in breast cancer. laryngeal _________________________________ carcinogenic _________________________________ osteogenic _________________________________ An osteogenic sarcoma is a malignant tumor produced in bone.

chronic _________________________________ Acute is the opposite of chronic. It describes a disease that is of rapid onset and has severe symptoms and brief duration. pathologic _________________________________ pertaining to, adipose _________________________________ full of pertaining to mucous membrane _________________________________ Mucous (an adjective) membranes produce the sticky secretion called mucus (a noun). pertaining to necrotic _________________________________

Formation of Plurals

Words ending in -us commonly form their plural by dropping -us and adding -i. Other examples of -us plural formation follow: nucleus → nuclei bronchus → bronchi thrombus → thrombi See Appendix I at the end of the book for additional information about plural formation.


While anemia literally means “no blood,” it is actually a condition marked by reduction in the number of erythrocytes or in the amount of hemoglobin in blood. Examples of types of anemias are:


• iron deficiency anemia (iron is needed to make hemoglobin) • sickle cell anemia (erythrocytes assume an abnormal sickle shape and clog blood vessels) • aplastic anemia (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes are not formed in bone marrow)


The spleen is an organ in left upper quadrant (LUQ) of the abdomen (below the diaphragm and to the side of the stomach). Composed of lymph tissue and blood vessels, it disposes of dying red blood cells and contains white blood cells to fight disease. Splenomegaly occurs with development of high blood pressure in hepatic veins and hemolytic blood diseases (anemias involving excessive destruction or lysis of red blood cells). If the spleen is removed (splenectomy), other organs carry out its functions.

Common Surgical Repair Procedures

Popular procedures include:

abdominoplasty—abdomen mammoplasty—breast blepharoplasty—eyelid rhinoplasty—nose


An opioid is a drug derived from the opium poppy plant. Opioids, also known as narcotics (narc/o means stupor or sleep), include heroin, fentanyl, oxycodone (OxyContin), hydrocodone (Vicodin), codeine, and morphine. These drugs act on brain receptors to alleviate pain. Misuse of opioids increases the risk of addiction, overdose, and death. A medication called buprenorphine treats opioid addiction. While reducing acute and chronic pain, it minimizes withdrawal symptoms. Narcan (naloxone) is a medication to counter the effects of lifethreatening opioid overdose.

Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer


Breast cancer cells often spread to axillary lymph nodes. When this occurs, the tumor found in the axillary lymph nodes is a breast cancer metastasis. The first lymph node to which cancer is most likely to spread is called the sentinel axillary lymph node. It is removed during mastectomy or lumpectomy and biopsied to determine if the cancer has spread beyond the breast (metastasized).


A Closer Look Hernia A hernia is protrusion of an organ or the muscular wall of an organ through the cavity that normally contains it. A hiatal hernia occurs when the stomach protrudes upward into the mediastinum through the esophageal opening in the diaphragm (Figure 3-7). An inguinal hernia occurs when part of the intestine protrudes downward into the groin region and commonly into the scrotal sac in the male. A cystocele occurs when part of the urinary bladder herniates through the vaginal wall as a result of weakness of the pelvic muscles (Figure 3-8). A rectocele is the protrusion of a portion of the rectum toward the vagina (Figure 3-8). An omphalocele (omphal/o = umbilicus, navel) is a herniation of the intestines through a weakness in the abdominal wall around the navel occurring in infants at birth. See Figure 3-9.

FIGURE 3-7 Hiatal hernia. Consequences of a hiatal hernia include reflux of gastric contents and acid into the esophagus, producing esophagitis. This inflammation causes chest pain commonly mistaken for a heart attack and known as “heartburn.”


FIGURE 3-8 Hernias: cystocele and rectocele. Arrows point to the areas of herniation. In a cystocele, a portion of the urinary bladder herniates posteriorly toward the vagina. In a rectocele, a portion of the rectum herniates anteriorly toward the vagina.

FIGURE 3-9 Omphalocele. This baby was born with a large omphalocele containing intra-abdominal viscera. His parents were advised to wait and have surgery performed when his abdominal muscles had grown large enough to close over the hernia. Surgery was performed at 7.5 months to permanently repair the hernia.

Streptococci, Staphylococci, and Other Bacteria Streptococcus, a berry-shaped bacterium, grows in twisted chains. One group of streptococci causes such conditions as “strep throat,” tonsillitis, rheumatic fever, and certain kidney ailments, whereas another group causes infections in teeth, within the sinuses (cavities) of the nose and face, and in the valves of the heart. Staphylococci, other berry-shaped bacteria, grow in small clusters like grapes. Staphylococcal lesions may be external (skin abscesses, boils, styes) or internal (abscesses in bone and kidney). An abscess is a collection of pus, white blood cells, and protein that is present at the site of infection. MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a


serious staphylococcal condition that is difficult to treat with antibiotics. It can become an antibiotic resistant infection when the MRSA bacteria develop the ability to resist or defeat the drugs designed to kill them. Examples of diplococci (berry-shaped bacteria organized in pairs; dipl/o = two) are pneumococci (pneum/o = lungs) and gonococci (gon/o = seed). Pneumococci cause bacterial pneumonia, and gonococci invade the reproductive organs, causing gonorrhea (a sexually transmi ed infection). Figure 3-10 illustrates the different growth pa erns of streptococci, staphylococci, and diplococci.

FIGURE 3-10 Types of coccal bacteria. Notice the berry or rounded shape of each bacterium. Streptococci and staphylococci are gram-positive bacteria, meaning that they retain the light purple color of the stain used in Gram's method (named for Hans C.J. Gram, Danish physician, 1853-1938.) Gram-negative bacteria (such as diplococci) have the pink color of the counterstain (safranin) used in Gram's method.

Another group of bacteria are not in a rounded shape, but in the shape of rods. An example is clostridium difficile bacteria. C. difficile infection, which causes inflammation of the colon and severe diarrheal disease, is common in patients who take antibiotics for long periods of time. This is because C. difficile bacteria can become resistant to those antibiotics. In order to restore normal bacteria in the digestive tract, a fecal transplant (bacteriotherapy) may be necessary. This is the transfer of stool containing normal bacteria from a healthy donor into the colon of the patient with chronic C. difficile infection.

Blood Cells Refer to Figure 3-11 as you read the following to note the differences among the three different types of cells in the blood.


FIGURE 3-11 Types of blood cells. HINT: Here's an easy way to remember the names of the five leukocytes: Never (neutrophil) Let (lymphocyte) Monkeys (monocyte) Eat (eosinophil) Bananas (basophil)

ERYTHROCYTES, or red blood cells, are the first type. These cells are made in the bone marrow (soft tissue in the center of certain bones). They carry oxygen from the lungs through the blood to all body cells. Body cells use oxygen to burn food and release energy (catabolism). Hemoglobin (globin = protein), an important protein in erythrocytes, carries the oxygen through the bloodstream.


LEUKOCYTES, or white blood cells, are the second type. There are five different kinds of leukocytes: three granulocytes, or polymorphonuclear cells, and two mononuclear cells.

• Granulocytes contain dark-staining granules in their cytoplasm and have a multilobed nucleus. They are formed in the bone marrow. There are three types: 1. Eosinophils (granules stain red [eosin/o = rosy] with acidic stain) are increased in number in allergic conditions such as asthma. About 3% of leukocytes are eosinophils. 2. Basophils (granules stain blue with basic [bas/o = basic] stain). The function of basophils is not clear, but the number of these cells increases in the healing phase of inflammation. Less than 1% of leukocytes are basophils. 3. Neutrophils (granules stain a pale purple with neutral stain) are the most important diseasefighting cells and the most numerous. About 50% to 60% of all leukocytes are neutrophils. They are phagocytes (phag/o = eating, swallowing)—engulfing and digesting bacteria like circulating “Pac-Men.” Neutrophils are referred to as “polys,” or polymorphonuclear leukocytes (poly = many, morph/o = shape), because of their multilobed nucleus. • Mononuclear cells have one large nucleus (mononuclear) and only a few granules in their cytoplasm. They are produced in bone marrow, as well as in lymph nodes and the spleen. There are two types of mononuclear leukocytes (see Figure 311):


4. Lymphocytes (lymph cells) fight disease by producing antibodies, thereby destroying foreign cells. They also may a ach directly to foreign cells and destroy them. Two types of lymphocytes are T cells and B cells. About 32% of white blood cells are lymphocytes. In AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), patients have a serious depletion of T lymphocytes (T cells). 5. Monocytes (containing one [mon/o = one] very large nucleus) engulf and destroy cellular debris after neutrophils have a acked foreign cells. Monocytes leave the bloodstream and enter tissues (such as lung and liver) to become macrophages, which are large phagocytes. Monocytes make up about 4% of all leukocytes. See Table 3-1 to review the five types of leukocytes. Each type fights infection in a specific manner. This is similar to the five branches of the armed forces (Navy, Army, Air Force, Marines, and Coast Guard), each of which is equipped with specialized skills and procedures. TABLE 3-1 FIVE TYPES OF LEUKOCYTES (WHITE BLOOD CELLS)

THROMBOCYTES or PLATELETS (clo ing cells) are the third type of blood cell. These are actually tiny fragments of cells formed in the bone marrow and are necessary for blood clo ing.

Acromegaly Acromegaly is an endocrine disorder. It occurs when the pituitary gland, a ached to the base of the brain, produces an excessive amount of growth hormone after the completion of puberty. The excess growth hormone most often results from a benign tumor of the pituitary gland. A person with acromegaly typically is of normal height because the


p g y yp y g long bones have stopped growth after puberty, but bones and soft tissue in the hands, feet, and face grow abnormally (Figure 3-12). Abraham Lincoln was believed to have features of acromegaly. See Chapter 18, Endocrine System, page 699. Gigantism is the result of overproduction of pituitary growth hormone beginning in childhood.

FIGURE 3-12 Acromegaly. Notice the changes in facial features (widening of the nose and jaw) and enlargement of the hands of my grandmother, Bessie Brandwein.

Laparoscopy Laparoscopy (a form of minimally invasive surgery) is visual examination of the abdominal cavity using a laparoscope. A surgeon inserts the laparoscope, a lighted telescopic instrument, through an incision in the abdomen near the navel. Then, gas (carbon dioxide) is infused into the peritoneal cavity, to separate and prevent injury to abdominal structures during surgery. Surgeons use laparoscopy to examine abdominal viscera for evidence of disease (performing biopsies) or for procedures such as removal of the appendix, gallbladder, adrenal gland, spleen, or ovary; resection of the colon; and repair of hernias. In tubal ligation, the laparoscope contains an instrument to clip and collapse the fallopian tubes, which prevents sperm cells from reaching eggs that leave the ovary (Figure 3-13).


FIGURE 3-13 Laparoscopy for tubal ligation (interruption of the continuity of the fallopian tubes) as a means of preventing future pregnancy. The vaginal speculum keeps the vaginal cavity open. The uterine cannula is a tube placed into the uterus to manipulate the uterus during the procedure. Forceps, placed through the laparoscope, grasp or move tissue.

Tracheotomy A tracheotomy is an incision into the trachea typically done to open it below a blockage. Tracheotomy may be performed to remove a foreign body or to obtain a biopsy specimen (Figure 3-14A).

FIGURE 3-14 A, Tracheotomy. B, Tracheostomy.

A tracheostomy is an opening into the trachea through which an indwelling tube is inserted. The tube is required to allow air to flow into


the lungs or to help remove secretions (mucus) from the bronchial tubes. When a temporary tracheostomy is performed, extreme care is used to insert the tracheostomy tube below the larynx so that the vocal cords are not damaged (Figure 3-14B).

Adenoids The adenoids are small masses of lymphatic tissue in the part of the pharynx (throat) near the nose and nasal passages. The literal meaning, “resembling glands,” is appropriate because they are neither endocrine nor exocrine glands. Enlargement of adenoids may cause blockage of the airway from the nose to the pharynx, and adenoidectomy may be advised. The tonsils also are lymphatic tissue, and their location as well as that of the adenoids is indicated in Figure 3-15.

FIGURE 3-15 Adenoids and tonsils. The adenoids and tonsils are lymphatic tissue in the pharynx (throat).

Practical Applications Procedures and Their Definitions Choose the correct diagnostic or treatment procedure for each of the numbered definitions. Answers are on page 97. amniocentesis


angiography angioplasty colostomy laparoscopy laparotomy mastectomy paracentesis (abdominocentesis) thoracentesis tonsillectomy 1. removal of abdominal fluid (ascites) from the peritoneal space _________________________________ 2. large abdominal incision to remove an ovarian adenocarcinoma _________________________________ 3. removal of the breast __________________________________________________________ 4. a method used to determine the karyotype of a fetus _________________________________ 5. surgical procedure to remove pharyngeal lymphatic tissue _________________________________ 6. surgical procedure to open clogged coronary arteries _________________________________ 7. method of removing fluid from the chest (pleural effusion) _________________________________ 8. procedure to drain waste from the body after bowel resection _________________________________ 9. x-ray procedure used to examine blood vessels before surgery _________________________________ 10. minimally invasive surgery within the abdomen _________________________________


Exercises Remember to check your answers carefully with the Answers to Exercises on pages 96 and 97.

A Give the meanings for the following suffixes. 1. -cele _____________________________________________ ____ 2. -emia _____________________________________________ ____ 3. -coccus _____________________________________________ ____ 4. -gram _____________________________________________ ____ 5. -cyte _____________________________________________ ____ 6. -algia _____________________________________________ ____ 7. -ectomy _____________________________________________ ____ 8. -centesis _____________________________________________ ____ 9. -genesis _____________________________________________ ____


10. -graph _____________________________________________ ____ 11. -itis _____________________________________________ ____ 12. -graphy _____________________________________________ ____ B Using the listed combining forms and your knowledge of suffixes, build medical terms for the definitions that follow. amni/o angi/o arthr/o bronch/o carcin/o cyst/o isch/o laryng/o mast/o my/o myel/o rhin/o staphyl/o strept/o thorac/o 1. hernia of the urinary bladder ____________________________________________


2. pain of muscle ____________________________________________ 3. process of producing cancer ____________________________________________ 4. inflammation of the spinal cord ____________________________________________ 5. berry-shaped bacteria in twisted chains ____________________________________________ 6. surgical puncture to remove fluid from the chest ____________________________________________ 7. removal of the breast ____________________________________________ 8. inflammation of the tubes leading from the windpipe to the lungs ____________________________________________ 9. to hold back blood from cells ____________________________________________ 10. process of recording (x-ray) blood vessels ____________________________________________ 11. visual examination of joints ____________________________________________ 12. berry-shaped bacteria in clusters ____________________________________________ 13. resection of the voice box ____________________________________________ 14. surgical procedure to remove fluid from the sac around a fetus ____________________________________________ 15. discharge from the nose ____________________________________________


C Match the listed terms, which describe blood cells, with the meanings that follow. basophil eosinophil erythrocyte lymphocyte monocyte neutrophil thrombocyte 1. granulocytic white blood cell (granules stain purple) that destroys foreign cells by engulfing and digesting them; also called a polymorphonuclear leukocyte ____________________________ 2. mononuclear white blood cell that destroys foreign cells by making antibodies _______________________________________________ ________________ 3. clo ing cell; also called a platelet ____________________________________________ 4. leukocyte with reddish-staining granules and numbers elevated in allergic reactions _______________________________________________ __________________ 5. red blood cell ____________________________________________ 6. mononuclear white blood cell that engulfs and digests cellular debris; contains one large nucleus _______________________________________________ ____________________


7. granulocytic white blood cell that increases during the healing phase of inflammation _______________________________________________ _____________________ D Give the meanings of the following suffixes. 1. -logy ____________________________ 2. -lysis ____________________________ 3. -pathy ___________________________ 4. -penia ____________________________ 5. -malacia ____________________________ 6. -osis ____________________________ 7. -phobia ____________________________ 8. -megaly ____________________________ 9. -oma ____________________________ 10. -opsy ____________________________ 11. -plasia ____________________________ 12. -plasty ____________________________ 13. -sclerosis ____________________________ 14. -stasis ____________________________ E Using the combining forms below and your knowledge of suffixes, build medical terms for the following definitions. acr/o arteri/o bi/o blephar/o cardi/o chondr/o


hem/o hydr/o morph/o my/o myel/o phleb/o rhin/o sarc/o splen/o 1. enlargement of the spleen _________________________________________ 2. study of the shape (of cells) _________________________________________ 3. softening of cartilage _________________________________________ 4. abnormal condition of water (fluid) in the kidney _________________________________________ 5. disease condition of heart muscle _________________________________________ 6. hardening of arteries _________________________________________ 7. tumor (benign) of muscle _________________________________________ 8. flesh tumor (malignant) of muscle _________________________________________ 9. surgical repair of the nose _________________________________________ 10. tumor of bone marrow _________________________________________


11. fear of heights _________________________________________ 12. view of living tissue under a microscope _________________________________________ 13. stoppage of the flow of blood (by mechanical or natural means) _________________________________________ 14. inflammation of the eyelid _________________________________________ 15. incision of a vein _________________________________________ F Give the plural formations of the following terms: 1. bacterium _______________________ 2. metastasis _______________________ 3. vertebra _______________________ 4. streptococcus _______________________ 5. nucleus _______________________ 6. prognosis _______________________ G Match the following terms with their meanings. achondroplasia acromegaly atrophy chemotherapy colostomy hydrotherapy hypertrophy laparoscope laparoscopy


metastasis necrosis osteomalacia 1. treatment using drugs _____________________________________________ _ 2. condition of death (of cells) _____________________________________________ _ 3. softening of bone _____________________________________________ _ 4. opening of the large intestine to the outside of the body _____________________________________________ _ 5. no development; shrinkage of cells _____________________________________________ _ 6. beyond control; spread of a cancerous tumor to another organ _____________________________________________ _ 7. instrument to visually examine the abdomen _____________________________________________ _ 8. enlargement of extremities; an endocrine disorder that causes excess growth hormone to be produced by the pituitary gland after puberty _____________________________________________ _


9. condition of improper formation of cartilage in the embryo that leads to short bones and dwarfism _____________________________________________ _ 10. process of viewing the peritoneal (abdominal) cavity _____________________________________________ _ 11. treatment using water _____________________________________________ _ 12. excessive development of cells (increase in size of individual cells) _____________________________________________ _ H Give the meanings of the following suffixes. 1. -ia _______________________ 2. -trophy _______________________ 3. -stasis _______________________ 4. -stomy _______________________ 5. -tomy _______________________ 6. -ole _______________________ 7. -um _______________________ 8. -ule _______________________ 9. -y _______________________ 10. -oid _______________________ 11. -genic _______________________ 12. -ptosis _______________________


I Using the lists of combining forms and suffixes below, build medical terms for the following definitions. COMBINING FORMS arteri/o pleur/o lapar/o pneumon/o mamm/o radi/o nephr/o ven/o

SUFFIXES -dynia -ectomy -gram -ia

-ole -pathy -plasty -scopy

-therapy -tomy -ule

1. incision of the abdomen _____________________________________________ _ 2. process of visual examination of the abdomen _____________________________________________ _ 3. a small artery _____________________________________________ _ 4. condition of the lungs _____________________________________________ _ 5. treatment using x-rays _____________________________________________ _ 6. record (x-ray film) of the breast _____________________________________________ _ 7. pain of the chest wall and the membranes surrounding the lungs _____________________________________________ _ 8. a small vein _____________________________________________


_ 9. disease condition of the kidney _____________________________________________ _ 10. surgical repair of the breast _____________________________________________ _ J Underline the suffix in the following terms, and give the meaning of the entire term. 1. laryngeal _____________________________________________ _ 2. inguinal _____________________________________________ _ 3. chronic _____________________________________________ _ 4. pulmonary _____________________________________________ _ 5. adipose _____________________________________________ _ 6. peritoneal _____________________________________________ _ 7. axillary _____________________________________________ _


8. necrotic _____________________________________________ _ 9. opioid _____________________________________________ _ 10. mucous _____________________________________________ _ 11. agoraphobia _____________________________________________ _ 12. esophagus _____________________________________________ _ K Select from the listed terms relating to blood and blood vessels to complete the sentences that follow. anemia angioplasty arterioles hematoma hemolysis hemostasis ischemia leukemia leukocytosis multiple myeloma myocardial neutropenia


thrombocytopenia venules 1. Billy was diagnosed with excessively high numbers of cancerous white blood cells, or _________________. His doctor prescribed chemotherapy and expected an excellent prognosis. 2. Mr. Clark's angiogram showed that he had serious atherosclerosis of one of the arteries supplying blood to his heart. His doctor recommended that ________________ would be helpful to open up his clogged artery by threading a catheter (tube) through his artery and opening a balloon at the end of the catheter to widen the artery. 3. Due to the shock of multiple foot strikes, longdistance runners can develop breakdown of red blood cells called _____________________. This condition, which leads to excessive loss of blood cells is known as runner's _____________________. 4. Doctors refused to operate on Joe because of his low platelet count, a condition called ______________________. 5. Blockage of an artery leading to Mr. Stein's brain led to the holding back of blood flow to nerve tissue in his brain. This condition, called _____________________, could lead to necrosis of tissue and a cerebrovascular accident. 6. Small arteries, or ______________________, were broken under Ms. Bein's scalp when she was struck on the head with a rock. She soon developed a mass of blood, a/an


____________________________, under the skin in that region of her head. 7. Sarah Jones had a staphylococcal infection, causing elevation of her white blood cell count, known as ____________________________. She was treated with antibiotics, and her blood count returned to normal. 8. Within the body, the bone marrow (soft tissue within bones) is the “factory” for making blood cells. Mr. Sco developed ____________________________, a malignant condition of the bone marrow cells in his hip, upper arm, and thigh bones. 9. During operations, surgeons use clamps to close off blood vessels and prevent blood loss. In this way, they maintain ___________________ and avoid blood transfusions. 10. Small vessels that carry blood toward the heart from capillaries and tissues are ___________________________________. 11. Chemotherapy causes destruction of rapidly dividing cancer cells as well as rapidly dividing normal white blood cells. This deficiency of white blood cells is a side effect of chemotherapy called ___________________________________. 12. An acute ____________________________ infarction is the medical term for a heart a ack. L Complete the medical term for the following definitions.


DEFINITION 1. membrane surrounding the heart 2. hardening of arteries 3. enlargement of the liver 4. new opening of the windpipe to the outside of the body 5. inflammation of the tonsils 6. surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen 7. muscle pain 8. pertaining to the membranes surrounding the lungs 9. study of the eye 10. berry-shaped (spheroidal) bacteria in clusters 11. beyond control (spread of a cancerous tumor) 12. pertaining to the voice box

MEDICAL TERM peri ______________________ arterio ______________________ hepato ______________________ tracheo ______________________ ____________________ itis abdomino ______________________ my ______________________ _____________________ al ___________________ logy __________________ cocci meta ______________________ ____________________ eal

M Select from the meanings in Column II to match the suffixes in Column I. Write each meaning in the space provided. COLUMN I Suffixes: Conditions 1. -algia or -dynia ___________________________________ 2. -cele ___________________________________ 3. -megaly ___________________________________ 4. -oma ___________________________________ 5. -penia ___________________________________ 6. -phobia ___________________________________ 7. -plasia ___________________________________ 8. -emia ___________________________________ 9. -itis ___________________________________ 10. -trophy ___________________________________ 11. -stasis ___________________________________ 12. -sclerosis ___________________________________ 13. -lysis ___________________________________ 14. -ptosis ___________________________________ 15. -malacia ___________________________________

COLUMN II Meanings blood condition controlling; stopping deficiency destruction; breakdown development; nourishment falling; drooping; prolapse enlargement fear formation hardening hernia inflammation pain softening tumor; mass

N Select from the meanings in Column II to match the suffixes in Column I. Write each meaning in the space provided.


COLUMN I Suffixes: Procedures 1. -centesis ___________________________________ 2. -opsy ___________________________________ 3. -ectomy ___________________________________ 4. -tomy ___________________________________ 5. -stomy ___________________________________ 6. -therapy ___________________________________ 7. -plasty ___________________________________ 8. -scopy ___________________________________ 9. -scope ___________________________________ 10. -graphy ___________________________________ 11. -gram ___________________________________ 12. -graph ___________________________________

COLUMN II Meanings excision incision instrument to record instrument to visually examine new opening process of recording process of visual examination record puncture to remove fluid surgical repair to view treatment

O Circle the correct term to complete the following sentences. 1. Ms. Daley, who has nine children, visited her general practitioner because she was experiencing problems with urination. After examining her, the doctor found that her bladder was protruding into her vagina and told her she had a (rectocele, cystocele, hiatal hernia). 2. Susan coughed constantly for a week. Her physician told her that her chest x-ray examination showed evidence of pneumonia. Her sputum (material coughed up from the bronchial tubes) was found to contain (ischemic, pleuritic, pneumococcal) bacteria. 3. Mr. Manion went to see his family doctor because he couldn't keep his left upper eyelid from sagging. His doctor told him that he had a neurologic problem called Horner syndrome, characterized by (necrosis, hydronephrosis, ptosis) of his eyelid. 4. Jill broke her left arm in a fall while mountain biking. After 6 weeks in a cast to treat the fracture, her left arm was noticeably smaller and weaker than her right arm—the muscles had (atrophied,


g p hypertrophied, metastasized). Her physician recommended physical therapy to strengthen the affected arm. 5. Ms. Brody was diagnosed with breast cancer. The first phase of her treatment included a (nephrectomy, mastectomy, pulmonary resection) to remove her breast and the tumor. After the surgery, her doctors recommended (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hydrotherapy) using drugs such as doxorubicin (Adriamycin) and paclitaxel (Taxol). 6. At age 29, Kevin's facial features became coarser and his hands and tongue enlarged. After a head CT (computed tomography) scan, doctors diagnosed the cause of these changes as (hyperglycemia, hyperthyroidism, acromegaly), a slowly progressive endocrine condition involving the pituitary gland. 7. Each winter during “cold and flu season,” Daisy developed (chondromalacia, bronchitis, cardiomyopathy). Her doctor prescribed antibiotics and respiratory therapy to help her recover. 8. After undergoing (arthroscopy, laparotomy, radiotherapy) on his knee, Alan noticed swelling and inflammation near the small incisions. Dr. Nicholas assured him that this was a common side effect of the procedure that would resolve spontaneously. 9. Under the microscope, Dr. Vance could see grapelike clusters of bacteria called (eosinophils, streptococci, staphylococci). She made the


diagnosis of (staphylococcemia, eosinophilia, streptococcemia), and the patient was started on antibiotic therapy. 10. David enjoyed weight lifting, but he recently noticed a bulge in his right groin region. He visited his doctor, who made the diagnosis of (hiatal hernia, rectocele, inguinal hernia) and recommended surgical repair.


Answers to Exercises A 1. hernia 2. blood condition 3. berry-shaped bacterium 4. record 5. cell 6. pain 7. removal, excision, resection 8. puncture to remove fluid 9. process of producing, forming 10. instrument to record 11. inflammation 12. process of recording B 1. cystocele 2. myalgia (“myodynia” is not used) 3. carcinogenesis 4. myelitis 5. streptococci (bacteria is a plural term) 6. thoracentesis or thoracocentesis 7. mastectomy


8. bronchitis 9. ischemia 10. angiography 11. arthroscopy 12. staphylococci 13. laryngectomy 14. amniocentesis 15. rhinorrhea C 1. neutrophil 2. lymphocyte 3. thrombocyte 4. eosinophil 5. erythrocyte 6. monocyte 7. basophil D 1. process of study 2. breakdown, separation, destruction 3. process of disease 4. deficiency, less than normal 5. softening 6. condition, abnormal condition


7. fear of 8. enlargement 9. tumor, mass 10. process of viewing 11. condition of formation, growth 12. surgical repair 13. hardening, to harden 14. to stop, control E 1. splenomegaly 2. morphology 3. chondromalacia 4. hydronephrosis 5. cardiomyopathy 6. arteriosclerosis 7. myoma 8. myosarcoma 9. rhinoplasty 10. myeloma (called multiple myeloma) 11. acrophobia 12. biopsy 13. hemostasis 14. blepharitis


15. phlebotomy F 1. bacteria 2. metastases 3. vertebrae 4. streptococci 5. nuclei 6. prognoses G 1. chemotherapy 2. necrosis 3. osteomalacia 4. colostomy 5. atrophy 6. metastasis 7. laparoscope 8. acromegaly 9. achondroplasia 10. laparoscopy 11. hydrotherapy 12. hypertrophy H


1. condition 2. development, nourishment 3. to stop, control 4. new opening 5. incision, cut into 6. small, li le 7. structure 8. small, li le 9. condition, process 10. resembling 11. pertaining to producing, produced by or in 12. falling, drooping, prolapse I 1. laparotomy 2. laparoscopy 3. arteriole 4. pneumonia (this condition is actually pneumonitis) 5. radiotherapy 6. mammogram 7. pleurodynia 8. venule 9. nephropathy 10. mammoplasty


J 1. laryngeal—pertaining to the voice box 2. inguinal—pertaining to the groin 3. chronic—pertaining to time (over a long period of time); the opposite of chronic is acute 4. pulmonary—pertaining to the lung 5. adipose—pertaining to (or full of) fat 6. peritoneal—pertaining to the peritoneum (membrane around the abdominal organs) 7. axillary—pertaining to the armpit, under arm 8. necrotic—pertaining to death 9. opioid—substance derived from opium 10. mucous—pertaining to mucus 11. agoraphobia—fear of open spaces and being away from home alone (agora means marketplace) 12. esophagus—tube leading from the throat to the stomach K 1. leukemia 2. angioplasty 3. hemolysis; anemia 4. thrombocytopenia 5. ischemia 6. arterioles; hematoma


7. leukocytosis 8. multiple myeloma 9. hemostasis 10. venules 11. neutropenia 12. myocardial L 1. pericardium 2. arteriosclerosis 3. hepatomegaly 4. tracheostomy 5. tonsillitis 6. abdominocentesis (this procedure also is known as paracentesis) 7. myalgia 8. pleural 9. ophthalmology 10. staphylococci 11. metastasis 12. laryngeal M 1. pain 2. hernia


3. enlargement 4. tumor; mass 5. deficiency 6. fear 7. formation 8. blood condition 9. inflammation 10. development; nourishment 11. controlling; stopping 12. hardening 13. destruction; breakdown 14. falling; drooping; prolapse 15. softening N 1. puncture to remove fluid 2. to view 3. excision 4. incision 5. new opening 6. treatment 7. surgical repair 8. process of visual examination 9. instrument to visually examine


10. process of recording 11. record 12. instrument to record O 1. cystocele 2. pneumococcal 3. ptosis 4. atrophied 5. mastectomy; chemotherapy 6. acromegaly 7. bronchitis 8. arthroscopy 9. staphylococci; staphylococcemia 10. inguinal hernia Answers to Practical Applications 1. paracentesis (abdominocentesis) 2. laparotomy 3. mastectomy 4. amniocentesis 5. tonsillectomy 6. angioplasty 7. thoracentesis 8. colostomy


9. angiography 10. laparoscopy Pronunciation of Terms

The terms you have learned in this chapter are presented here with their pronunciations. The CAPITAL le ers indicate the accented syllable. The meanings for all the terms are in the Mini-Dictionary beginning on page 897. You can also hear each term pronounced on the Evolve website (h p://


TERM abdominocentesis achondroplasia acromegaly acrophobia acute adenoids adipose agoraphobia amniocentesis anemia angiogenesis angiography angioplasty arteriole arteriosclerosis arthralgia atrophy axillary basophil biopsy blepharoptosis bronchitis carcinogenesis carcinogenic cardiac cardiomyopathy chemotherapy chondromalacia chronic colostomy cystocele electrocephalograph electroencephalogram electroencephalography eosinophil erythrocyte erythropenia esophagus hematoma hemolysis hemostasis hydronephrosis hydrotherapy hypertrophy inguinal ischemia laparoscope laparoscopy laparotomy laryngeal laryngectomy leukemia

PRONUNCIATION ab-dom-in-o-sen-TE-sis a-kon-dro-PLAY-ze-ah ak-ro-MEG-ah-le ak-ro-FO-be-ah uh-KYOOT AH-deh-noydz AH-dih-pohz ah-gor-ah-FO-be-ah am-ne-o-sen-TE-sis ah-NE-me-ah an-je-o-JEN-ih-sis an-je-OG-rah-fe AN-je-o-plas-te ar-TE-re-ole ar-te-re-o-skleh-RO-sis ar-THRAL-jah AT-ro-fe AK-sil-ar-e BA-so-fil BI-op-se bleh-fah-rop-TO-sis brong-KI-tis kar-sih-no-JEN-eh-sis kar-sih-no-JEN-ik KAR-de-ak kar-de-o-mi-OP-ah-the ke-mo-THER-ah-pe kon-dro-mah-LA-shah KRON-ik ko-LOS-to-me SIS-to-seel eh-lek-tro-en-SEF-ah-lo-graf eh-lek-tro-en-SEF-ah-lo-gram eh-lek-tro-en-sef-ah-LOG-rah-fe e-o-SIH-no-fil eh-RITH-ro-site eh-rith-ro-PE-ne-a eh-SOF-ah-gus he-mah-TO-mah he-MOL-ih-sis he-mo-STA-sis hi-dro-neh-FRO-sis hi-dro-THER-ah-pe hi-PER-tro-fe IN-gwih-nal is-KE-me-ah LAP-ah-ro-skope lap-ah-ROS-ko-pe lap-ah-ROT-o-me lah-rin-JE-al lah-rin-JEK-to-me lu-KE-me-ah


TERM leukocyte leukocytosis lymphocyte mammogram mastectomy metastasis monocyte morphology mucous membrane mucus myalgia myelitis myeloma myoma myocardial myosarcoma necropsy necrosis necrotic nephrologist nephropathy neuralgia neutropenia neutrophil ophthalmology opioid osteogenic osteomalacia otalgia paracentesis pathogenesis pathologic pericardium peritoneal phlebotomy platelet pleural pleurodynia pneumonia polymorphonuclear leukocyte ptosis pulmonary radiographer radiotherapy rectocele rhinorrhea splenomegaly staphylococci streptococcus thoracentesis thrombocyte thrombocytopenia

PRONUNCIATION LU-ko-site lu-ko-si-TO-sis LIM-fo-site MAM-o-gram mas-TEK-to-me meh-TAS-tah-sis MON-o-site mor-FOL-o-je MU-cus MEM-brayn MU-cus mi-AL-jah mi-eh-LI-tis mi-eh-LO-mah mi-O-mah mi-o-KAR-de-al mi-o-sar-KO-mah NEH-krop-se neh-KRO-sis neh-KROT-ik neh-FROL-o-jist neh-FROP-ah-the nu-RAL-jah nu-tro-PE-ne-ah NU-tro-fil of-thal-MOL-o-je O-pe-oyd os-te-o-JEN-ik os-te-o-mah-LA-shah o-TAL-jah par-ah-sen-TE-sis path-o-JEN-eh-sis path-o-LOJ-ik peh-rih-KAR-de-um peh-rih-to-NE-al fleh-BOT-o-me PLAYT-let PLUR-al plur-o-DIN-e-ah nu-MO-ne-ah pol-e-morf-o-NU-kle-ar LU-ko-site TO-sis PUL-mo-nar-e ra-de-OG-rah-fer ra-de-o-THER-ah-pe REK-to-seel ri-no-RE-ah spleh-no-MEG-ah-le staf-ih-lo-KOK-si strep-to-KOK-sis thor-ah-cen-TE-sis THROM-bo-site throm-bo-site-o-PE-ne-ah


TERM thrombophlebitis tonsillar tonsillitis tracheostomy tracheotomy venule

PRONUNCIATION throm-bo-fleh-BI-tis TON-sih-lar ton-sih-LI-tis tra-ke-OS-to-me tra-ke-OT-o-me VEN-ule

Review Sheet

Write the meanings of each word part in the space provided and test yourself. Check your answers with the information in the chapter or in the Glossary (Medical Word Parts—English), at the end of this book.

Noun Suffixes


SUFFIX -algia -cele -centesis -coccus (-cocci) -cyte -dynia -ectomy -emia -er -genesis -gram -graph -graphy -ia -ist -itis -logy -lysis -malacia -megaly -ole -oma -opsy -osis -pathy -penia -phobia -plasia -plasty -ptosis -rrhea -sclerosis -scope -scopy -stasis -stomy -therapy -tomy -trophy -ule -um, -ium -us -y

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Adjective Suffixes


SUFFIX -ac, -iac -al -ar -ary -eal -genic -ic, -ical -oid -ose -ous -tic

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Combining Forms


COMBINING FORM abdomin/o acr/o acu/o aden/o adip/o amni/o angi/o arteri/o arthr/o axill/o bi/o blephar/o bronch/o carcin/o cardi/o chem/o chondr/o chron/o col/o cyst/o encephal/o erythr/o hem/o hepat/o hydr/o inguin/o isch/o lapar/o laryng/o leuk/o lymph/o mamm/o mast/o morph/o muc/o my/o myel/o necr/o nephr/o neur/o neutr/o nucle/o ophthalm/o opi/o oste/o ot/o path/o peritone/o phag/o phleb/o plas/o pleur/o

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________


COMBINING FORM pneumon/o pulmon/o radi/o rect/o ren/o rhin/o sarc/o splen/o staphyl/o strept/o thorac/o thromb/o tonsill/o trache/o ven/o

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Give the medical term for the following blood cells. red blood cell ____________________________________________ clo ing cell _____________________________________________ white blood cell __________________________________________ Name five different types of white blood cells (the first le er is given). e ________________________________________ b ________________________________________ n ________________________________________ l ________________________________________ m _______________________________________




Prefixes CHAPTER SECTIONS: Introduction 104 Combining Forms and Suffixes 104 Prefixes and Terminology 105 A Closer Look 114 Practical Applications 119 Exercises 120 Answers to Exercises 125 Pronunciation of Terms 126 Review Sheet 128

CHAPTER GOALS • Define basic prefixes used in the medical language. • Analyze medical terms that combine prefixes and other word elements. • Learn about the Rh condition as an example of an antigen-antibody reaction.



Introduction This chapter on prefixes, like the preceding chapter on suffixes, gives you practice in word analysis and provides a foundation for the study of the terminology of body systems that follows. The list of combining forms, suffixes, and meanings helps you analyze terminology in the rest of the chapter. To support a broader understanding, A Closer Look, beginning on page 114, contains more detailed explanations of new terms.

Combining Forms and Suffixes Combining Forms COMBINING FORM carp/o cis/o cost/o cutane/o dactyl/o duct/o flex/o furc/o gloss/o glyc/o immun/o morph/o mort/o nat/i norm/o ox/o pub/o seps/o somn/o son/o tens/o the/o thel/o, theli/o thyr/o top/o tox/o trache/o urethr/o

MEANING wrist bones cut rib skin fingers, toes lead, carry bend branching tongue sugar protection shape, form death birth rule, order oxygen pubis (pubic bone); anterior portion of the pelvic or hipbone infection sleep sound force, strain, stretch put, place nipple thyroid gland; shield (the shape of the thyroid gland resembled [-oid] a shield to those who named it) place, position, location poison windpipe, trachea urethra


Suffixes These suffixes are used in this chapter in combination with prefixes. Some are complex suffixes that contain roots. For example, the suffix pnea contains a root pne, meaning breathing, and a final suffix -a, meaning condition. SUFFIX -crine -drome -fusion -gen -lapse -lysis -meter -mission -or -oxia -partum -phoria -physis -plasia -plasm -pnea -ptom -ptosis -rrhea -stasis -trophy

MEANING secrete run coming together; to pour substance that produces slide, fall, sag breakdown, destruction, separation measure send one who oxygen birth, labor bear, carry; feeling (mental state) grow development, formation, growth structure or formation breathing happening, occurrence falling, drooping, prolapse flow, discharge stopping, controlling development, nourishment

Prefixes and Terminology

Write the meaning of the medical term in the space provided. Remember: the Evolve website provides the definition and audio pronunciation for each term.


PREFIX MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING a-, an- no, not, apnea ______________________________________________ without anoxia _____________________________________________ abaway from abnormal ___________________________________________ abductor ___________________________________________ A muscle that draws a limb away from the body. HINT: Notice that in abductor, the b faces away from the a. adtoward adductor ____________________________________________ A muscle that draws a limb toward the body. HINT: Notice that in adductor, the d faces toward the a. adrenal glands _____________ These glands actually lie on top of each kidney. See Figure 4-1. anaup, apart anabolism __________________________________________ analysis ____________________________________________ Urinalysis (urin/o + [an]/alysis) is a laboratory examination of urine that aids in the diagnosis of many medical conditions. In this term, lysis means separation. antebefore, ante cibum _________________________________________ forward The word cibum means meals. The notation a.c., seen on prescription orders, means before meals. You can guess that p.c. means after (post) meals. anteflexion _________________________________________ antepartum _________________________________________ antiagainst antibiotic ___________________________________________ Antibiotics destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria. Penicillin was the first antibiotic discovered and was in widespread use by the 1940s. Many penicillin-like antibiotics have been discovered since then and have shown valuable activity against penicillin-resistant organisms. antibody ____________________________________________ Protein produced against an antigen (foreign body). antigen _____________________________________________ In this term, anti- is short for antibody. An antigen (bacterium or virus) is a substance that stimulates the production of (-gen) an antibody. See A Closer Look: Antigens and Antibodies, page 114. antisepsis __________________________________________ An antiseptic (-sis changes to -tic to form an adjective) substance fights infection. Septicemia is a serious bacterial infection of the blood. antitoxin ___________________________________________ This is an antibody, often from an animal (such as a horse), that acts against a toxin. An example is tetanus antitoxin given against tetanus, an acute bacterial infection of the nervous system. autoself, own autoimmune disease ________________________________ bitwo bifurcation _________________________________________ Normal spli ing into two branches, such as bifurcation of the trachea to form the bronchi. The root furc means branching. bilateral _____________________________________________ brady- slow bradycardia _________________________________________ Usually, a pulse of less than 60; a slow heart rate. Tachycardia (tachymeans fast) is a pulse of more than 100 beats per minute. catadown catabolism ___________________________________________


PREFIX MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING conwith, congenital anomaly together See A Closer Look: Congenital Anomaly, page 116. connective __________________________________________ The root nect means to tie or bind. Connective tissue supports and binds other body tissue and parts. Bone, cartilage, and fibrous tissue are connective tissues. contra- against, contraindication _____________________________________ opposite Contra- means against in this term. contralateral ________________________________________ Contra- means opposite in this term. A stroke affecting the right side of the brain may cause contralateral paralysis affecting the left arm and leg. dedown, lack dehydration _________________________________________ of diathrough, diameter ___________________________________________ complete diarrhea ____________________________________________ dialysis _____________________________________________ Literal meaning is complete (dia-) separation (-lysis). In hemodialysis, waste materials are separated from the blood via a machine (artificial kidney) when the kidneys no longer function. Another form of dialysis is peritoneal dialysis. dysabnormal, dyspnea ____________________________________________ bad Often caused by respiratory or cardiac conditions, strenuous exercise, difficult, or anxiety. painful dysentery ___________________________________________ dystrophy ___________________________________________ Muscular dystrophy includes many inherited diseases that cause muscular weakness and deterioration. dysplasia ___________ ecout, ouside ectopic pregnancy ___________________________________ Ectopic means pertaining to out of place and modifies the noun “pregnancy.” See Figure 4-2. endoin, within endocardium ________________________________________ endoscope __________________________________________ endotracheal ________________________________________ An endotracheal tube, placed through the mouth into the trachea, is used for giving oxygen and in general anesthesia procedures. epiupon, on, epithelium _________________________________________ above eugood, euphoria ___________________________________________ normal Feeling of well-being. euthyroid __________________________________________ Normal thyroid function. exout, outside exophthalmos _____________________________________ Protrusion of the eyeball associated with enlargement and overactivity of the thyroid gland. hemihalf hemiglossectomy _____________________________________


PREFIX MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING hyper- excessive, hyperglycemia _____________________________________ above This is a sign of diabetes mellitus. Lack of insulin (type 1 diabetes) or ineffective insulin (type 2 diabetes) causes high levels of sugar in the blood. hyperplasia ________________________________________ Increase in cell numbers. This is a characteristic of tumor growth. hypertrophy ________________________________________ Increase in size of individual cells. Muscle, cardiac, and renal cells exhibit hypertrophy when workload is increased. The opposite of hypertrophy is atrophy (cells shrink in size). See Figure 4-3. hypertension ________________________________________ High blood pressure occurs when the force of blood pushing against the walls of arteries is consistently too high. hypodeficient, hypodermic injection ________________________________ under hypoglycemia _______________________________________ innot insomniac __________________________________________ ininto, within incision ____________________________________________ infrabeneath, infracostal __________________________________________ under interbetween intercostal __________________________________________ Intercostal muscles lie between adjacent ribs. intrain, within, intravenous _________ into macro- large macrocephaly _______________________________________ This is a congenital anomaly. Often macrocephaly is associated with excess fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus). malbad malaise ____________________________________________ (mal-AYZ) This is a French word meaning discomfort. It is a symptom of illness often marking the onset of a disease. malignant __________________________________________ From the Latin ignis, meaning fire. Benign (ben- = good) is noncancerous, whereas malignant means cancerous. metabeyond, metacarpal bones _____________________________________ change The five hand bones lie beyond the wrist bones but before the finger bones (phalanges). metamorphosis ______________________________________ Meta- means change in this term. The change in development from the larval (caterpillar) stage to the adult (bu erfly) is a form of metamorphosis. Embryonic (immature) stem cells spontaneously change (undergo metamorphosis) to form different types of mature cells. metastasis __________________________________________ Meta- = beyond and -stasis = controlling, stopping. A metastasis is a malignant tumor that has spread to a secondary location. micro- small microscope __________________________________________ microcephaly __________________________________________ Microcephaly is associated with a smaller, underdeveloped brain. Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly. neonew neonatal ____________________________________________ The neonatal period is the interval from birth to 28 days. neoplasm ___________________________________________ A neoplasm may be benign or malignant. panall pancytopenia ________________________________________ Deficiency of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes.


PREFIX MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING paraabnormal, paralysis ____________________________________________ beside, near Abnormal disruption of the connection between nerve and muscle. Originally from the Greek paralusis, meaning separation or loosening on one side, describing the loss of movement on one side of the body (occurring in stroke patients). parathyroid glands ___________________________________ Para- means beside. The four parathyroid glands are located behind the thyroid gland. They secrete a hormone that regulates the calcium levels in blood and tissues. perthrough percutaneous _______________________________________ perisurrounding pericardium ________________________________________ polymany, much polymorphonuclear __________________________________ polyneuritis _________________________________________ postafter, behind postmortem ________________________________________ postpartum _________________________________________ prebefore, in precancerous _______________________________________ front of prenatal ____________________________________________ probefore, prodrome __________________________________________ forward Prodromal signs and symptoms (rash, fever) appear before the actual illness (such as chickenpox) and signal its onset. Altered mood, fatigue, flashes of light, or stiff muscles may accompany the prodromal migraine aura that occurs before the actual headache. prolapse ____________________________________________ The suffix -lapse means to slide, sag, or fall. See Figure 4-4. A prolapse of the eyelid is commonly called ptosis (blepharoptosis). prosbefore, prosthesis __________________________________________ forward An artificial limb is a prosthesis. Figure 4-5 shows Amy PalmieroWinters running with a prosthetic leg. reback, again relapse ____________________________________________ A disease or its signs and symptoms return after an apparent recovery. remission __________________________________________ Signs and symptoms lessen and the patient feels be er. Remission may be spontaneous or the result of treatment. In some cases, a permanent remission means the disease is cured. recombinant DNA ____________________________________ Genetic engineering uses recombinant DNA techniques. See A Closer Look: Recombinant DNA, page 116. retrobehind, retroperitoneal ______________________________________ backward retroflexion _________________________________________ An abnormal position of an organ, such as the uterus, bent or tilted backward. subunder subcutaneous _______________________________________ supra- above, suprapubic _________________________________________ upper The pubic bones form the anterior part of the hip bone as shown in Figure 4-6A. A suprapubic catheter is useful in draining the bladder above the pubic bone. See Figure 4-6B.


PREFIX MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING syn-, together, syndactyly __________________________________________ symwith See Figure 4-7. synthesis ___________________________________________ In protein synthesis, complex proteins are built up from simpler amino acids. syndrome __________________________________________ See A Closer Look: Syndromes, page 117. symbiosis _________________________________________ HINT: Before the le ers b, m, and p, syn- becomes sym-. The term symptom is an important example. Be careful about spelling! Don’t forget the p in symptom. symmetry __________________________________________ Equality of parts on opposite sides of the body. What is asymmetry? symphysis __________________________________________ A symphysis is a joint in which the bony surfaces are firmly united by a layer of fibrocartilage. See Figure 4-6C. tachy- fast tachypnea ___________________________________________ (tah-KIP-ne-ah) transacross, transfusion _________________________________________ through Transfer of blood or blood parts from one person to another. transurethral _______________________________________ See A Closer Look: Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Gland, page 118. ultrabeyond, ultrasonography _____________________________________ excess See A Closer Look: Ultrasonography, page 118. unione unilateral __________________________________________


FIGURE 4-1 Adrenal glands. These are endocrine glands located above each kidney. One of the hormones they secrete is adrenaline (epinephrine). It causes bronchial tubes to widen, the heart to beat more rapidly and blood pressure to rise.

FIGURE 4-2 Ectopic pregnancy. Normal pregnancy implantation is in the upper portion of the uterus. Ectopic pregnancy occurs most commonly in a fallopian tube (i.e., tubal pregnancy). In this condition, the fetus is not viable. Surgery often is necessary to remove the ectopic tissue. Tubal surgery may damage a fallopian tube, and scar tissue can cause future pregnancy problems.


FIGURE 4-3 Differences between normal cells, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and atrophy.

FIGURE 4-4 Prolapse of the uterus. In first-degree prolapse, the uterus descends into the vaginal canal. In second-degree prolapse, the body of the uterus is still within the vagina, but the cervix protrudes from the vaginal orifice (opening). In thirddegree prolapse (not pictured), the entire uterus projects outside the orifice. As treatment, the uterus may be held in position by a plastic pessary (oval supporting object) that is inserted into the vagina. Some affected women may require hysterectomy (removal of the uterus).


FIGURE 4-5 Prosthesis. Amy Palmiero-Winters is the first female with a prosthetic leg to finish the Badwater 135, a 135mile race from Badwater in Death Valley to Mount Whitney, California.

FIGURE 4-6 A. Bones of the pelvic (hip) bone. B. Suprapubic catheter. C. Pubic symphysis. This is the area in which the pubic bones have grown together.


FIGURE 4-7 Syndactyly. The foot on the left (pale) shows syndactyly (webbed toes). The foot on the right (darker) shows normal toes. Syndactyly is a hereditary, congenital anomaly of fingers or toes.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea occurs when breathing suddenly stops during sleep. A CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) machine is used to keep airways open.

Anti- and Ante-

Be careful not to confuse these prefixes. Pay close a ention to their different pronunciations. Anti- is pronounced an-tih, and ante- is pronounced an-te.

Autoimmune Disease

In an autoimmune disease, the body makes antibodies against its own good cells and tissues, causing inflammation and injury. Examples of autoimmune disorders are rheumatoid arthritis, affecting joints; celiac disease, affecting the intestinal tract; and Graves disease, affecting the thyroid gland.

Peritoneal Dialysis

In peritoneal dialysis, a special fluid is inserted into the peritoneal cavity through a tube in the abdomen. Waste materials such as urea


seep into the fluid from the blood during a period of time. The fluid and the wastes are then drained from the peritoneal cavity. See Figure 7-16 on page 223.

Signs and Symptoms

A sign is an objective finding that is perceived by an examiner, such as fever, rash, or hyperglycemia. A symptom (from Greek, symptoma, meaning that which happens) is a subjective change in condition as perceived by the patient. Examples of symptoms are loss of appetite, abdominal pain, and fatigue (tiredness). Both signs and symptoms are useful clues in the diagnosis of a disease, such as diabetes mellitus.

Intra-, Inter-, Infra-

Be careful not to confuse these prefixes: intra- means in, within, into; inter- means between; infra- means beneath, under.


Symbiosis occurs when two organisms live together in close association, either for mutual benefit or not. Examples are: • Bacteria in the intestines and the cells lining the intestines benefit each other. • Parasites (tapeworms and fleas) live off another organism and are harmful to the host. In psychiatry, symbiosis is a relationship between two people who are emotionally dependent on each other.


A Closer Look Antigens and Antibodies; the Rh Condition An antigen, usually a foreign substance (such as a poison, virus, or bacterium), stimulates the production of antibodies. Antibodies are protein substances made by white blood cells in response to the presence of foreign antigens. For example, the flu virus (antigen) enters the body, causing the production of antibodies in the bloodstream. These antibodies then bind to and mark for destruction the antigens (viruses) that produced them. The reaction between an antigen and an antibody is an immune response (immun/o means protection). See Figure 4-8. When you receive a vaccine, you actually are receiving dead or weakened antigens that stimulate white blood cells (lymphocytes) to make antibodies. These antibodies remain in your blood to protect against those specific antigens when encountered in the future.

FIGURE 4-8 Immune response. When antigens (bacteria) enter the body through a flesh wound, antibodies are produced to destroy the antigens.

Another example of an antigen-antibody reaction is the Rh condition. A person who is Rh-positive (Rh+) has a protein coating (antigen) on his or her red blood cells (RBCs). This specific antigen factor is something that the person is born with and is normal. People who are Rh-negative (Rh−) have normal RBCs as well, but their red cells lack the Rh factor antigen.


If an Rh− woman and an Rh+ man conceive an embryo, the embryo may be Rh− or Rh+. A dangerous condition arises only when the embryo is Rh+ (because this is different from the Rh− mother). During delivery of the first Rh+ baby, some of the baby's blood cells containing Rh+ antigens can escape into the mother's bloodstream. This sensitizes the mother so that she produces a low level of antibodies to the Rh+ antigen. Because this occurs at delivery, the first baby is generally not affected and is normal at birth. Sensitization can also occur after a miscarriage, abortion, or blood transfusions (with Rh+ blood). Difficulties arise with the second Rh+ pregnancy. If this embryo also is Rh+, during pregnancy the mother's acquired antibodies (from the first pregnancy) enter the embryo's bloodstream. These antibodies a ack and destroy the embryo’s Rh+ RBCs (hemolysis). The affected infant is born with hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). One of the clinical signs of HDN is jaundice (yellow skin pigmentation). Jaundice results from excessive destruction of RBCs. When RBCs break down, the hemoglobin within the cells produces bilirubin (a chemical pigment). High levels of bilirubin in the bloodstream (hyperbilirubinemia) cause jaundice. To prevent bilirubin from affecting the brain cells of the infant, newborns are treated with exposure to bright lights (phototherapy). The light decomposes the bilirubin, which is then excreted from the infant's body. Physicians administer Rh immunoglobulin to an Rh− woman within 72 hours after each Rh+ delivery, abortion, or miscarriage. The globulin binds to Rh+ cells that escape into the mother's circulation and prevents formation of Rh+ antibodies. This protects future babies from developing HDN. Figure 4-9 reviews the Rh condition as an example of an antigen-antibody action.


FIGURE 4-9 Rh condition as an example of an antigenantibody reaction.

Congenital Anomaly An anomaly is an irregularity in a structure or organ. Examples of congenital anomalies (those that an infant is born with) include webbed fingers or toes (syndactyly), heart defects, and clubbed feet. See Figure 4-10A. Some congenital anomalies are hereditary (passed to the infant through chromosomes from the father or mother, or both), whereas others are produced by factors present during pregnancy. For example, when a pregnant woman consumes high levels of alcohol during pregnancy, there is often a pa ern of physical and mental defects in her infant at birth. See Figure 4-10B.


FIGURE 4-10 Congenital anomalies. A, Clubfoot is a hereditary congenital anomaly. The “clubbing” may affect one or both feet. B, Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a congenital anomaly caused by environmental factors during pregnancy. Notice the facial features of FAS: skin folds in corners of eyes; long, smooth groove between the nose and upper lip; thin upper lip; and flat nasal bridge.

Recombinant DNA Recombinant DNA technology is the process of taking a gene (a region of DNA) from one organism and inserting it into the DNA of another organism. For example, recombinant techniques are used to manufacture insulin outside the body. The gene that codes for insulin (i.e., contains the recipe for making insulin) is cut out of a human chromosome (using special enzymes) and transferred into a bacterium, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli). The bacterium then contains the gene for making human insulin and, because it multiplies very rapidly, can produce insulin in large quantities. Diabetic patients, unable to make their own insulin, can use this synthetic product (see Figure 4-11). CRISPR is an acronym for new DNA editing tool that changes DNA sequences to turn off genes or to replace them with new versions. CRISPR means clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats!


FIGURE 4-11 Recombinant DNA and insulin production.

Syndromes A syndrome (from the Greek dromos, meaning a course for running) is a group of signs or symptoms that appear together to produce a typical clinical picture of a disease or inherited abnormality. For example, Reye syndrome is characterized by vomiting, swelling of the brain, increased intracranial pressure, hypoglycemia, and dysfunction of the liver. It may occur in children after a viral infection that has been treated with aspirin. Marfan syndrome is an inherited connective tissue disorder marked by a tall, thin body type with long, “spidery” fingers and toes (arachnodactyly), elongated head, and heart, blood vessel, and ophthalmic abnormalities (see Figure 4-12).


FIGURE 4-12 Marfan syndrome. A and B show people with Marfan's. Note the unusually tall body type and long, spidery fingers. The Olympic swimmer Michael Phelps (not pictured) has Marfan syndrome. His height is 6′4″ and his arm span is 6′7″.

Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Gland In transurethral resection of the prostate gland (TURP), a portion of the prostate gland is removed with an instrument (resectoscope) passed through (trans-) the urethra. The procedure is indicated when prostatic tissue increases (hyperplasia) and interferes with urination. This condition is called benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH. Figure 4-13 shows a TURP procedure.


FIGURE 4-13 Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). The resectoscope contains a light, valves for controlling irrigated fluid, and an electrical loop that cuts tissue and seals blood vessels.

Ultrasonography Ultrasonography is a diagnostic technique using ultrasound waves (inaudible sound waves) to produce an image of an organ or tissue. A machine records ultrasonic echoes as they pass through different types of tissue. X-rays are not used! Echocardiograms are ultrasound images of the heart. Figure 4-14 shows a fetal ultrasound image (sonogram).


FIGURE 4-14 Ultrasonography. A, Notice the facial features of this beautiful 30-week-old fetus, in a (very) early “baby picture” of my granddaughter, Beatrix Bess Thompson! B, Bebe, smiling, at 3 months of age. (Courtesy Dr. Elizabeth Chabner Thompson.)

Practical Applications

Check your answers with the Answers to Practical Applications on page 126. You should find helpful explanations there.

A Useful Weapon Against Anemia Anemia is a major problem for many patients who are in chronic renal failure. This is because as renal function decreases, the kidneys secrete less erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells. Under normal conditions, when the body senses a decrease in red blood cells or a deficiency in the supply of oxygen, more erythropoietin is produced, thus increasing the number of erythrocytes. Epoetin alfa (Epogen or Procrit) is a man-made form of human erythropoietin. It is genetically engineered through recombinant DNA technology and stimulates bone marrow to make and release red blood cells. As the hematocrit rises, patients experience increased energy, appetite, and greater stamina. The FDA has approved Epogen for treating anemia in dialysis patients and in patients who are in chronic renal failure, but not on dialysis. It is also effective in counteracting the myelosuppressive effects of chemotherapy. Other hematopoietic drugs produced with recombinant DNA technology are Neupogen (filgrastim) for neutropenia and thrombopoietin (TPO) for thrombocytopenia.


1. Anemia is a major problem for patients in chronic renal failure because a. the kidney overproduces erythropoietin b. patients may go into heart failure and lose consciousness c. patients produce less of a hormone that stimulates production of erythrocytes 2. The type of erythropoietin that is used for these patients is a. made in a laboratory by using pieces of DNA that code for the hormone b. made from the blood of other patients c. given by bone marrow transfusion 3. The hematocrit is a. a measurement of the volume of white and red blood cells b. the percentage of red blood cells in a volume of blood c. lower in people with greater stamina and energy levels 4. Patients go on dialysis when a. they are in chronic renal failure b. they have a low hematocrit c. they are undergoing chemotherapy 5. Side effects of myelosuppressiive chemotherapy may be treated by a. cytotoxic agents b. Epogen, Neupogen, and thrombopoietin c. hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis


Exercises Remember to check your answers carefully with the Answers to Exercises, pages 125–126.

A Give the meanings of the following prefixes. 1. ante_____________________________________________ 2. ab_____________________________________________ 3. ana_____________________________________________ 4. anti_____________________________________________ 5. a-, an_____________________________________________ 6. ad_____________________________________________ 7. auto_____________________________________________ 8. cata_____________________________________________ 9. brady_____________________________________________ 10. contra_____________________________________________ 11. bi_____________________________________________ 12. con_____________________________________________ B Match the listed terms with the meanings that follow.


adductor adrenal analysis anoxia anteflexion antepartum antisepsis apnea bilateral bradycardia congenital anomaly contralateral 1. bending forward _____________________________________________ ________________________ 2. muscle that carries the limb toward the body _____________________________________________ ________________________ 3. before birth _____________________________________________ ________________________ 4. slow heartbeat _____________________________________________ ________________________ 5. gland located near (above) each kidney _____________________________________________ ________________________ 6. absence of breathing _____________________________________________ ________________________


7. pertaining to the opposite side _____________________________________________ ________________________ 8. against infection _____________________________________________ ________________________ 9. to separate _____________________________________________ ________________________ 10. pertaining to two (both) sides _____________________________________________ ________________________ 11. condition of no oxygen in tissues _____________________________________________ ________________________ 12. irregularity present at birth _____________________________________________ ________________________ C Select from the listed terms to match the descriptions that follow. anabolism antibiotic antibody antigen antitoxin autoimmune disease catabolism congenital anomaly contraindication


1. chemical substance, such as erythromycin (-mycin = mold), made from molds and used against bacterial life _____________________________________________ ________________________ 2. process of burning food (breaking it down) and releasing the energy stored in the food _____________________________________________ ________________________ 3. reason that a doctor would advise against taking a specific medication _____________________________________________ ________________________ 4. disorder in which the body's own leukocytes make antibodies that damage its own good tissue _____________________________________________ _______________________ 5. a foreign agent (virus or bacterium) that causes production of antibodies _____________________________________________ ________________________ 6. an antibody that acts against poisons that enter the body _____________________________________________ ______ 7. process of building up proteins in cells by pu ing together small pieces of proteins called amino acids _____________________________________________ ________________________ 8. protein made by lymphocytes in response to the presence in the blood of a specific antigen


_____________________________________________ ________________________ D Give the meanings of the following prefixes. 1. ec_____________________________________________ 2. dys_____________________________________________ 3. de_____________________________________________ 4. dia_____________________________________________ 5. hemi_____________________________________________ 6. hypo_____________________________________________ 7. epi_____________________________________________ 8. hyper_____________________________________________ 9. endo_____________________________________________ 10. eu_____________________________________________ 11. in_____________________________________________ 12. inter_____________________________________________ 13. intra_____________________________________________


14. infra_____________________________________________ 15. macro_____________________________________________ 16. micro_____________________________________________ E Complete the following terms, based on their meanings as given. 1. normal thyroid function: ________________________ thyroid 2. painful breathing: ________________________ pnea 3. pregnancy that is out of place (outside the uterus): ________________________ topic 4. instrument to visually examine within the body: endo _____________________________________________ 5. removal of half of the tongue: ________________________ glossectomy 6. good (exaggerated) feeling (of well-being): ________________________ phoria 7. pertaining to within the windpipe: endo _____________________________________________ 8. blood condition of less than normal sugar: ________________________ glycemia 9. condition (congenital anomaly) of large head: ________________________ cephaly 10. pertaining to between the ribs: ________________________ costal 11. pertaining to within a vein: intra _____________________________________________


12. condition of abnormal formation (of cells): dys ____________________________________ 13. condition of excessive formation (numbers of cells): _____________ plasia 14. structure (membrane) that forms the inner lining of the heart: endo _______________________ 15. pertaining to below the ribs: infra _____________________________________________ 16. blood condition of excessive amount of sugar: hyper _____________________________________________ 17. A group of congenital disorders involving abnormal development of muscle mass and strength is: muscular ____________________________________ 18. Zika virus infection during pregnancy can be a cause of decreased development of an infant’s head and brain: ____________________________________ cephaly F Match the listed terms with the meanings that follow. dehydration dialysis diarrhea exophthalmos (proptosis) incision insomnia malaise malignant metamorphosis


p metastasis microscope pancytopenia 1. vague feeling of bodily discomfort _____________________________________________ ________________________ 2. inability to sleep _____________________________________________ ________________________ 3. lack of water _____________________________________________ ________________________ 4. spread of a cancerous tumor to a secondary organ or tissue _____________________________________________ ________________________ 5. instrument used to view small objects _____________________________________________ ________________________ 6. a cut into an organ or tissue _____________________________________________ ________________________ 7. outward bulging of the eyeballs _____________________________________________ ________________________ 8. condition of change in shape or form _____________________________________________ ________________________ 9. watery discharge of wastes from the colon _____________________________________________ ________________________


10. deficiency of all (blood) cells _____________________________________________ ________________________ 11. separation of wastes from the blood by using a machine that does the job of the kidney _____________________________________________ ________________________ 12. harmful, cancerous _____________________________________________ ________________________ G Give the meanings of the following prefixes. 1. mal_____________________________________________ 2. pan_____________________________________________ 3. per_____________________________________________ 4. meta_____________________________________________ 5. para_____________________________________________ 6. peri_____________________________________________ 7. poly_____________________________________________ 8. post_____________________________________________ 9. pro_____________________________________________


10. pre_____________________________________________ 11. sub_____________________________________________ 12. supra_____________________________________________ 13. re_____________________________________________ 14. retro_____________________________________________ 15. tachy_____________________________________________ 16. syn_____________________________________________ 17. uni_____________________________________________ 18. trans_____________________________________________ 19. neo_____________________________________________ 20. epi_____________________________________________ H Underline the prefix in the following terms, and give the meaning of the entire term. 1. pericardium _____________________________________________ ________________________ 2. percutaneous _____________________________________________ ________________________


3. retroperitoneal _____________________________________________ ________________________ 4. suprapubic _____________________________________________ ________________________ 5. polyneuritis _____________________________________________ ________________________ 6. retroflexion _____________________________________________ ________________________ 7. transurethral _____________________________________________ ________________________ 8. subcutaneous _____________________________________________ ________________________ 9. tachypnea _____________________________________________ ________________________ 10. unilateral _____________________________________________ ________________________ 11. prosthesis _____________________________________________ ________________________ 12. bilateral _____________________________________________ ________________________


13. symptom _____________________________________________ ________________________ 14. syndrome _____________________________________________ ________________________ I Match the listed terms with the meanings that follow. adrenal neoplasm paralysis parathyroid prodrome prolapse recombinant DNA relapse remission syndactyly syndrome ultrasonography 1. return of a disease or its symptoms _____________________________________________ ________________________ 2. loss of movement in muscles _____________________________________________ ________________________ 3. congenital anomaly in which fingers or toes are webbed (formed together)


_____________________________________________ ________________________ 4. four endocrine glands that are located near (behind) another endocrine gland in the neck _____________________________________________ ________________________ 5. glands that are located above the kidneys _____________________________________________ ________________________ 6. symptoms that come before the actual illness _____________________________________________ ________________________ 7. technique of transferring genetic material from one organism into another _____________________________________________ ________________________ 8. sliding, sagging downward or forward _____________________________________________ ________________________ 9. new growth or tumor _____________________________________________ ________________________ 10. process of using sound waves to create an image of organs and structures in the body _____________________________________________ ________________________ 11. group of signs and symptoms that occur together and indicate a particular disorder _____________________________________________ ________________________


12. symptoms lessen and a patient feels be er _____________________________________________ ________________________ J Complete the following terms, based on their meanings as given. 1. pertaining to new birth: neo _____________________________________________ ________________________ 2. after death: post _____________________________________________ ________________________ 3. spread of a cancerous tumor: meta _____________________________________________ ________________________ 4. branching into two: bi _____________________________________________ ________________________ 5. increase in development (size of cells): hyper _____________________________________________ ________________________ 6. pertaining to a chemical that works against bacterial life: ________________________ biotic 7. hand bones (beyond the wrist): ________________________ carpals 8. protein produced by leukocytes to fight foreign organisms: anti ______________________________________ 9. group of symptoms that occur together: ________________________ drome 10. surface or skin tissue of the body: ________________________ thelium


K Circle the correct bold term to complete the following sentences. 1. Dr. Tate felt that Mrs. Snow's condition of thrombocytopenia was a clear (analysis, contraindication, synthesis) to performing elective surgery. 2. Medical science was revolutionized by the introduction of (antigens, antibiotics, antibodies) in the 1940s. Now some infections can be treated with only one dose. 3. Robert's 82-year-old grandfather complained of (malaise, dialysis, insomnia) despite taking the sleeping medication that his doctor prescribed. 4. During her pregnancy, Ms. Payne described pressure on her (pituitary gland, parathyroid gland, pubic symphysis), making it difficult for her to find a comfortable position, even when seated. 5. Many times, people with diabetes accidentally take too much insulin. This results in lowering their blood sugar so much that they may be admi ed to the emergency department with (hyperplasia, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia). 6. Before his migraine headaches began, John noticed changes in his eyesight, such as bright spots, zigzag lines, and double vision. His physician told him that these were (symbiotic, exophthalmic, prodromal) symptoms. 7. After hiking in the Grand Canyon without an adequate water supply, Julie experienced (hyperglycemia, dehydration, hypothyroidism).


8. At 65 years of age, Paul Smith often felt fullness in his urinary bladder but had difficulty urinating. He visited his (cardiologist, nephrologist, urologist), who examined his prostate gland and diagnosed (hyperplasia, atrophy, ischemia). The doctor advised (intracostal, transurethral, peritoneal) resection of Paul's prostate. 9. After running the Boston Marathon, Elizabeth felt nauseated and dizzy. She realized that she was experiencing (malaise, euphoria, hypoglycemia) and drank a sports drink containing sugar, which made her feel be er. 10. While she was taking an antibiotic that reacted with sunlight, Ruth's physician advised her that sunbathing was (unilateral, contraindicated, contralateral) and might cause a serious sunburn. 11. Puerperal (pertaining to childbirth) fever was an iatrogenic infection; it was carried from one woman to another by the doctor before the days of (antigens, antibodies, antisepsis). 12. Dysplastic nevi (abnormal pigmented lesions or moles) on a patient's skin may be a (precancerous, metastatic, unilateral) sign of malignant skin cancer called melanoma. 13. Nerve cells of the brain may (relapse, hypertrophy, atrophy) in old age because of ischemia caused by restricted blood flow. 14. Changes in cell growth resulting in cells that differ in size, shape, and appearance are the result of chronic inflammation and irritation. When the condition occurs in the uterine cervix, it is known as cervical (prolapse, paralysis, dysplasia).


Answers to Exercises A 1. before, forward 2. away from 3. up, apart 4. against 5. no, not, without 6. toward 7. self, own 8. down 9. slow 10. against, opposite 11. two 12. together, with B 1. anteflexion 2. adductor 3. antepartum 4. bradycardia 5. adrenal 6. apnea 7. contralateral


8. antisepsis 9. analysis 10. bilateral 11. anoxia 12. congenital anomaly C 1. antibiotic 2. catabolism 3. contraindication 4. autoimmune disease 5. antigen 6. antitoxin 7. anabolism 8. antibody D 1. out, outside 2. abnormal, bad, difficult, painful. HINT: Think of the word dysfunctional. 3. down, lack of 4. through, complete 5. half 6. deficient, under 7. upon, on, above


8. excessive, above, beyond 9. in, within 10. good, well 11. in, not 12. between 13. within 14. below, inferior 15. large 16. small E 1. euthyroid 2. dyspnea 3. ectopic 4. endoscope 5. hemiglossectomy 6. euphoria 7. endotracheal 8. hypoglycemia 9. macrocephaly 10. intercostal 11. intravenous 12. dysplasia 13. hyperplasia


14. endocardium 15. infracostal 16. hyperglycemia 17. dystrophy 18. microcephaly F 1. malaise 2. insomnia 3. dehydration 4. metastasis 5. microscope 6. incision 7. exophthalmos (proptosis) 8. metamorphosis 9. diarrhea 10. pancytopenia 11. dialysis 12. malignant G 1. bad 2. all 3. through 4. change, beyond


5. near, beside, abnormal 6. surrounding 7. many, much 8. after, behind 9. before, forward 10. before, in front of 11. under 12. above 13. back, again 14. behind, backward 15. fast 16. together, with 17. one 18. across, through 19. new 20. above, upon, on H 1. pericardium—membrane surrounding the heart 2. percutaneous—pertaining to through the skin 3. retroperitoneal—pertaining to behind the peritoneum 4. suprapubic—above the pubic bone 5. polyneuritis—inflammation of many nerves 6. retroflexion—bending backward


7. transurethral—pertaining to through the urethra 8. subcutaneous—pertaining to below the skin 9. tachypnea—rapid, fast breathing 10. unilateral—pertaining to one side 11. prosthesis—artificial limb or part of the body (literally, to put or place forward) 12. bilateral—both sides 13. symptom—subjective change of condition as observed by a patient 14. syndrome—group of objective findings that characterize an abnormal condition I 1. relapse 2. paralysis 3. syndactyly 4. parathyroid 5. adrenal 6. prodrome 7. recombinant DNA 8. prolapse 9. neoplasm 10. ultrasonography 11. syndrome 12. remission


J 1. neonatal 2. postmortem 3. metastasis 4. bifurcation 5. hypertrophy 6. antibiotic 7. metacarpals 8. antibody 9. syndrome 10. epithelium K 1. contraindication 2. antibiotics 3. insomnia 4. pubic symphysis 5. hypoglycemia 6. prodromal 7. dehydration 8. urologist; hyperplasia; transurethral 9. hypoglycemia 10. contraindicated 11. antisepsis


12. precancerous 13. atrophy 14. dysplasia Answers to Practical Applications 1. C 2. A 3. B 4. B 5. B Pronunciation of Terms

The terms you have learned in this chapter are presented here with their pronunciations. The CAPITAL le ers indicate the accented syllable. The meanings for all the terms are in the Mini-Dictionary beginning on page 897. You can also hear each term pronounced on the Evolve website (h p://


TERM abductor abnormal adductor adrenal glands anabolism analysis anoxia ante cibum (a.c.) anteflexion antepartum antibiotic antibody antigen antisepsis antitoxin apnea autoimmune disease benign bifurcation bilateral bradycardia catabolism congenital anomaly connective tissue contraindication contralateral dehydration dialysis diameter diarrhea dysentery dysplasia dyspnea dystrophy ectopic pregnancy endocardium endoscope endotracheal epithelium euphoria euthyroid exophthalmos hemiglossectomy hyperglycemia hyperplasia hypertension hypertrophy hypodermic injection hypoglycemia incision infracostal insomniac

PRONUNCIATION ab-DUK-tor ab-NOR-mal ah-DUK-tor ah-DRE-nal glanz ah-NAB-o-liz-im ah-NAL-ih-sis ah-NOK-se-ah AN-te SE-bum an-te-FLEK-shun an-te-PAR-tum an-tih-bi-OT-ik AN-tih-bod-e AN-tih-jen an-tih-SEP-sus an-tih-TOX-in AP-ne-ah aw-to-ih-MUNE dih-ZEEZ beh-NINE bi-fur-KA-shun bi-LAT-er-al bra-de-KAR-de-ah kah-TAB-o-liz-im con-JEN-ih-al ah-NOM-ah-le kon-NEK-tiv TIH-shu kon-trah-in-dih-KA-shun kon-trah-LAT-er-al de-hi-DRA-shun di-AL-ih-sis di-AM-eh-ter di-ah-RE-ah DIS-en-ter-e dis-PLA-ze-ah DISP-ne-ah DIS-tro-fe ek-TOP-ik PREG-nan-se en-do-KAR-de-um EN-do-skope en-do-TRA-ke-al ep-ih-THE-le-um u-FOR-e-ah u-THI-royd ek-sof-THAL-mos hem-e-glos-SEK-to-me hi-per-gli-SE-me-ah hi-per-PLA-ze-ah hi-per-TEN-shun hi-PER-tro-fe hi-po-DER-mik in-JEK-shun hi-po-gli-SE-me-ah in-SIZH-un in-frah-KOS-tal in-SOM-ne-ak


TERM intercostal intravenous macrocephaly malaise malignant metacarpal bones metamorphosis metastasis microcephaly microscope neonatal neoplasm pancytopenia paralysis parathyroid glands percutaneous pericardium polymorphonuclear polyneuritis postmortem postpartum precancerous prenatal prodrome prolapse prosthesis recombinant DNA relapse remission retroflexion retroperitoneal subcutaneous suprapubic symbiosis symmetry symphysis symptom syndactyly syndrome synthesis tachypnea transfusion transurethral ultrasonography unilateral

PRONUNCIATION in-ter-KOS-tal in-trah-VE-nus mak-ro-SEH-fah-le mal-AYZ mah-LIG-nant met-ah-KAR-pal bones met-ah-MOR-fuh-sis meh-TAS-tah-sis mi-kro-SEH-fah-le MI-kro-skope ne-o-NA-tal NE-o-plazm pan-si-to-PE-ne-ah pah-RAL-ih-sis par-ah-THI-royd glanz per-ku-TA-ne-us peh-rih-KAR-de-um pol-e-mor-fo-NU-kle-ar pol-e-nu-RI-tis post-MOR-tem post-PAR-tum pre-KAN-ser-us pre-NA-tal PRO-drohm PRO-laps pros-THE-sis re-KOM-bih-nant DNA RE-laps re-MIH-shun reh-tro-FLEK-shun reh-tro-peh-rih-to-NE-al sub-ku-TA-ne-us su-prah-PU-bik sim-be-O-sis SIM-met-re SIM-fih-sis SIMP-tum sin-DAK-tih-le SIN-drohm SIN-theh-sis tah-KIP-ne-ah tranz-FU-zhun tranz-u-RE-thral ul-trah-so-NOG-rah-fe u-nih-LAT-er-al

Review Sheet


Write the meanings of each word part in the space provided, and test yourself. Check your answers with the information in the chapter or in the Glossary (Medical Word Parts—English) at the end of the book.



PREFIX a-, anabadanaanteantiautobibradycataconcontradediadysecen-, endoepieuexhemihyperhypoininfrainterintramacromalmetamicroneopanparaperperipolypostpreproprosreretrosubsuprasyn-, symtachytransultrauni-

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________


Prefixes with Similar Meanings PREFIX a-, an-, inante-, pre-, proanti-, contracon-, syn-, symde-, catadia-, per-, transdys-, malec-, ecto-, exendo-, in-, intraepi-, hyper-, suprahypo-, infra-, subre-, retro-, postultra-, meta-

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Combining Forms COMBINING FORM carp/o cost/o cutane/o dactyl/o duct/o flex/o gloss/o glyc/o immun/o later/o morph/o mort/o nat/i necr/o norm/o ophthalm/o ox/o pub/o ren/o seps/o somn/o son/o tens/o the/o thyr/o top/o tox/o trache/o urethr/o ven/o

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________


Suffixes SUFFIX -crine -drome -fusion -gen -lapse -lysis -meter -mission -or -partum -phoria -physis -plasia -plasm -pnea -ptom -ptosis -rrhea -stasis -trophy

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________




Digestive System CHAPTER SECTIONS: Introduction 132 Anatomy and Physiology 132 Vocabulary 142 Terminology 145 Pathology of the Digestive System 151 In Person: Living with Crohn's 162 Exercises 163 Answers to Exercises 171 Pronunciation of Terms 173

CHAPTER GOALS • Name the organs of the digestive system and describe their locations and functions. • Define combining forms for organs and know the meaning of related terminology. • Describe signs, symptoms, and disease conditions affecting the digestive system.



Introduction The digestive system is divided between Chapters 5 and 6. Chapter 5 covers the anatomy, physiology, pathology, and basic terminology of the system. Chapter 6 introduces additional terminology and a review of digestive system terms, plus laboratory tests, clinical procedures, and abbreviations. My reason for not combining the chapters is that I did not want to overwhelm you with an extraordinarily long chapter so early in your study. In my own teaching, I find that my students are grateful for this separation, and especially for the breather and review of terminology in Chapter 6. My choice to begin with the digestive system is based on a perception that this body system (resembling a long conveyor belt with the mouth at the entrance and anus at the exit) is one of the more straightforward and easiest to understand. Keep in mind, however, that the book is organized so that you may begin study of the body systems with any chapter to create the order that best reflects your interests. The digestive or gastrointestinal tract begins with the mouth, where food enters, and ends with the anus, where solid waste material leaves the body. The four functions of the system are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination. First, complex food material taken into the mouth is ingested. Second, it is digested, or broken down, mechanically and chemically as it travels through the gastrointestinal tract. Digestive enzymes speed up chemical reactions and aid the breakdown (digestion) of complex nutrients. Complex proteins are digested to simpler amino acids; complicated sugars are reduced to simple sugars, such as glucose; and large fat molecules (triglycerides) are broken down to simpler substances such as fa y acids. Digestion occurs in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine. Third, through absorption, nutrients from digested food pass through the lining cells or epithelium of the small intestine and into the bloodstream. Nutrients then travel to all cells of the body. Cells then break down nutrients in the presence of oxygen to release energy. Cells also use amino acid nutrients to build up large protein molecules needed for growth and development. In addition, fat molecules are absorbed into lymphatic vessels from the intestine. The fourth function of the digestive system is elimination of the solid waste materials that cannot be absorbed into the bloodstream. The large intestine concentrates these solid wastes, called feces, and the wastes finally pass out of the body through the anus.


Anatomy and Physiology Oral Cavity The gastrointestinal tract begins with the oral cavity. Oral means pertaining to the mouth (or/o). Label Figure 5-1 as you learn the major parts of the oral cavity.

FIGURE 5-1 Oral cavity.

The cheeks [1] form the walls of the oval-shaped oral cavity, and the lips [2] surround the opening to the cavity. The hard palate [3] forms the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth, and the muscular soft palate [4] lies posterior to it. Rugae are irregular ridges in the mucous membrane covering the anterior portion of the hard palate. The uvula [5], a small soft tissue projection, hangs from the soft palate. It aids production of sounds and speech. The tongue [6] extends across the floor of the oral cavity, and muscles a ach it to the lower jawbone. It moves food around during mastication (chewing) and deglutition (swallowing). Papillae, small raised areas on the tongue, contain taste buds that are sensitive to the chemical nature of foods and allow discrimination of different tastes as food moves across the tongue.


The tonsils [7], masses of lymphatic tissue located in depressions of the mucous membranes, lie on both sides of the oropharynx (part of the throat near the mouth). They are filters to protect the body from the invasion of microorganisms and produce lymphocytes, disease-fighting white blood cells. The gums [8] are the fleshy tissue surrounding the sockets of the teeth [9]. Figure 5-2 shows a dental arch with 16 permanent teeth (there are 32 permanent teeth in the entire oral cavity). The names of the teeth are labeled in Figure 5-2.

FIGURE 5-2 Upper permanent teeth within the dental arch. The buccal surface faces the cheek, whereas the lingual surface faces the tongue. The labial surface faces the lips. Dentists refer to the labial and buccal surfaces as the facial (faci/o = face) surface.

Figure 5-3 shows the inner anatomy of a tooth. Label it as you read the following description:


FIGURE 5-3 Anatomy of a tooth.

A tooth consists of a crown [1], which shows above the gum line, and a root [2], which lies within the bony tooth socket. The outermost layer of the crown, the enamel [3], protects the tooth. It is the hardest tissue in the human body. Dentin [4], the main substance of the tooth, lies beneath the enamel and extends throughout the crown. Dentin's color ranges from creamy white to yellow, and it affects the color of teeth because enamel is translucent. The cementum covers, protects, and supports the dentin in the root. A periodontal membrane surrounds the cementum and holds the tooth in place in the tooth socket. The pulp [5] lies underneath the dentin. This soft and delicate tissue fills the center of the tooth. Blood vessels, nerve endings, connective tissue, and lymphatic vessels are within the pulp canal (also called the root canal). Root canal therapy often is necessary when disease or abscess (pus collection) occurs in the pulp canal. A dentist opens the tooth from above and cleans the canal of infected tissue, nerves, and blood vessels. The canal is then disinfected and filled with material to prevent the entrance of microorganisms that could cause decay. Three pairs of salivary glands (Figure 5-4) surround and empty into the oral cavity. These exocrine glands produce saliva, which lubricates the mouth. Saliva contains important digestive enzymes as well as healing growth factors such as cytokines. Saliva is released from a parotid gland [1], submandibular gland [2], and sublingual gland [3] on both sides of the mouth. Narrow ducts carry saliva into the oral cavity. The glands produce about 1.5 liters of saliva daily.


FIGURE 5-4 Salivary glands.

Pharynx Refer to Figure 5-5. The pharynx or throat is a muscular tube, about 5 inches long, lined with a mucous membrane. It serves as a passageway both for air traveling from the nose (nasal cavity) to the windpipe (trachea) and for food traveling from the oral cavity to the esophagus. When swallowing (deglutition) occurs, a cartilaginous flap of tissue, the epiglo is, covers the trachea so that food cannot enter and become lodged there. See Figure 5-5A and B.


FIGURE 5-5 Deglutition (swallowing). A, Epiglottis closes over the trachea as the bolus of food passes down the pharynx toward the esophagus. B, Epiglottis opens as the bolus moves down the esophagus.

Your Mother Was Right! Don’t Talk While You’re Eating! Talking while eating causes the epiglo is to open, so food can accidentally enter the trachea, causing you to choke.

Figure 5-6 shows the passageway for food as it travels from the esophagus through the gastrointestinal tract. Label it as you read the following paragraphs.


FIGURE 5-6 The gastrointestinal tract.

Esophagus The esophagus [1] is a 9- to 10-inch fibromuscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach. Peristalsis is the involuntary, progressive, rhythmic contraction of muscles in the wall of the esophagus (and other gastrointestinal organs), propelling a bolus (mass of food) down toward the stomach. The process is like squeezing a marble through a rubber tube.


Stomach Food passes from the esophagus into the stomach [2]. The stomach (Figure 5-7) has three main parts: fundus (upper portion), body (middle section), and antrum (lower portion). Rings of muscle called sphincters control the openings into and leading out of the stomach. They prevent food from regurgitating (flowing backward from the normal direction). The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxes and contracts to move food from the esophagus into the stomach. The pyloric sphincter allows food to leave the stomach and enter the small intestine when it is ready. Folds in the mucous membrane (mucosa) lining the stomach are called rugae. The rugae increase surface area for digestion and contain glands that produce the enzyme pepsin to begin digestion of proteins. Hydrochloric acid also is secreted to digest protein and kill any bacteria remaining in food.

FIGURE 5-7 Parts of the stomach. The fundus and body (often referred to collectively as the fundus) are a reservoir for ingested food and an area for action by acid and pepsin (gastric enzyme). The antrum is a muscular grinding chamber that breaks up food and feeds it gradually into the duodenum.

The stomach prepares food for the small intestine, where further digestion and absorption into the bloodstream take place. Food leaves


the stomach in 1 to 4 hours or longer, depending on the amount and type of food eaten.

Small Intestine (Small Bowel) (Continue labeling Figure 5-6 on page 136.) The small intestine (small bowel) extends for 20 feet from the pyloric sphincter to the first part of the large intestine. It has three parts. The first section, the duodenum [3], is only 1 foot long. It receives food from the stomach as well as bile from the liver [4] and gallbladder [5] and pancreatic juices from the pancreas [6]. Enzymes and bile help digest food before it passes into the second part of the small intestine, the jejunum [7], about 8 feet long. The jejunum connects with the third section, the ileum [8], about 11 feet long. The ileum a aches to the first part of the large intestine. Millions of tiny, microscopic projections called villi line the walls of the small intestine. The tiny capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) in the villi absorb the digested nutrients into the bloodstream and lymph vessels. Figure 5-8 shows several different views of villi in the lining of the small intestine.


FIGURE 5-8 Villi in the lining of the small intestine. Villi increase the surface area for absorption of nutrients.

Large Intestine (Large Bowel) (Continue labeling Figure 5-6 on page 136.) The large intestine extends from the end of the ileum to the anus. It has three main components: the cecum, the colon, and the rectum. The cecum [9] is a pouch on the right side that connects to the ileum at the ileocecal valve (sphincter). The appendix [10] hangs from the cecum. The appendix has no clear function and can become inflamed and infected when clogged or blocked. The colon, about 5 feet long, has four named segments: ascending, descending, transverse, and sigmoid. The ascending colon [11] extends from the cecum to the undersurface of the liver, where it turns to the left (hepatic flexure) to become the transverse colon [12]. The transverse colon passes horizontally to the left toward the spleen and then turns downward (splenic flexure) into the descending colon [13]. The sigmoid colon [14], shaped like an S (sigmoid means resembling the Greek le er sigma, which curves like the le er S), begins at the distal end of the descending colon and leads


into the rectum [15]. The rectum terminates in the lower opening of the gastrointestinal tract, the anus [16]. The large intestine receives the fluid waste products of digestion (the material unable to pass into the bloodstream) and stores these wastes until they can be released from the body. Because the large intestine absorbs most of the water within the waste material, the body can expel solid feces (stools). Defecation is the expulsion or passage of feces from the body through the anus. Diarrhea, or passage of watery stools, results from reduced water absorption into the bloodstream through the walls of the large intestine.

Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Three important additional organs of the digestive system—the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas—play crucial roles in the proper digestion and absorption of nutrients. Label Figure 5-9 as you study the following:

FIGURE 5-9 Liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The ampulla of Vater is at the junction of the pancreatic duct and common bile duct entering the duodenum.

The liver [1], located in the right upper quadrant (RUQ) of the abdomen, manufactures a thick, orange-black, sometimes greenish, fluid called bile. Bile contains cholesterol (a fa y substance), bile acids, and several bile pigments. One of these pigments, bilirubin, is produced from the breakdown of hemoglobin during normal red blood


cell destruction. Bilirubin travels via the bloodstream to the liver, where it is conjugated or converted into a water-soluble form. Conjugated bilirubin is then added to bile and enters the intestine (duodenum). Bacteria in the colon degrade bilirubin into a variety of pigments that give feces a brownish color. Bilirubin and bile leave the body in feces. If the bile duct is blocked or the liver damaged and unable to excrete bilirubin into bile, the bilirubin remains in the bloodstream, causing jaundice (hyperbilirubinemia)—yellow discoloration of the skin, whites of the eyes, and mucous membranes. In addition, stools may turn lighter in color because of less bilirubin and bile excreted into the gastrointestinal tract. Figure 5-10 reviews the path of bilirubin from red blood cell destruction (hemolysis) to elimination with bile in the feces.


FIGURE 5-10 Bilirubin pathway from bloodstream to elimination in feces. Increased blood levels of unconjugated bilirubin indicate ongoing hemolysis (red blood cell destruction). Increased blood levels of conjugated bilirubin indicate obstruction of bile ducts. Both types of bilirubin are elevated in the blood of patients with liver disease.

(Continue labeling Figure 5-9.) The liver continuously releases bile, which then travels through the hepatic duct and meets the cystic duct. The cystic duct leads to the gallbladder [2], a pear-shaped sac under the liver, which stores and concentrates the bile for later use. After meals, in response to the presence of food in the stomach and duodenum, the gallbladder contracts, forcing the bile out the cystic duct into the common bile duct [3]. Meanwhile, the pancreas [4] secretes pancreatic juices (enzymes) that are released into the pancreatic duct, which joins with the common bile duct just as it enters the duodenum [5]. The duodenum thus receives a mixture of bile and pancreatic juices. Bile has a detergent-like effect on fats in the duodenum. In the process of emulsification, bile breaks apart large fat globules, creating more surface area so that enzymes from the pancreas can digest the fats.


y p g Without bile, most of the fat taken into the body remains undigested, and stools may appear fa y. Besides producing bile, the liver has several other vital and important functions:

• Maintaining normal blood glucose (sugar) levels. The liver removes excess glucose from the bloodstream and stores it as glycogen (starch) in liver cells. When the blood sugar level becomes dangerously low, the liver converts stored glycogen back into glucose via a process called glycogenolysis. In addition, when the body needs sugar, the liver can convert proteins and fats into glucose, by a process called gluconeogenesis. • Manufacturing blood proteins, such as albumin and those necessary for blood clo ing • Releasing bilirubin, a pigment in bile • Clearing drugs and poisons (toxins) from the blood The portal vein brings blood to the liver from the intestines. Nutrients from digested foods pass into the portal vein directly after being absorbed into the capillaries of the small intestine, thus giving the liver the first chance to use the nutrients. The pancreas (Figure 5-11) is both an exocrine and an endocrine organ. As an exocrine gland, it produces enzymes to digest starch, such as amylase (amyl/o = starch, -ase = enzyme); to digest fat, such as lipase (lip/o = fat); and to digest proteins, such as protease (prote/o = protein). These pass into the duodenum through the pancreatic duct.


FIGURE 5-11 The pancreas and its functions.

As an endocrine gland (secreting into the bloodstream), the pancreas secretes insulin. This hormone, needed to help release sugar from the blood, acts as a carrier to bring glucose into cells of the body to be used for energy. Figure 5-12 is a flow chart that traces the pathway of food through the gastrointestinal tract.


FIGURE 5-12 Pathway of food through the gastrointestinal tract.


The following list reviews many of the terms introduced in this chapter. Short definitions and additional information reinforce your


understanding of the terms. All of the terms are included in the Pronunciation of Terms section later in the chapter.



Passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream. amino acids Small building blocks of proteins, released when proteins are digested. amylase Enzyme (-ase) secreted by the pancreas and salivary glands to digest starch (amyl/o). anus Terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body. appendix Blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the right lower quadrant [RLQ]). It literally means hanging (pend/o) onto (ap-, which is a form of ad-). bile Digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It breaks up (emulsifies) large fat globules. Bile originally was called gall (Latin bilis, meaning gall or anger), probably because it has a bi er taste. It is composed of bile pigments (colored materials), cholesterol, and bile salts. bilirubin Pigment released by the liver in bile. bowel Intestine. canine teeth Pointed, dog-like teeth (canine means pertaining to dog) next to the incisors. Also called cuspids or eyeteeth. cecum First part of the large intestine. colon Portion of the large intestine consisting of the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments. common bile Carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. Also called duct the choledochus. defecation Elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus. deglutition Swallowing. HINT: pronunciation is de-glu-TISH-un. dentin Primary material found in teeth. It is covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root. digestion Breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms. duodenum First part of the small intestine. Duo = 2, den = 10; the duodenum measures 12 inches long. elimination Removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials as feces. emulsification Breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules. This increases the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat. enamel Hard, outermost layer of a tooth. enzyme Chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances. Digestive enzymes break down complex foods to simpler substances. Enzymes are given names that end in -ase. esophagus Tube connecting the throat to the stomach. Eso- means inward; phag/o means swallowing. fa y acids Substances produced when fats are digested. feces Solid wastes; stool. The term fecal means pertaining to feces. gallbladder Small sac under the liver; stores bile. HINT: gallbladder is one word! glucose Simple sugar. glycogen Starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells. hydrochloric Substance (strong acid) produced in the stomach; aids digestion. acid ileum Third part of the small intestine from the Greek eilos, meaning twisted. When the abdomen was viewed at autopsy, the intestine appeared twisted, and the ileum often was an area of obstruction. incisor Any one of four front teeth in the dental arch. insulin Hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. It helps transport sugar into body cells. jejunum Second part of the small intestine. The Latin jejunus means empty; this part of the intestine was always empty when a body was examined after death. HINT: pronunciation is jeh-JU-num.


lipase liver

lower esophageal sphincter (LES) mastication molar teeth

Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats. Large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. The liver secretes bile; stores sugar, iron, and vitamins; produces blood proteins; destroys wornout red blood cells; and filters out toxins. The normal adult liver weighs about to 3 pounds. Ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. Also called cardiac sphincter.

Chewing. Three large, flat teeth at the back of the mouth, on either side of the dental arch. Premolar teeth are two teeth, before the molars. palate Roof of the mouth. The hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate and is supported by the upper jawbone (maxilla). The soft palate is the posterior fleshy part between the mouth and the throat. pancreas Organ behind the stomach; produces insulin (for transport of sugar into cells) and enzymes (for digestion of foods). papillae Small projections on the tongue. Taste buds (taste receptor cells) are located within the papillae (pap-IL-e). parotid gland Salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear. Note the literal meaning of parotid (par- = near; ot/o = ear). peristalsis Rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs. In the gastrointestinal tract, peristalsis moves the contents through at different rates: stomach, 0.5 to 2 hours; small intestine, 2 to 6 hours; and colon, 6 to 72 hours. Peri- means surrounding; -stalsis is constriction. HINT: pronunciation is peh-rihSTAL-sis. pharynx Throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose. portal vein Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines. protease Enzyme that digests protein. pulp Soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels. pyloric Ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum. From the sphincter Greek pyloros, meaning gatekeeper. It is normally closed, but opens when a wave of peristalsis passes over it. pylorus Distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum. rectum Last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus. rugae Ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach. HINT: pronunciation is RU-guy. saliva Digestive juice produced by salivary glands. Saliva contains the enzyme amylase, which begins the digestion of starch to sugar. salivary Parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands. glands sigmoid colon Lower, S-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum. sphincter Circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening. stomach Muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus. The stomach's parts are the fundus (proximal section), body (middle section), and antrum (distal section). triglycerides Fat molecules composed of three parts fa y acids and one part glycerol. Triglycerides (fats) are a subgroup of lipids. Another type of lipid is cholesterol. uvula Soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate. The Latin uva means bunch of grapes.


villi (singular: Microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb villus) nutrients into the bloodstream.

Portal Vein

Notice the relationship of the portal vein (also called hepatic portal vein) between the intestines and the liver (Figure 5-13). This vein is not a true vein because it doesn't conduct blood directly to the heart as do other veins. In liver disease, blood backs up into the portal vein, causing portal hypertension (high blood pressure) and esophageal varices. See page 155.

FIGURE 5-13 Portal vein and its relationship to the liver and small intestine.


Write the meaning of the medical term in the space provided. Check the Pronunciation of Terms on pages 173–176 for any unfamiliar words.

Parts of the Body


FIGURE 5-14 Stages of appendicitis. A, Obstruction and bacterial infection cause red, swollen, and inflamed appendix. B, Pus and bacteria invade the wall of the appendix. C, Pus perforates (ruptures through) the wall of the appendix into the abdomen, leading to peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum).

FIGURE 5-15 A. Locations of stomas in the ileum and colon. B. Colostomy care.

FIGURE 5-16 Three types of anastomoses. These are examples of an enteroenterostomy. The suffix -stomy, when used with two or more combining forms (enter/o and enter/o), indicates the surgical creation of a new opening between those parts of the body.


FIGURE 5-17 Mesentery. The omentum and mesocolon are parts of the mesentery. The omentum (raised in this figure) actually hangs down like an apron over the intestines. The mesentery contains blood and lymph vessels. The lymph nodes in the mesentery are important indicators in the spread of colon cancer (staging of colon cancer).


COMBINING MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING FORM an/o anus perianal _______________________________________ append/o appendix appendectomy _______________________________________ appendic/o appendicitis _______________________________________ See Figure 5-14. bucc/o cheek buccal mucosa _______________________________________ A mucosa is a mucous membrane lining cavities or canals that open to the outside of the body. cec/o cecum cecal _______________________________________ celi/o belly, celiac _______________________________________ abdomen Abdomin/o and lapar/o also mean abdomen. Celiac disease is damage to the lining of the small intestine, occurring as a reaction to eating gluten. cheil/o lip cheilosis _______________________________________ Labi/o also means lip. cholecyst/o gallbladder cholecystectomy _______________________________________ Chol/e = gall, bile. choledoch/o common choledochotomy _______________________________________ bile duct col/o colon colostomy _______________________________________ The suffix -stomy, when used with a combining form for an organ, means an opening to the outside of the body. A stoma is an opening between an organ and the surface of the body (Figure 5-15A and B). colon/o colon colonic _______________________________________ colonoscopy _______________________________________ dent/i tooth dentibuccal _______________________________________ Odont/o also means tooth. duoden/o duodenum duodenal _______________________________________ enter/o intestines, enterocolitis _______________________________________ usually HINT: When two combining forms for gastrointestinal small organs are in a term, the one for the organ closer to the mouth intestine appears first. enteroenterostomy _______________________________________ New opening between two previously unconnected parts of the small intestine. This is an anastomosis, which is any surgical connection between two parts, such as vessels, ducts, or bowel segments (ana = up, stom = opening, -sis = state of) (Figure 516). mesentery _______________________________________ Part of the double fold of peritoneum that stretches around the organs in the abdomen, the mesentery holds the organs in place. Literally, it lies in the middle (mes-) of the intestines, a membrane a aching the intestines to the muscle wall at the back of the abdomen (Figure 5-17). parenteral _______________________________________ Par (from para-) means apart from in this term. An intravenous line brings parenteral nutrition directly into the bloodstream, bypassing the intestinal tract (enteral nutrition). Parenteral injections may be subcutaneous or intramuscular as well.


COMBINING MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING FORM esophag/o esophagus esophageal _______________________________________ HINT:Changing the suffix from -al to -eal softens the final g (eh-sof-ah-JE-al). faci/o face facial _______________________________________ gastr/o stomach gastrostomy _______________________________________ gingiv/o gums gingivitis _______________________________________ gloss/o tongue hypoglossal _______________________________________ Lingu/o also means tongue. hepat/o liver hepatoma _______________________________________ Also called hepatocellular carcinoma. hepatomegaly _______________________________________ ile/o ileum ileocecal sphincter _______________________________________ Also called the ileocecal valve. ileitis _______________________________________ ileostomy _______________________________________ See Figure 5-15A, page 146. jejun/o jejunum choledochojejunostomy _______________________________________ An anastomosis. gastrojejunostomy _______________________________________ This is part of a gastric bypass procedure. See Figure 6-7B, page 187. labi/o lip labial _______________________________________ lapar/o abdomen laparoscopy _______________________________________ A form of minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Examples are laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Figure 5-28, page 160) and laparoscopic appendectomy. lingu/o tongue sublingual _______________________________________ mandibul/o lower jaw, submandibular _______________________________________ mandible odont/o tooth orthodontist _______________________________________ Orth/o means straight. periodontist _______________________________________ endodontist _______________________________________ Performs root canal therapy. or/o mouth oral _______________________________________ Stomat/o also means mouth. palat/o palate palatoplasty _______________________________________ Procedure to repair cleft palate and cleft lip; repair of a cleft palate. pancreat/o pancreas pancreatitis _______________________________________ peritone/o peritoneum peritonitis _______________________________________ The e of the root has been dropped in this term. pharyng/o throat pharyngeal _______________________________________ palatopharyngoplasty _______________________________________ Used to treat cases of snoring or sleep apnea caused by obstructions in the throat or nose.


COMBINING MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING FORM proct/o anus and proctologist _______________________________________ rectum pylor/o pyloric pyloroplasty _______________________________________ sphincter rect/o rectum rectocele _______________________________________ sialaden/o salivary sialadenitis _______________________________________ gland sigmoid/o sigmoid sigmoidoscopy _______________________________________ colon stomat/o mouth stomatitis _______________________________________ uvul/o uvula uvulectomy _______________________________________

Substances COMBINING MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING FORM amyl/o starch amylase _______________________________________ The suffix -ase means enzyme. bil/i gall, bile biliary _______________________________________ The biliary tract includes the organs (liver and gallbladder) and ducts (hepatic, cystic, and common bile ducts) that secrete, store, and empty bile into the duodenum. bilirubin/o bilirubin hyperbilirubinemia (bile _______________________________________ pigment) chol/e gall, bile cholelithiasis _______________________________________ Lith/o means stone or calculus; -iasis means abnormal condition. chlorhydr/o hydrochloric achlorhydria acid _______________________________________ Absence of gastric juice is associated with gastric carcinoma. gluc/o sugar gluconeogenesis _______________________________________ Liver cells make new sugar from fats and proteins. glyc/o sugar hyperglycemia _______________________________________ glycogen/o glycogen, glycogenolysis animal _______________________________________ starch Liver cells change glycogen back to glucose when blood sugar levels drop. lip/o fat, lipid lipoma _______________________________________ lith/o stone lithogenesis _______________________________________ prote/o protein protease _______________________________________ py/o pus pyorrhea _______________________________________ Periodontitis; an advanced stage of periodontal disease (gingivitis). sial/o saliva, sialolith _______________________________________ salivary steat/o fat steatorrhea _______________________________________ Improperly digested (malabsorbed) fats will appear in the feces.


Suffixes SUFFIX MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING -ase enzyme lipase ________________________________________ Enzymes speed up chemical reactions. Lipase aids in the digestion of fats. In all types of liver disease, liver enzyme levels may be elevated, indicating damage to liver cells. Signs and symptoms include malaise, anorexia, hepatomegaly, jaundice, and abdominal pain. -chezia defecation, hematochezia ________________________________________ elimination (he-mat-o-KE-ze-ah) Bright red blood is found in the feces. of wastes -iasis abnormal choledocholithiasis ________________________________________ condition meal postprandial ________________________________________ prandial Post cibum (p.c.), seen on wri en prescriptions, also means after meals.

Cholecyst/o and Cyst/o

Don't confuse cholecyst/o (gallbladder) with cyst/o, which is the urinary bladder.

Ileum and Ilium

Don't confuse the ileum, which is the third part of the small intestine, with the ilium, uppermost and largest part of the pelvis (hip bone).

Chol/e and Col/o

Don't confuse chol/e, which means gall or bile, with col/o, which indicates the colon! The context of the term will help you determine the correct spelling.

Pyorrhea and Pyuria

Pyorrhea is discharge (-rrhea) of pus from gums, and pyuria is presence of pus in urine (sign of a urinary tract infection).


Pathology of the Digestive System This section presents medical terms that describe signs and symptoms (clinical indications of illness) and pathologic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Sentences following each definition describe the etiology (eti/o = cause) of the illness and treatment. When the etiology (cause) is not understood, the condition is idiopathic (idi/o = unknown). You can find a list of drugs prescribed to treat gastrointestinal signs and symptoms and conditions in Chapter 21, Pharmacology.

Signs and Symptoms

A sign is an objective finding—such as an increase in body temperature, a rash, or a sound heard on listening to the chest— indicating the presence of disease as perceived by an examiner. By contrast, a symptom is a subjective sensation or change in health— such as itching, pain, fatigue, or nausea—as experienced by the patient. Clearly, the same feature may be noticed by both doctor and patient, which makes it at once both a sign and a symptom!

Signs and Symptoms


FIGURE 5-18 A. Ascites, or abnormal intraperitoneal fluid, can result from conditions such as liver disease, peritonitis, and ovarian cancer. B. Ascites in a male patient. The photograph was taken after paracentesis (puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen) was performed. Notice the gynecomastia (condition of female-type breasts) in this patient due to an excess of estrogen, which can accompany cirrhosis, especially in persons with alcoholism.


FIGURE 5-19 Jaundice due to liver disease.




borborygmi (singular: borborygmus) constipation



eructation flatus hematochezia jaundice (icterus)


Lack of appetite. Anorexia (-orexia = appetite) often is a sign of malignancy or liver disease. Anorexia nervosa is loss of appetite associated with emotional problems such as anger, anxiety, and irrational fear of weight gain. It is an eating disorder and is discussed along with a similar eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, in Chapter 22. Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen (Figure 5-18A and B). This condition occurs when fluid passes from the bloodstream and collects in the peritoneal cavity. It can be a sign of neoplasm or inflammatory disorders in the abdomen, venous hypertension (high blood pressure) caused by liver disease (cirrhosis), or heart failure. Treatment for ascites includes administration of diuretic drugs and paracentesis to remove abdominal fluid. Rumbling or gurgling noises produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestinal tract. Signs of hyperactive intestinal peristalsis, borborygmi (bowel sounds) often are present in cases of gastroenteritis and diarrhea. Difficulty in passing stools (feces). When peristalsis is slow, stools are dry and hard. A diet with plentiful fruits, vegetables, and water is helpful. Laxatives and cathartics are medications to promote movement of stools. Chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) is persistent constipation without an identifiable cause. Frequent passage of loose, watery stools. Abrupt onset of diarrhea immediately after eating suggests acute infection or toxin in the gastrointestinal tract. Untreated, severe diarrhea may lead to dehydration. Antidiarrheal drugs are helpful. Difficulty in swallowing. This sensation feels like a “lump in the throat” when a swallowed bolus fails to progress, either because of a physical obstruction (obstructive dysphagia) or because of a motor disorder in which esophageal peristalsis is not coordinated (motor dysphagia). Gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth. Eructation produces a characteristic sound and also is called belching (burping). Gas expelled through the anus. Flatulence is the presence of excessive gas in the stomach and the intestines. One sign of a bowel obstruction is the inability to pass flatus. Passage of fresh, bright red blood from the rectum. The cause of hematochezia is usually hemorrhoids, but can also be colitis, ulcers, polyps, or cancer. Yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood (hyperbilirubinemia). See Figure 5-19. Jaundice can occur when (1) excessive destruction of erythrocytes, as in hemolysis, causes excess bilirubin in the blood; (2) malfunction of liver cells (hepatocytes) due to liver disease prevents the liver from excreting bilirubin with bile; or (3) obstruction of bile flow, such as from choledocholithiasis or tumor, prevents bilirubin in bile from being excreted into the duodenum. Black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood. This clinical sign usually reflects a condition in which blood has had time to be digested (acted on by intestinal juices) and results from




bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract (duodenal ulcer). A positive result on stool guaiac testing (see page 183) indicates blood in the stool. Unpleasant sensation in the stomach with a tendency to vomit. Common causes are motion sickness, early pregnancy, and viral gastroenteritis. Nausea and vomiting may be symptomatic of a perforation (hole in the wall) of an abdominal organ; obstruction of a bile duct, stomach, or intestine; or exposure to poisons. Fat in the feces. Steatorrhea is production of frothy, foul-smelling fecal ma er that often floats in the toilet. Improper digestion or absorption of fat causes fat to remain in the intestine. This may occur with disease of the pancreas (pancreatitis) when pancreatic enzymes are not excreted. It also is a sign of intestinal disease that involves malabsorption of fat.


Pathologic Conditions Oral Cavity and Teeth

FIGURE 5-20 Normal teeth and gums and pathologic conditions. A, Normal teeth and gums. B, Aphthous stomatitis. C, Dental caries. D, Herpetic stomatitis. E, Oral leukoplakia. F, Gingivitis.


aphthous stomatitis dental caries

herpetic stomatitis

oral leukoplakia periodontal disease

Inflammation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers. The ulcers associated with this condition are commonly called canker (KANK-er) sores; the cause is unknown (Figure 5-20B). Tooth decay. Dental plaque results from the accumulation of foods, proteins from saliva, and necrotic debris on the tooth enamel. Bacteria grow in the plaque and cause production of acid that dissolves the tooth enamel, resulting in a cavity (area of decay) (Figure 5-20C). If the bacterial infection reaches the pulp of the tooth, root canal therapy may be necessary. Inflammation of the mouth caused by infection with the herpesvirus. Painful fluid-filled blisters on the lips, palate, gums, and tongue, commonly called fever blisters or cold sores (Figure 5-20D). It is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1). Herpes genitalis (due to HSV2) involves the reproductive organs. Both conditions are highly contagious. White plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth. This precancerous lesion (Figure 5-20E) can result from chronic tobacco use (pipe smoking or chewing tobacco). Malignant potential is assessed by microscopic study of biopsied tissue. Inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone. Gingivitis (Figure 5-20F) occurs as a result of accumulation of dental plaque and dental calculus or tartar (a yellow-brown calcified deposit on teeth). In gingivectomy, the periodontist uses a metal instrument to scrape away plaque and tartar from teeth; any pockets of pus (pyorrhea) are then drained and removed to allow new tissue to form. Localized infections are treated with systemic antibiotics.

Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

FIGURE 5-21 A, Esophageal varices. B, Endoscopic view of esophageal varices.


FIGURE 5-22 Hernias. A, Hiatal hernia. B, Inguinal hernias. A direct inguinal hernia occurs through the abdominal wall in an area of muscular weakness. An indirect inguinal hernia occurs through the inguinal canal (passageway in the lower abdomen), where the herniated tissue/bowel descends into the scrotal sac.



esophageal cancer

esophageal varices

gastric cancer

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)


peptic ulcer

Failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) muscle to relax. Achalasia (-chalasia = relaxation) results from the loss of peristalsis so that food cannot pass easily through the esophagus. Both failure of the LES to relax and the loss of peristalsis cause dilatation (widening) of the esophagus above the constriction. Physicians recommend a bland diet low in bulk and mechanical stretching of the LES to relieve symptoms. Malignant tumor of the esophagus. The most common symptom of esophageal cancer is difficulty swallowing (dysphagia). Smoking and chronic alcohol use are major risk factors. Long-term irritation of the esophagus caused by gastric reflux is a premalignant condition called Barre esophagus. Surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy are treatment options. Swollen varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus (Figure 5-21). Liver disease (such as cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis) causes increased pressure in veins near and around the liver (portal hypertension). This leads to enlarged, tortuous esophageal veins with danger of hemorrhage (bleeding). Treatment may include banding (tying off the swollen esophageal veins) or sclerotherapy (injecting veins with a solution that closes them). Drug therapy to lower portal hypertension can be used to decrease the risk of variceal bleeding. Malignant tumor of the stomach. Smoking, alcohol use, and chronic gastritis associated with bacterial infection are major risk factors for gastric carcinoma. Gastric endoscopy and biopsy diagnose the condition. Cure depends on early detection and surgical removal. Solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach. Heartburn is a burning sensation caused by regurgitation of hydrochloric acid from the stomach to the esophagus. Chronic exposure of esophageal mucosa to gastric acid and pepsin (an enzyme that digests protein) leads to reflux esophagitis. Drug treatment for GERD includes antacid (acid-suppressive) agents and medication to increase the tone of the LES. Protrusion of an organ or part through the tissues and muscles normally containing it. A hiatal hernia occurs when the upper part of the stomach protrudes upward through the diaphragm (Figure 5-22A). This condition can lead to GERD. An inguinal hernia occurs when a small loop of bowel protrudes through a weak lower abdominal wall tissue (fascia) surrounding muscles (Figure 5-22B). Surgical repair of inguinal hernias is known as herniorrhaphy (-rrhaphy means suture). Open sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenum. A bacterium, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), is responsible for many cases of peptic ulcer disease. The combination of bacteria, hyperacidity, and gastric juice damages epithelial linings. Drug treatment includes antibiotics, antacids, and agents to protect the lining of the stomach and intestine.


Lower Gastrointestinal Tract (Small and Large Intestines)

FIGURE 5-23 Anal fistula and colonic polyps. A, Anal fistula and two types of polyps. B, Multiple polyps of the colon.

FIGURE 5-24 Adenocarcinoma of the colon. This tumor has “heaped-up” edges and an ulcerated central portion.


FIGURE 5-25 A, Diverticula (resulting in diverticulosis) form when the mucous membrane lining of the colon bulges through the weakened muscular wall. B and C, Diverticulitis can result when fecal material lodges in diverticula. Avoidance of foods with seeds and nuts decreases the risk of this condition.

FIGURE 5-26 Intussusception and volvulus.


anal fistula colonic polyps

colorectal cancer

Crohn disease (“Crohn's”)




ileus inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) intussusception

Abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus. The fistula often results from a break or fissure in the wall of the anus or rectum, or from an abscess (infected area) there (Figure 5-23A). Polyps (benign growths) protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon. Figure 5-23A illustrates two types of polyps: pedunculated (a ached to the membrane by a stalk) and sessile (si ing directly on the mucous membrane). Figure 5-23B shows multiple polyps of the colon. Many polyps are premalignant (adenomatous polyps); these growths often are removed (polypectomy) as a preventative measure and for further examination (biopsy). Adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum, or both. Colorectal cancer (Figure 5-24) can arise from polyps in the colon or rectal region. Diagnosis is determined by detecting blood in stool and by colonoscopy. Prognosis depends on the stage (extent of spread) of the tumor, including size, depth of invasion, and involvement of lymph nodes. Surgical treatment may require excision of a major section of colon with rejoining of the cut ends (anastomosis). Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are administered as needed. Chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract. Crohn's can occur anywhere from mouth to anus but most commonly in the ileum (ileitis) and colon. Signs and symptoms include diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, fever, anorexia, weakness, and weight loss. Both Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis are forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Treatment is with drugs that control inflammation and other symptoms or by surgical removal of diseased portions of the intestine, with anastomosis of remaining parts. Read the In Person: Living with Crohn's story on page 162. Abnormal outpouchings (diverticula) in the intestinal wall of the colon. See Figure 5-25A. Diverticulitis is a complication of diverticulosis. When fecal ma er becomes trapped in diverticula, diverticulitis can occur. Pain and rectal bleeding are symptoms. Figure 5-25B and C shows diverticulitis in a section through the sigmoid colon. Initial treatment for an a ack of diverticulitis includes a liquid diet and oral antibiotics. In severe cases, the patient may need hospitalization, intravenous antibiotics, and surgery to remove the affected area of the colon with anastomosis of the cut ends. Painful inflammation of the intestines commonly caused by bacterial infection. Often occurring in the colon, dysentery results from ingestion of food or water containing bacteria (salmonellae or shigellae), amebae (onecelled organisms), or viruses. Symptoms are bloody stools, abdominal pain, and sometimes fever. Swollen, twisted varicose veins in the rectal region. Varicose veins can be internal (within the rectum) or external (outside the anal sphincter). Pregnancy and chronic constipation, which put pressure on anal veins, often cause hemorrhoids. Loss of peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines. Surgery, trauma, or bacterial injury to the peritoneum can lead to a paralytic ileus (acute, transient loss of peristalsis). Inflammation of the colon and small intestine. See Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. Telescoping of the intestines.


irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

ulcerative colitis


In this condition, one segment of the bowel collapses into the opening of another segment (Figure 5-26). It often occurs in children and at the ileocecal region. Intestinal obstruction with pain and vomiting can occur. A barium enema can diagnose and may successfully reduce the intussusception. Otherwise, surgery to remove the affected segment of bowel (followed by anastomosis) may be necessary. Group of GI symptoms (abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation) without structural abnormalities in the intestines. IBS may be associated with stress or occur after infection. Treatment includes a diet high in bran and fiber and laxatives plus antidiarrheals to establish regular bowel movements. Other names for IBS are irritable colon and spastic colon. IBS is a type of functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID). These are disorders of how the gastrointestinal tract functions, but without structural or biochemical abnormalities. A diet low in FODMAPs (an acronym for carbohydrates that are poorly absorbed by the intestine) has been helpful in improving symptoms for many with IBS. Chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers. This idiopathic, chronic, recurrent diarrheal disease (an inflammatory bowel disease) manifests with rectal bleeding and pain. Often beginning in the colon, the inflammation spreads proximally, involving the entire colon. Drug treatment and careful a ention to diet are recommended. Resection of diseased bowel with ileostomy may be necessary. In some cases it is cured by total colectomy. Patients with ulcerative colitis are at a higher risk for developing colon cancer. Twisting of the intestine on itself. Volvulus causes intestinal obstruction. Severe pain, nausea and vomiting, and absence of bowel sounds are clinical features. Surgical correction is necessary to prevent necrosis of the affected segment of the bowel (see Figure 5-26).

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

While IBS is a condition with no structural abnormalities of the intestines, IBD (Crohn's and ulcerative colitis) involves structural abnormalities.

Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas


FIGURE 5-27 Gallstone positions in the gallbladder and bile ducts. A, Stone in the gallbladder causing mild or no symptoms. B, Stone obstructing the cystic duct, causing pain. C, Stone obstructing the common bile duct, causing pain and jaundice. D, Stone at the lower end of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct, causing pain, jaundice, and pancreatitis.


FIGURE 5-28 A, Trocars in place for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Trocars are used to puncture and enter the abdomen. These devices are metal sleeves consisting of a hollow metal tube (cannula) into which fits an obturator (a solid, removable metal instrument with a sharp, three-cornered tip) used to puncture the wall. Circled numbers show common positions for trocar insertion: 1 is an umbilical 10/11-mm trocar (the largest trocar diameter is 15). 2 is a 10/11-mm trocar at the midline. 3 and 4 are 5-mm trocars placed in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. B, Gallstones. Mechanical manipulation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy has caused fragmentation of several cholesterol gallstones, revealing interiors that are pigmented because of entrapped bile pigments. The gallbladder mucosa is reddened and irregular as a result.


FIGURE 5-29 A, Normal liver. B, Liver with alcoholic cirrhosis.




hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

pancreatic cancer


viral hepatitis

Gallstones in the gallbladder. Calculi (stones) prevent bile from leaving the gallbladder and bile ducts (Figure 5-27). Many patients remain asymptomatic and do not require treatment; symptoms related to gallbladder stones are either biliary colic (pain from blocked ducts) or cholecystitis (inflammation and infection of the gallbladder), both of which require treatment. Currently, laparoscopic or minimally invasive surgery (laparoscopic cholecystectomy) can be performed to remove the gallbladder and stones (Figure 5-28A and B). Chronic degenerative disease of the liver. Cirrhosis is commonly the result of chronic alcoholism, viral hepatitis, iron overload, or other causes. Lobes of the liver become scarred with fibrous tissue, hepatic cells degenerate, and the liver is infiltrated with fat. Cirrh/o means yellow-orange, which describes the liver's color caused by fat accumulation. Figure 5-29 shows a normal liver and a liver with alcoholic cirrhosis. Liver cancer. Cancer that starts in the liver is primary liver cancer (as opposed to secondary liver cancer, which starts in another organ and metastasizes to the liver). HCC is commonly associated with hepatitis B and C virus infections and cirrhosis due to chronic alcohol use. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is fa y infiltration of the liver, which may progress to cirrhosis and HCC. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are therapeutic options. Hepatocellular carcinomas produce alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a tumor marker that is often elevated in the blood in patients with this cancer. AFP is used as a screen for HCC in patients with cirrhosis. Liver cancers that begin in the bile ducts are called cholangiocarcinomas. Bile duct cancers also can arise from the gallbladder. Malignant tumor of the pancreas. It often occurs in the head of the pancreas (closer to the duodenum), where it can block ducts. Although the cause is unknown, pancreatic cancer is more common in smokers and people with diabetes and chronic pancreatitis. Symptoms and signs are abdominal or back pain, fatigue, jaundice, anorexia, diarrhea, and weight loss. The standard surgical treatment, if the tumor can be resected, is a pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure). Chemotherapy and radiation may also be used. Inflammation of the pancreas. Digestive enzymes a ack pancreatic tissue and damage the gland. Other etiologic factors include chronic alcoholism, drug toxicity, gallstone obstruction of the common bile duct, and viral infections. Treatment includes medications to relieve epigastric pain, intravenous fluids, bowel rest, and subtotal pancreatectomy if necessary. Inflammation of the liver caused by a virus. Hepatitis A is viral hepatitis caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). It is a disorder spread by contaminated food or water and characterized by slow onset of symptoms. Hepatitis B is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and is transmi ed by sexual contact, blood transfusions, or the use of contaminated needles or may be acquired by maternal to fetal transmission. Severe infection can cause destruction of liver cells, cirrhosis, or death. A vaccine that provides immunity is available and recommended for persons at risk for exposure. Hepatitis C is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and is transmi ed by blood transfusions


or needle inoculation (such as among intravenous drug users sharing needles). The acute illness may progress to chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Two drugs recently approved by the FDA for hepatitis C are Mavyret and Vosevi. In all types, liver enzyme levels may be elevated, indicating damage to liver cells. Signs and symptoms include malaise, anorexia, hepatomegaly, jaundice, and abdominal pain.

What's “in” Gallstones?

Gallstones are composed of cholesterol, bilirubin (pigment in bile), and calcium salts. They can vary in size and shape—ranging from as small as a grain of sand to as large as a golf ball!

Whipple Procedure for Pancreatic Cancer

This surgery consists of:

• removal of the distal half of the stomach (antrectomy) • removal of gallbladder and common bile duct (cholecystectomy and choledochectomy) • removal of part of the pancreas and duodenum (pancreatoduodenectomy) • reconstruction consists of pancreatojejunostomy, hepaticojejunostomy, and gastrojejunostomy Steve Jobs, cofounder of Apple Inc., and Luciano Pavaro i, opera singer, had this surgery.

In Person Living with Crohn's


When a friend told me she was sick with the flu yesterday, I was jealous. To someone with a chronic illness, like me, having something acute always seems luxurious. Lie in bed, read glossy magazines, take over-the-counter meds, sleep it off, and in a ma er of days you're okay. I have Crohn disease, a chronic inflammation of the small intestine, which is characterized by flare-ups and remission. During flare-ups, I've experienced fever, diarrhea, vomiting, pain, and intestinal obstruction. Even in remission I am never “okay.” Right now I have been in remission two years after a third surgery to remove yet another portion of my small bowel. This time internal bleeding, a rather rare symptom of Crohn's, necessitated the surgery. I was enduring weekly iron infusions, which turned into bimonthly blood transfusions, as my hemoglobin plummeted to 6 (12 is normal). It was no way to live. After the surgery, the bleeding stopped, but I had bouts of urgent, watery diarrhea for a year. That was no way to live either, and unfortunately, as wonderful as my doctor is, I've found that few gastroenterologists want to address aftereffects of small bowel surgery. After visiting several doctors and by trial and error, I finally got these symptoms under control with codeine, Lomotil, and Metamucil, but I will never be able to absorb vitamin B12, so I must inject it monthly for the rest of my life. In addition to taking medicine to cope with having less and less small bowel, I take medicine in the hopes of preventing the next flare-up. Every few weeks, I inject myself with a biologic medicine, Humira, but I must eventually be weaned off this drug because it has possible long-term side effects, the scariest of which is lymphoma. At 52 and with two school-age children, however, I have learned to think of valuing my present quality of life the most, over possible unknown dangers lurking in the future. I do often think about the past. What would my life be like if our family doctor hadn't told my parents that my constant episodes of diarrhea—which occurred since I was a child—were caused by “nerves?” By the time I was 21, my weight had dropped below 100 pounds, and I was twisted in pain after every meal. My dad arranged for me to visit his own doctor, who gave me a small bowel series that


showed I had Crohn's and that a portion of my small intestine was “as narrow as a pencil.” By then it was too late for even prednisone (then the drug of choice despite side effects ranging from puffy face to psychosis) to open up the inflamed passage, and I had my first surgery just months after I was diagnosed. Thinking of those times—as well as all the other flare-up times—makes me flinch. While you can never relive pain, you can remember what it felt like. In my case, it was as if a large metal bike lock chain was being forced through my tender gut. Before that first surgery, I was just out of college and longing to make my mark on the world, but I spent most of my evenings curled up in my small bedroom, listening to the soothing strains of “Make Believe Ballroom Hour” on the radio. Or, because vomiting and diarrhea usually accompanied the pain, I lay with my back pressed against the cold tiles of the bathroom floor. Later on, as a mom with two young children, I would lie on the couch watching life swirl around me, feeling guilty that I could not take part. There was a silver lining to those flare-ups, and that is the tender affection of those around me: husband, family, and friends. When you have Crohn's, no one knows you have it until things get unbearable. It's not the kind of illness you discuss, but when you have pain and fever, you can kind of approximate those times of being felled by the flu. Yet you know that it will take more than a dose of Nyquil or a night's sleep to get “be er.” You know you'll face another course of medications— often untried ones—or that you will likely end up in the hospital undergoing yet another surgery. Nancy J. Brandwein is a writer, editor, and food columnist.


Exercises Remember to check your answers carefully with the Answers to Exercises, pages 171–172.

A Match the following digestive system structures with their meanings below. anus cecum colon duodenum esophagus gallbladder ileum jejunum liver pancreas pharynx sigmoid colon 1. consists of ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid sections __________________________ 2. small sac under the liver; stores bile _________________ 3. first part of the large intestine _________________ 4. end of the digestive tract opening to the outside of the body _________________ 5. second part of the small intestine _________________ 6. tube connecting the throat to the stomach _________________ 7. third part of the small intestine _________________


p 8. large organ in the RUQ; secretes bile, stores sugar, produces blood proteins _________________ 9. throat _________________ 10. lowest part of the colon _________________ 11. first part of the small intestine _________________ 12. organ under the stomach; produces insulin and digestive enzymes _________________ B Label the following flow chart of the pathway of food through the gastrointestinal tract. The terms you will need are listed below: anus ascending colon cecum descending colon duodenum esophagus gallbladder ileum jejunum liver pancreas pharynx rectum salivary glands sigmoid colon stomach transverse colon


C Circle the bold term that fits the given definition. You should be able to define the other terms as well! 1. microscopic projections in the walls of the small intestine:


papillae villi rugae 2. salivary gland near the ear: submandibular sublingual parotid 3. ring of muscle at the end of the stomach: pyloric sphincter uvula lower esophageal sphincter 4. soft, inner section of a tooth: dentin enamel pulp 5. chemical that speeds up reactions and helps digest foods: triglyceride amino acid enzyme 6. pigment released with bile: glycogen bilirubin melena 7. hormone produced by endocrine cells of the pancreas: insulin amylase lipase 8. rhythm-like contraction of the muscles in the walls of the gastrointestinal tract: deglutition mastication peristalsis 9. breakdown of large fat globules: absorption emulsification anabolism 10. pointed, dog-like tooth medial to premolars: incisor canine molar D Complete the following. 1. Labi/o and cheil/o mean _____________________________________________ _________________ 2. Gloss/o and lingu/o mean _________________


3. Or/o and stomat/o mean _________________ 4. Dent/i and odont/o mean _________________ 5. Lapar/o and celi/o mean _________________ 6. Gluc/o and glyc/o mean _________________ 7. Lip/o, steat/o, and adip/o mean _________________ 8. The suffixes -iasis and -osis mean _________________ 9. Chol/e and bil/i mean _________________ 10. Resection and -ectomy mean _________________ E Build medical terms based on the given definitions. 1. removal of a salivary gland _____________________________________________ ______________ 2. pertaining to the throat _________________ 3. hernia of the rectum _________________ 4. enlargement of the liver _________________ 5. surgical repair of the roof of the mouth _________________ 6. after meals _________________ 7. visual examination of the anal and rectal region _________________ 8. study of the cause (of disease) _________________ 9. incision of the common bile duct _________________ 10. pertaining to teeth and cheek _________________ 11. disease condition of the small intestine _________________ 12. new opening between the common bile duct and the jejunum _________________


13. pertaining to surrounding the anus _________________ 14. new opening from the colon to the outside of the body _________________ 15. under the lower jaw _________________ 16. pertaining to the face _________________ F Match the following doctors or dentists with their specialties. colorectal surgeon endodontist gastroenterologist nephrologist oral surgeon orthodontist periodontist proctologist urologist 1. treats disorders of the anus and rectum ____________________________ 2. operates on the organs of the urinary tract _________________ 3. straightens teeth _________________ 4. performs root canal therapy _________________ 5. operates on the mouth and teeth _________________ 6. treats kidney disorders _________________ 7. diagnoses and treats gastrointestinal disorders _________________


8. treats gum disease _________________ 9. operates on the intestinal tract _________________ G Build medical terms to describe the following inflammations. 1. inflammation of the appendix _________________ 2. inflammation of the large intestine _________________ 3. inflammation of the passageway from the throat to the stomach _________________ 4. inflammation of the membrane surrounding the abdomen _________________ 5. inflammation of the gallbladder _________________ 6. inflammation of the third part of the small intestine _________________ 7. inflammation of the pancreas _________________ 8. inflammation of the gums _________________ 9. inflammation of the liver _________________ 10. inflammation of the mouth _________________ 11. inflammation of the salivary gland _________________ 12. inflammation of the small and large intestines _________________ H Match the listed terms with the meanings that follow. anastomosis biliary defecation cheilitis


gluconeogenesis glycogenolysis hyperbilirubinemia hyperglycemia mesentery mucosa parenteral portal vein 1. high level of blood sugar ______________________________ 2. inflammation of the lip _________________ 3. pertaining to administration of medicines and fluid other than by mouth _________________ 4. mucous membrane _________________ 5. expulsion of feces from the body through the anus _________________ 6. breakdown (conversion) of starch to sugar _________________ 7. fan-like membrane that connects the small intestine to the abdominal wall _________________ 8. large vessel that takes blood to the liver from the intestines _________________ 9. new surgical connection between structures or organs _________________ 10. pertaining to bile ducts _________________ 11. process of forming new sugar from proteins and fats _________________ 12. high levels of a bile pigment in the bloodstream _________________


I Give the names of the following gastrointestinal signs or symptoms based on their descriptions. 1. passage of bright red blood from the rectum ___________________________________ 2. lack of appetite _________________ 3. fat in the feces _________________ 4. black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood _________________ 5. abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen _________________ 6. rumbling noises produced by gas in the gastrointestinal tract _________________ 7. gas expelled through the anus _________________ 8. an unpleasant sensation in the stomach and a tendency to vomit _________________ 9. loose, watery stools _________________ 10. difficulty in passing stools (feces) _________________ 11. difficulty in swallowing _________________ 12. gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth _________________ J Write short answers for the following questions. 1. What is jaundice? _____________________________________________ _____________________ 2. List three ways in which a patient can become jaundiced: a. ___________________________________________ ____



___________________________________________ ____


(Video) Medical Term Ch 1

___________________________________________ ____ 3. What does it mean when a disease is described as idiopathic? ________________________________ K Select from the list of pathologic conditions to make a diagnosis. achalasia anal fistula aphthous stomatitis colonic polyps colorectal cancer Crohn disease (Crohn's) dental caries esophageal cancer herpetic stomatitis oral leukoplakia pancreatic cancer periodontal disease 1. Mr. Jones, a smoker and heavy drinker, complained of dysphagia in recent months. A longstanding condition of Barre esophagus resulted in his malignant condition. Diagnosis: _______________________________. 2. An abnormal tube-like passageway near his anus caused Mr. Rosen's proctalgia. His doctor


performed surgery to close off the abnormality. Diagnosis: _______________________________. 3. Carol's dentist informed her that the enamel of three teeth was damaged by bacteria-producing acid. Diagnosis: _______________________________. 4. Paola's symptoms of chronic diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever led her doctor to suspect that she suffered from an inflammatory bowel disease affecting the distal portion of her ileum. The doctor prescribed steroid drugs to heal her condition. Diagnosis: _______________________________. 5. Mr. Hart learned that his colonoscopy showed the presence of small benign growths protruding from the mucous membrane of his large intestine. Diagnosis: ____________________________. 6. During a routine dental checkup, Dr. Friedman discovered white plaques on Mr. Longo's buccal mucosa. He advised Mr. Longo, who was a chronic smoker and heavy drinker, to have these precancerous lesions removed. Diagnosis: _______________________________. 7. Every time Carl had a stressful time at work, he developed a fever blister (cold sore) on his lip, resulting from reactivation of a previous viral infection. His doctor told him that there was no treatment 100% effective in preventing the reappearance of these lesions. Diagnosis: _______________________________. 8. Mr. Green had a biopsy of a neoplastic lesion in his descending colon. The pathology report indicated


a malignancy. A partial colectomy was necessary. Diagnosis: _______________________________. 9. Small ulcers (canker sores) appeared on Diane's gums. They were painful and annoying. Diagnosis: _______________________________. 10. Sharon's failure to floss her teeth and remove dental plaque regularly led to development of gingivitis and pyorrhea. Her dentist advised consulting a specialist who could treat her condition. Diagnosis: _______________________________. 11. Imaging tests revealed a tumor in a section of Mr. Smith's pancreas. His physician told him that since it had not spread, he could hope for a cure with surgery. He had a pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure), which was successful. Diagnosis: _______________________________. 12. Mr. Clark complained of pain during swallowing. His physician explained that the pain was caused by a failure of muscles in his lower esophagus to relax during swallowing. Diagnosis: _______________________________. L Match the following pathologic diagnoses with their definitions. cholecystolithiasis (gallstones) cirrhosis diverticulosis dysentery esophageal varices hemorrhoids


hiatal hernia ileus intussusception irritable bowel syndrome pancreatitis peptic ulcer ulcerative colitis viral hepatitis volvulus 1. protrusion of the upper part of the stomach through the diaphragm ___________________________ 2. painful, inflamed intestines caused by bacterial infection _________________ 3. swollen, twisted veins in the rectal region _________________ 4. open sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum _________________ 5. loss of peristalsis _________________ 6. twisting of the intestine on itself _________________ 7. swollen, varicose veins on the surface of the distal portion of the esophagus _________________ 8. abnormal outpouchings in the intestinal wall _________________ 9. chronic inflammation of the colon with destruction of its inner surface _________________ 10. telescoping of the intestines _________________


11. inflammation of the liver caused by type A, type B, or type C virus _________________ 12. inflammation of the pancreas _________________ 13. calculi in the sac that stores bile _________________ 14. chronic degenerative liver disease with scarring resulting from alcoholism or infectious hepatitis _________________ 15. gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea or constipation, abdominal pain, bloating) with no evidence of structural abnormalities _________________ M Complete the following terms from their meanings given below. 1. membrane (peritoneal fold) that holds the intestines together: mes _______________________ 2. removal of the gallbladder: _______________________ ectomy 3. black or dark brown, tarry stools containing blood: mel _______________________ 4. high levels of pigment in the blood (jaundice): hyper _______________________ 5. pertaining to under the tongue: sub _______________________ 6. twisting of the intestine on itself: vol _______________________ 7. organ under the stomach that produces insulin and digestive enzymes: pan _________________ 8. lack of appetite: an _______________________


9. swollen, twisted veins in the rectal region: _______________________ oids 10. new connection between two previously unconnected tubes: ana _______________________ 11. absence of acid in the stomach: a _______________________ 12. return of solids and fluids to the mouth from the stomach: gastro re _______________________ disease 13. removal of soft tissue hanging from the roof of the mouth: _______________________ ectomy 14. formation of stones: _______________________ genesis.


Answers to Exercises A 1. colon 2. gallbladder 3. cecum 4. anus 5. jejunum 6. esophagus 7. ileum 8. liver 9. pharynx 10. sigmoid colon 11. duodenum 12. pancreas B See Figure 5-12 on page 141.

C 1. Villi. Papillae are nipple-like projections in the tongue where taste buds are located, and rugae are folds in the mucous membrane of the stomach and hard palate. 2. Parotid. The submandibular gland is under the lower jaw, and the sublingual gland is under the tongue.


3. Pyloric sphincter. The uvula is soft tissue hanging from the soft palate, and the lower esophageal sphincter is a ring of muscle between the esophagus and stomach. 4. Pulp. Dentin is the hard part of the tooth directly under the enamel and in the root, and enamel is the hard, outermost part of the tooth composing the crown. 5. Enzyme. A triglyceride is a large fat molecule, and an amino acid is a substance produced when proteins are digested. 6. Bilirubin. Glycogen is animal starch that is produced in liver cells from sugar, and melena is dark, tarry stools. 7. Insulin. Amylase and lipase are digestive enzymes produced by the exocrine cells of the pancreas. 8. Peristalsis. Deglutition is swallowing, and mastication is chewing. 9. Emulsification. Absorption is the passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream, and anabolism is the process of building up proteins in a cell (protein synthesis). 10. Canine. An incisor is one of the four front teeth in the dental arch (not pointed or like a dog's tooth), and a molar is any of three large teeth just behind (distal to) the two premolar teeth. D 1. lip


2. tongue 3. mouth 4. tooth 5. abdomen 6. sugar 7. fat 8. abnormal condition 9. gall, bile 10. removal, excision E 1. sialadenectomy 2. pharyngeal 3. rectocele 4. hepatomegaly 5. palatoplasty 6. postprandial (post cibum—cib/o refers to meals or feeding) 7. proctoscopy 8. etiology 9. choledochotomy 10. dentibuccal 11. enteropathy 12. choledochojejunostomy


13. perianal 14. colostomy 15. submandibular 16. facial F 1. proctologist 2. urologist 3. orthodontist 4. endodontist 5. oral surgeon 6. nephrologist 7. gastroenterologist 8. periodontist 9. colorectal surgeon G 1. appendicitis 2. colitis 3. esophagitis 4. peritonitis (note that the e is dropped) 5. cholecystitis 6. ileitis 7. pancreatitis 8. gingivitis


9. hepatitis 10. stomatitis 11. sialadenitis 12. enterocolitis (when two combining forms for gastrointestinal organs are in a term, use the one that is closest to the mouth first) H 1. hyperglycemia 2. cheilitis 3. parenteral 4. mucosa 5. defecation 6. glycogenolysis 7. mesentery 8. portal vein 9. anastomosis 10. biliary 11. gluconeogenesis 12. hyperbilirubinemia I 1. hematochezia 2. anorexia 3. steatorrhea


4. melena 5. ascites 6. borborygmi (bowel sounds) 7. flatus 8. nausea 9. diarrhea 10. constipation 11. dysphagia 12. eructation J 1. yellow-orange coloration of the skin and other tissues (hyperbilirubinemia) 2. a. any liver disease (hepatopathy—such as cirrhosis, hepatoma, or hepatitis), so that bilirubin is not processed into bile and cannot be excreted in feces b. obstruction of bile flow, so that bile and bilirubin are not excreted and accumulate in the bloodstream c. excessive hemolysis leading to overproduction of bilirubin and high levels in the bloodstream 3. cause is not known K 1. esophageal cancer 2. anal fistula 3. dental caries


4. Crohn disease (Crohn's) 5. colonic polyps 6. oral leukoplakia 7. herpetic stomatitis 8. colorectal cancer 9. aphthous stomatitis 10. periodontal disease 11. pancreatic cancer 12. achalasia L 1. hiatal hernia 2. dysentery 3. hemorrhoids 4. peptic ulcer 5. ileus 6. volvulus 7. esophageal varices 8. diverticulosis 9. ulcerative colitis 10. intussusception 11. viral hepatitis 12. pancreatitis 13. cholecystolithiasis (gallstones)


14. cirrhosis 15. irritable bowel syndrome M 1. mesentery 2. cholecystectomy 3. melena 4. hyperbilirubinemia 5. sublingual 6. volvulus 7. pancreas 8. anorexia 9. hemorrhoids 10. anastomosis 11. achlorhydria 12. gastroesophageal reflux 13. uvulectomy 14. lithogenesis Pronunciation of Terms

The terms you have learned in this chapter are presented here with their pronunciations. The meanings for all the terms are in the MiniDictionary beginning on page 897. You can also hear each term pronounced on the Evolve website (h p://

Vocabulary and Terminology


TERM absorption achlorhydria amino acids amylase anastomosis anus appendectomy appendicitis appendixe bile biliary bilirubin bowel buccal mucosa canine teeth cecal cecum celiac cheilosis cholecystectomy choledochojejunostomy choledocholithiasis choledochotomy cholelithiasis colon colonic colonoscopy colostomy common bile duct defecation deglutition dentibuccal dentin digestion duodenal duodenum elimination emulsification enamel endodontist enterocolitis enteroenterostomy enzyme esophageal esophagus facial fa y acids feces gallbladder gastrointestinal tract gastrojejunostomy gastrostomy

PRONUNCIATION ab-SORP-shun a-chlor-HI-dre-ah ah-ME-no AS-idz AM-ih-layz ah-nas-to-MO-sis A-nus ah-pen-DEK-to-me ah-pen-dih-SI-tis ah-PEN-diks bile BIH-le-er-e bih-le-RU-bin BOW-el BUK-al mu-KO-sah KA-nine teeth SE-kal SE-kum SE-le-ak ki-LO-sis ko-le-sis-TEK-to-me ko-leh-do-ko-jeh-ju-NOS-to-me ko-leh-do-ko-lih-THI-ah-sis ko-leh-do-KOT-o-me ko-le-lih-THI-ah-sis KO-lon ko-LON-ik ko-lon-OS-ko-pe ko-LOS-to-me KOM-on bile dukt deh-feh-KA-shun de-glu-TIH-shun den-tih-BUK-al DEN-tin di-JEST-shun du-o-DE-nal do-o-DE-num e-lim-ih-NA-shun e-mul-sih-fih-KA-shun e-NAM-el en-do-DON-tist en-ter-o-ko-LI-tis en-ter-o-en-ter-OS-to-me EN-zime eh-sof-ah-JE-al eh-SOF-ah-gus FA-shul FAH-te AS-idz FE-seez GAWL-blah-der gas-tro-in-TES-tih-nal trakt gas-tro-jeh-ju-NOS-to-me gas-TROS-to-me


TERM gingivitis gluconeogenesis glucose glycogen glycogenolysis hepatoma hepatomegaly hydrochloric acid hyperbilirubinemia hyperglycemia hypoglossal ileitis ileocecal sphincter ileostomy ileum incisor insulin jejunum labial laparoscopy lipase lithogenesis liver lower esophageal sphincter mastication melena mesentery molar teeth oral orthodontist palate palatopharyngoplasty palatoplasty pancreas pancreatitis papillae parenteral parotid gland perianal periodontist peristalsis peritonitis pharyngeal pharynx portal vein postprandial premolar teeth proctologist protease pulp pyloric sphincter pyloroplasty

PRONUNCIATION jin-jih-VI-tis glu-ko-ne-o-JEN-eh-sis GLU-kohs GLI-ko-jen gli-ko-je-NOL-ih-sis hep-ah-TO-mah hep-ah-to-MEG-ah-le hi-dro-KLOR-ik AS-id hi-per-bih-le-ru-bih-NE-me-ah hi-per-gli-SE-me-ah hi-po-GLOS-al il-e-I-tis il-e-o-SE-kal SFINK-ter il-e-OS-to-me IL-e-um in-SI-zor IN-su-lin je-JU-num LA-be-al lap-ah-ROS-ko-pe LI-payz lith-o-JEN-eh-sis LIV-er LO-er eh-sof-ah-JE-al SFINK-ter mas-tih-KA-shun MEL-en-ah MES-en-ter-e MO-lar teeth OR-al or-tho-DON-tist PAH-lat pah-lat-o-fah-RIN-go-plas-te pah-LAT-o-plas-te PAN-kre-as pan-kre-ah-TI-tis pap-IL-e par-EN-ter-al par-OT-id gland peh-re-A-nal peh-re-o-DON-tist peh-rih-STAL-sis peh-rih-to-NI-tis fah-ran-JE-al FAH-rinks POR-tal vayn post-PRAN-de-al pre-MO-lar teeth prok-TOL-o-jist PRO-te-ayz pulp pi-LOR-ik SFINK-ter pi-LOR-o-plas-te


TERM pylorus rectocele rectum rugae saliva salivary glands sialadenitis sialolith sigmoid colon sigmoidoscopy sphincter steatorrhea stomach stomatitis sublingual submandibular triglycerides uvula uvulectomy villi

PRONUNCIATION pi-LOR-us REK-to-seel REK-tum RU-guy sah-LI-vah SAH-lih-vah-re glandz si-al-ah-deh-NI-tis si-AL-o-lith SIG-moyd KO-lon sig-moyd-OS-ko-pe SFINK-ter ste-at-o-RE-ah STUM-ak sto-mah-TI-tis sub-LING-wal sub-man-DIH-bu-lar tri-GLIS-eh-ridez U-vu-lah u-vu-LEK-to-me VIL-i

Pathologic Terminology


TERM achalasia anal fistula anorexia aphthous stomatitis ascites borborygmi cholelithiasis cirrhosis colonic polyps colorectal cancer constipation Crohn disease dental caries diarrhea diverticula diverticulosis dysentery dysphagia eructation esophageal cancer esophageal varices etiology flatus gastric cancer gastroesophageal reflux disease hematochezia hemorrhoids hepatocellular carcinoma herpetic stomatitis hiatal hernia icterus idiopathic ileus inflammatory bowel disease inguinal hernia intussusception irritable bowel syndrome jaundice lipoma melena nausea oral leukoplakia pancreatic cancer pancreatitis peptic ulcer periodontal disease pyorrhea ulcerative colitis viral hepatitis volvulus

PRONUNCIATION ak-ah-LA-jah A-nal FIS-tu-la an-or-EK-se-ah AF-thus sto-mah-TI-tis ah-SI-teez bor-bor-IG-me ko-le-lih-THI-ah-sis sih-RO-sis ko-LON-ik POL-ips ko-lo-REK-tal KAN-ser con-stih-PA-shun KROHN dih-ZEEZ DEN-tal KAH-reez di-ah-RE-ah di-ver-TIH-ku-lah di-ver-tih-ku-LO-sis DIS-en-ter-e dis-PHA-je-ah e-ruk-TA-shun eh-sof-ah-JE-al KAN-ser eh-sof-ah-JE-al VAR-ih-seez e-te-OL-o-je FLA-tus GAS-trik KAN-ser gas-tro-eh-sof-ah-JE-al RE-flux dih-ZEEZ he-mah-to-KE-se-ah HEH-mah-roydz hep-at-o-SEL-u-lar kar-sih-NO-mah her-PET-ik sto-mah-TI-tis hi-A-tal HER-ne-ah IK-ter-us id-e-o-PATH-ik IL-e-us in-FLAM-ah-tor-e BOW-el dih-ZEEZ IN-gwih-nal HER-ne-ah in-tuh-suh-SEP-shun IR-it-ah-bel BOW-el SIN-drohm JAWN-dis li-PO-mah MEL-en-ah NAW-ze-ah OR-al lu-ko-PLA-ke-ah pan-kre-AH-tik KAN-ser pan-kre-ah-TI-tis PEP-tic UL-ser peh-re-o-DON-tal dih-ZEEZ pi-or-RE-ah UL-ser-ah-tiv ko-LI-tis VI-ral hep-ah-TI-tis VOL-vu-lus


Note: A combination Review Sheet for this chapter and the next one is provided in Chapter 6 on page 201.




Additional Suffixes and Digestive System Terminology CHAPTER SECTIONS: Introduction 178 Suffixes 178 Terminology 181 Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures 183 Abbreviations 190 In Person: Cholecystectomy 191 Practical Applications 192 Exercises 192 Answers to Exercises 198 Pronunciation of Terms 199 Review Sheet 201

CHAPTER GOALS • Define new suffixes and use them to form terms related to the digestive system. • List and explain laboratory tests, clinical procedures, and abbreviations relevant to the digestive system. • Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical terms in their proper context, such as in medical reports and records and in personal vignettes.



Introduction This chapter gives you practice in word building, while not introducing a large number of new terms. It uses many familiar terms from Chapter 5, which should give you a breather after your hard work. Study the suffixes presented next and complete the meanings of the terms. Checking the meanings of the terms with a dictionary may prove helpful and add another dimension to your understanding. The information included under Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures and in the Abbreviations section relates to the gastrointestinal system and will be useful for work in clinical or laboratory medical se ings. The Practical Applications section gives you examples of medical language in context. Congratulate yourself as you decipher medical sentences, operative reports, and case studies.


Write the meaning of the medical term in the space provided.


SUFFIX MEANING -ectasis, dilation -ectasia (dilatation), widening -emesis vomiting

TERMINOLOGY MEANING cholangiectasis _________________________________ Cholangi/o means bile duct (vessel). Bile duct obstruction may cause cholangiectasis (ko-lan-je-EK-tah-sis). hematemesis ___________________________________ Bright red blood is vomited, often associated with esophageal varices or peptic ulcer. -pepsia digestion dyspepsia ___________________________________ -phagia eating, polyphagia ___________________________________ swallowing Excessive appetite and uncontrolled eating. dysphagia ___________________________________ -plasty surgical repair abdominoplasty _________________________________ This is commonly referred to as a “tummy tuck.” Other surgical repairs are rhinoplasty and blepharoplasty. -ptysis spi ing hemoptysis _________________________________ (he-MOP-tih-sis) Spi ing up blood from the respiratory tract and lungs. -rrhage, bursting forth hemorrhage ____________________________________ -rrhagia (of blood) Loss of a large amount of blood in a short period. gastrorrhagia ____________________________________ suture herniorrhaphy ____________________________________ rrhaphy (her-ne-OR-ah-fe) Repair (as in stitching or suturing) of a hernia. Hernioplasty is a synonym. -rrhea flow, diarrhea ____________________________________ discharge The embedded root rrh means flow or discharge. -spasm involuntary pylorospasm ____________________________________ contraction of bronchospasm ____________________________________ muscles A chief characteristic of bronchitis and asthma. -stasis stopping, cholestasis ____________________________________ controlling Flow of bile from the liver to the duodenum is interrupted. narrowing, pyloric stenosis ____________________________________ stenosis tightening This is a congenital defect in newborns blocking the flow of food into the small intestine. -tresia opening atresia ________________________________________ Absence of a normal opening. esophageal atresia ________________________________________ A congenital anomaly in which the esophagus does not connect with the stomach. A tracheoesophageal fistula often accompanies this abnormality (Figure 6-1). biliary atresia ________________________________________ Congenital hypoplasia or nonformation of bile ducts causes neonatal cholestasis and jaundice.


FIGURE 6-1 Esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula.

-ectasis, -ectasia

These suffixes are commonly used in respiratory system terminology in Chapter 12. Examples are bronchiectasis and atelectasis (a- = not, tel = complete), which is a collapsed lung.


Don't confuse dysphagia, which is difficulty in swallowing, with dysplasia, which is abnormal formation (plas/o = formation), or dysphasia, which is abnormal speech (phas/o = speech).

Hemoptysis and Hematemesis

Hemoptysis is spi ing up blood from the respiratory tract, a sign of bleeding and disease within the bronchial tubes and lungs. Hematemesis is vomiting blood, a sign of bleeding from the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract.



The suffix -rrhea is used to indicate flow or discharge of various substances: • rhinorrhea-mucus from the nose • menorrhea-menstrual (men/o) blood from the uterine lining • leukorrhea-white, yellowish fluid from the vagina


Stenosis comes from the Greek meaning “narrowing.” It is sometimes called a stricture. While this term is used in the gastrointestinal system to describe narrowing, as in bowel obstruction, biliary tract stenosis, and pyloric stenosis, there are other types of stenoses as well. These include: • arterial stenosis • heart valve stenosis • spinal stenosis • tracheal stenosis Examples of suffixes that are used alone as separate terms are: emesis An emesis basin is a kidney-shaped container positioned beside a hospital bed to (emetic) collect vomit. If a child swallows poison, the physician may prescribe a drug to induce emesis. An emetic is a strong solution such as ipecac syrup administered to induce vomiting after a patient swallows poison. spasm Eating spicy foods can lead to spasm of gastric sphincters. stasis Overgrowth of bacteria within the small intestine can cause stasis of the intestinal contents. stenosis Projectile vomiting in an infant during feeding is a clinical sign of pyloric stenosis.


Write the meaning of the terms in the spaces provided.


COMBINING MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING FORM bucc/o ______________ buccal ________________________________________ cec/o ______________ cecal volvulus ________________________________________ celi/o ______________ celiac disease ________________________________________ Damage to the lining of the small intestine occurring as a reaction to eating gluten (protein found in wheat, barley, and rye). Malabsorption and malnutrition result. Treatment consists of a lifelong gluten-free diet. It also is called celiac sprue. cheil/o ______________ cheilosis ________________________________________ Characterized by scales and fissures on the lips and resulting from a deficiency of vitamin B2 (thiamine) in the diet. chol/e ______________ cholelithiasis ________________________________________ cholangi/o ______________ cholangitis ________________________________________ In this term, one i is dropped. The most common cause of this condition is bacterial infection. cholangiocarcinoma ________________________________________ cholecyst/o ______________ cholecystectomy ________________________________________ choledoch/o ______________ choledochal ________________________________________ choledochectasia ________________________________________ col/o ______________ colectomy ________________________________________ Surgeons perform a LAP (laparoscopic) colectomy as an alternative to open colectomy to remove nonmetastatic colorectal carcinomas. colon/o ______________ colonoscopy ________________________________________ dent/i ______________ dentalgia ________________________________________ duoden/o ______________ duodenal ________________________________________ enter/o ______________ gastroenteritis ________________________________________ esophag/o ______________ esophageal atresia ________________________________________ This congenital anomaly must be corrected surgically. gastr/o ______________ gastrojejunostomy ________________________________________ gastrostomy ________________________________________ A gastrostomy is also called a G tube or “bu on.” One type is a PEG (percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy) tube, which is inserted (laparoscopically) through the abdomen into the stomach to deliver food and liquids when swallowing is impossible. gingiv/o ______________ gingivectomy ________________________________________


COMBINING MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING FORM gloss/o ______________ glossectomy ________________________________________ gluc/o ______________ gluconeogenesis ________________________________________ glyc/o ______________ glycogen ________________________________________ A form of sugar stored in the liver. hepat/o ______________ hepatomegaly ________________________________________ herni/o ______________ herniorrhaphy ________________________________________ ile/o ______________ ileostomy ________________________________________ jejun/o ______________ cholecystojejunostomy ________________________________________ labi/o ______________ labiodental ________________________________________ lingu/o ______________ sublingual ________________________________________ lip/o ______________ lipase ________________________________________ lith/o ______________ cholecystolithiasis ________________________________________ odont/o ______________ periodontal membrane ________________________________________ or/o ______________ oropharynx ________________________________________ The tonsils are located in the oropharynx. palat/o ______________ palatoplasty ________________________________________ Also called palatorrhaphy; this procedure corrects cleft (split) palate, a congenital anomaly. pancreat/o ______________ pancreatic ________________________________________ pancreatoduodenectomy ________________________________________ Sometimes called a pancreaticoduodenectomy. This is a Whipple procedure, a surgical treatment for pancreatic cancer. See page 192. proct/o ______________ proctosigmoidoscopy ________________________________________ pylor/o ______________ pyloric stenosis ________________________________________ rect/o ______________ rectal carcinoma ________________________________________ sialaden/o ______________ sialadenectomy ________________________________________ splen/o ______________ splenic flexure ________________________________________ The downward bend in the transverse colon near the spleen. The hepatic flexure is the bend in the transverse colon near the liver. steat/o ______________ steatorrhea ________________________________________ stomat/o ______________ aphthous stomatitis ________________________________________


Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures Concentrate on learning the meanings in bold opposite the laboratory test or procedure. Additional information is provided to increase your understanding of terms.

Laboratory Tests amylase and lipase tests liver function tests (LFTs)

stool culture stool guaiac test or Hemoccult test

Tests for the levels of amylase and lipase enzymes in the blood. Increased levels are associated with pancreatitis. Tests for the presence of enzymes and bilirubin in blood. LFTs are performed on blood serum (clear fluid that remains after blood has clo ed). Examples of LFTs are tests for ALT (alanine transaminase) and AST (aspartate transaminase). ALT and AST are enzymes present in many tissues. Levels are elevated in the serum of patients with liver disease. High ALT and AST levels indicate damage to liver cells (as in hepatitis). Alkaline phosphatase (alk phos) is another enzyme that may be elevated in patients with liver, bone, and other diseases. Serum bilirubin levels are elevated in patients with liver disease and jaundice. A direct bilirubin test measures conjugated bilirubin. High levels indicate liver disease or biliary obstruction. An indirect bilirubin test measures unconjugated bilirubin. Increased levels suggest excessive hemolysis, as may occur in a newborn. Test for microorganisms present in feces. Feces are placed in a growth medium and examined microscopically. (Figure 6-2A). Test to detect occult (hidden) blood in feces. This is an important screening test for colon cancer. Guaiac (GWĪ-ăk) is a chemical from the wood of trees. When added to a stool sample, it reacts with any blood present in the feces. See Figure 6-2B.


FIGURE 6-2 A, Stool culture. B, Stool guaiac test.

Clinical Procedures X-Ray Tests X-ray imaging is used in many ways to detect pathologic conditions. In dental practice, x-ray images are commonly used to locate cavities (caries). Many of the x-ray tests listed here use a contrast medium (substance that x-rays cannot penetrate) to visualize a specific area of the digestive system. The contrast, because of its increased density relative to body tissue, allows organs and parts to be distinguished from one another on the film or screen.


lower gastrointestinal series (barium enema) upper gastrointestinal series


computed tomography (CT)

X-ray images of the colon and rectum obtained after injection of barium into the rectum. Radiologists inject barium (a contrast medium) by enema into the rectum. Figure 6-3A shows a barium enema study of a colon with diverticulosis. X-ray images of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine obtained after administering barium by mouth. Often performed immediately after an upper gastrointestinal series, a small bowel follow-through study shows sequential x-ray pictures of the small intestine as barium passes through (Figure 63B). A barium swallow is a study of the esophagus. X-ray examination of the biliary system performed after injection of contrast into the bile ducts. In percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, the contrast medium is injected using a needle placed through the abdominal wall into the biliary vessels of the liver. In endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) (Figure 6-4A), contrast medium is administered through an oral catheter (tube) and then passes through the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum and into bile ducts. This procedure helps diagnose problems involving the bile ducts, gallbladder, and pancreas. A series of x-ray images are taken in multiple views (especially cross section). A CT scan uses a circular array of x-ray beams to produce the crosssectional image based on differences in tissue densities. Use of contrast material allows visualization of organs and blood vessels and highlights differences in blood flow between normal and diseased tissues (Figure 6-4B and Figure 6-5A and B). Tomography (tom/o means cu ing) produces a series of x-ray pictures showing multiple views of an organ. An earlier name for a CT scan is “CAT scan” (computerized axial tomography scan).


FIGURE 6-3 A, Barium enema. This x-ray image from a barium enema study demonstrates diverticulosis. The arrowheads point to the diverticula throughout the colon. Most patients with diverticula are asymptomatic, but complications (diverticulitis, perforated diverticulum, obstruction, or hemorrhage) may occur. B, An x-ray image of a small bowel follow-through study demonstrating the normal appearance of the jejunum (J) in the upper left abdomen and of the ileum (I) in the right lower abdomen. Notice the contrast material within the stomach (S) and cecum (C).


FIGURE 6-4 A, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) showing choledocholithiasis in a patient with biliary colic (pain). Multiple stones are visible in the gallbladder and common bile duct. The stones (arrows) are seen as filling defects in the contrastopacified gallbladder and duct. This patient was treated with open (performed via laparotomy) cholecystectomy and choledocholithotomy. B, Computed tomography scan with contrast showing large “porcelain stone” in the gallbladder. The patient was asymptomatic, but a therapeutic option with this type of stone is removal of the gallbladder (using laparoscopy) to prevent any future problems (such as cholecystitis or carcinoma of the gallbladder). (B, Courtesy Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.)


FIGURE 6-5 Computed tomography (CT) images of normal and diseased liver. A, Normal liver. Contrast material has been injected intravenously, making blood vessels appear bright. The liver (L) and spleen (S) are the same density on this CT image. B, Fatty liver. The radiodensity of the liver tissue is reduced because of the large volume of fat contained in the tissue, making it appear darker than normal. Excess fat can lead to inflammation of the liver and cirrhosis.

Ultrasound Examinations abdominal ultrasonography endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)

Sound waves beamed into the abdomen produce an image of abdominal viscera. Ultrasonography is especially useful for examination of fluid-filled structures such as the gallbladder. Use of an endoscope combined with ultrasound to examine the organs of the gastrointestinal tract. An endoscope is inserted through the mouth or rectum, and ultrasound images are obtained. This test is often used in assessing esophageal, pancreatic, and rectal cancer.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Magnetic waves produce images of organs and tissues in all three planes of the body. This technique does not use x-rays. It detects subtle differences in tissue composition, water content, and blood vessel density and can show sites of trauma, infection, or cancer. See Figure 6-6, which shows an MRI study of a patient with rectosigmoid carcinoma and polyps in the rectum. CT scanning would not have shown these lesions as clearly.


FIGURE 6-6 Rectal (MRI). A 68-year-old man presented with rectal bleeding. MRI demonstrates (A) colonic adenocarcinoma in the rectosigmoid area as well as (B) villous adenoma in the rectum.

Nuclear Medicine Test HIDA scan

Radioactive imaging procedure that tracks the production and flow of bile from the liver and gallbladder to the intestine. HIDA stands for hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid. Cholescintigraphy is another name for this test, which determines if the gallbladder is functioning properly.

Other Procedures


fecal transplant

bariatric surgery

gastrointestinal endoscopy


liver biopsy

nasogastric intubation paracentesis (abdominocentesis)

Transfer of stool from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a recipient. Extensive antibiotic use can wipe out normal colonic bacteria and can lead to infection with C. difficile (harmful bacteria that cause diarrhea and colitis). A fecal transplant restores normal stool bacteria via colonoscopy. Procedures used to achieve weight loss in people with severe obesity. One type of bariatric surgery is bariatric (bar/o = weight, iatr/o = treatment) sleeve gastrectomy, removal of a large portion of the stomach (Figure 6-7A). Another bariatric procedure is gastric bypass. This surgery reduces the size of the stomach to a volume of 2 tablespoons and bypasses much of the small intestine (Figure 6-7B). Visual examination of the gastrointestinal tract using an endoscope. A physician places a flexible fiberoptic tube through the mouth or the anus to view parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Examples are esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) (Figure 6-8), colonoscopy (Figures 6-9 and 6-10), sigmoidoscopy, proctoscopy, and anoscopy. Virtual colonoscopy (CT colonography) combines CT scanning and computer technology to enable physicians to examine the entire length of the colon by x-ray imaging in just minutes. Patients with abnormal findings require conventional colonoscopy afterward for further assessment or treatment, such as with biopsy or polypectomy. Visual (endoscopic) examination of the abdomen with a laparoscope inserted through small incisions in the abdomen. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (see Figure 5-28, page 160) and laparoscopic appendectomy are performed by gastrointestinal and general surgeons. See the In Person: Cholecystectomy story of a woman who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (see page 191). Removal of liver tissue for microscopic examination. A physician inserts a needle through the skin to remove a small piece of tissue for microscopic examination. The average sample is less than 1 inch long. The procedure helps doctors diagnose cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, and tumors of the liver. Insertion of a tube through the nose into the stomach. Physicians use a nasogastric (NG) tube to remove fluid from the stomach and intestines postoperatively (NG decompression). See Figure 6-11. Puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen. This procedure is necessary to drain fluid (accumulated in ascites) from the peritoneal (abdominal) cavity.


FIGURE 6-7 A. Sleeve gastrectomy. B. Gastric bypass. First (a) the stomach is stapled so that it is reduced in size to a small pouch. Next (b) a shortened jejunum is brought up to connect with the smaller stomach. This diverts food so that it has a shorter travel time through the intestine and less food is absorbed into the bloodstream.

FIGURE 6-8 A, Normal endoscopy of the esophagus. B, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy. This endoscopic view shows severe esophagitis in a patient who had gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).


FIGURE 6-9 Colonoscopy with polypectomy. Before the procedure, the patient ingests agents to clean the bowel of feces. The patient is sedated, and the gastroenterologist advances the instrument in retrograde fashion, guided by images from a video camera on the tip of the colonoscope. When a polyp is located, a wire snare is passed through the endoscope and looped around the stalk. After the loop is gently tightened, an electrical current is applied to cut through the stalk. The polyp is removed (biopsy) for microscopic tissue examination.


FIGURE 6-10 Colonoscopy case report. A 60-year-old man with a history of multiple and prominent colon adenomas (with some areas of high-grade dysplasia) underwent colonoscopy. The endoscope was passed through the anus and advanced to the cecum. Two pedunculated polyps (arrows) were found at the hepatic flexure. Polypectomy was performed using a hot snare. Resection and retrieval were complete.

FIGURE 6-11 Nasogastric intubation. The nasogastric tube is suctioning secretions from the patient's stomach and intestines. The patient had a twisted blocked intestine (ileus), and the suction relieved pressure so that the intestine unwound and decompressed without surgery.



alpha-fetoprotein—tumor marker for liver cancer alkaline phosphatase

alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase—enzymes measured in blood to evaluate liver function barium enema bowel movement bright red blood per rectum—hematochezia celiac disease chronic idiopathic constipation computed tomography esophagogastroduodenoscopy exocrine pancreatic insufficiency endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography end-stage liver disease endoscopic ultrasonography fecal occult blood test gastrostomy tube—feeding tube gastric antral vascular ectasia—dilated small blood vessels in the antrum (the last part of the stomach) GB gallbladder GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease GI gastrointestinal HBV hepatitis B virus IBD inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis) J-tube jejunostomy tube—feeding tube LAC laparoscopic-assisted colectomy LAP laparoscopic LFTs liver function tests—alk phos, bilirubin, AST, ALT MRI magnetic resonance imaging NASH nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (fa y liver) NG nasogastric tube tube NPO nothing by mouth (Latin nil per os) PEG percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube—feeding tube tube PEJ percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy tube—feeding tube tube PTHC percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography PUD peptic ulcer disease TPN total parenteral nutrition Intravenous solutions contain sugar, amino acids, electrolytes, and vitamins. T-tube special tube (shaped like the le er T) placed in the bile duct for drainage into a small pouch (bile bag) on the outside of the body

In Person



This first-person narrative describes the symptoms and treatment of a woman with gallbladder stones. Everyone enjoys a li le dessert after dinner, but when the ice cream or a creamy tart leads to pain, most would avoid it. I loved sweets, and despite the revenge they took on my waistline, I still would not pass up an ice cream cone—until my gallbladder decided it had had enough. After several late nights spent doubled over in pain, I tried to steer clear of fa y foods but could not resist the temptation of frozen yogurt. With one hand, I pushed my cart through the supermarket; with the other hand, I fed myself some delicious low-fat (not nonfat) frozen yogurt. I never dreamed that the a endant at the quick-service window actually gave me soft-serve ice cream. Within 10 minutes of eating the questionable yogurt, I broke out into a sweat; a wave of nausea took me, and a knifelike pain stabbed me in my right upper quadrant. It hurt even more when I pressed my hand on the area in an a empt to brace against the pain. Several months earlier, after a similar painful episode, I had undergone an ultrasound of my gallbladder, and the surgeon then recommended cholecystectomy. The U/S showed multiple stones in my gallbladder. Most of the stones were just the right size to lodge in the common bile duct and cause blockage of the outflow of bile that occurs after a fa y meal. When I heard the ultrasound results, I swore off all fa y foods. I just did not imagine that ice cream masquerading as “low-fat yogurt” would be the straw that broke the camel's back! Soon enough, I abandoned my shopping cart and apologized to the manager of the store for vomiting all over aisle 4. The unrelenting pain did not cease when I vomited—it only intensified. I have no idea how I made it home and into bed, but my husband found me several hours later in a deep sweat. I managed to call my surgeon and arrange for “semi-emergent” surgery the next morning.


Dr. Fernandez and his team performed a laparoscopic cholecystectomy and relayed to me as I came out of anesthesia that I no longer had a “bag of marbles” for a gallbladder. I had a gassy, distended feeling in my abdomen over the two weeks after surgery (carbon dioxide gas was injected into the abdomen before surgery to allow space between abdominal organs). I felt “tight as a drum” for the first few days, and then day by day it went away. My four tiny incisions healed just fine, and in about 2 weeks I was feeling back to “normal.” Now I can eat ice cream to my heart's content, only suffering the padding on my waistline, not the stabbing pain just above. Without missing a beat, my liver now delivers the bile into my small intestine right after I eat a fa y meal. The bile emulsifies (breaks down) the fat. I just don't have a storage bag to hold bile in reserve. I've had an appendectomy, my wisdom teeth removed, and now I gave up my gallbladder! How many more “useless” body parts are there to go? Elizabeth Chabner Thompson is the CEO/Founder of Masthead, a company devoted to bringing innovative products to patients with breast cancer. She is a physician, swimmer, cross country skier and the proud mother of four children ages 16-21.

Practical Applications

Answers to the questions about the case report are on page 199.

Case Report: Pancreatic Cancer and Whipple Procedure A 62-year-old man came to the ED (emergency department) with complaints of fatigue, weight loss, jaundice, and anorexia. Diagnostic studies including abdominal CT with contrast, ERCP, and EUS were performed. The CT scan showed a resectable 4-cm mass at the head of the pancreas, and ERCP revealed evidence of bile duct obstruction; a stent was placed to open the duct. Examination of a tissue biopsy specimen obtained under U/S guidance confirmed an adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas. Additional studies showed no evidence of hepatic or other metastases. Surgical treatment with a Whipple procedure was recommended. This procedure was performed and included pancreatoduodenectomy, choledochojejunostomy, and gastrojejunostomy. Lymph node removal and cholecystectomy were part of the operative procedure. During surgery, it was determined that the tumor was confined to the head of the pancreas. Despite removal of


the tumor, the chance of recurrence is high, with a cure rate of only about 20%. Questions about the Case Report 1. What caused the patient's jaundice? a. Excessive hemolysis b. Viral hepatitis c. Bile duct obstruction d. Cholelithiasis 2. What test identified the mass as adenocarcinoma? a. Whipple procedure b. Biopsy with endoscopic ultrasonography c. CT scan with contrast d. ERCP 3. Which is included in a Whipple procedure? a. Removal of the pancreas (malignant area) and duodenum b. Removal of the gallbladder c. Removal of lymph nodes d. All of the above 4. What anastomosis was performed? a. Gallbladder and duodenum united. b. Common bile duct, pancreatic duct, and small intestine all connected together. c. Stomach and pancreas reconnected. d. Liver and pancreas connected to the stomach.


Exercises Remember to check your answers carefully with the Answers to Exercises, pages 198 and 199.

A Give the meanings of the following suffixes. 1. -pepsia _____________________________________________ _____________________________ 2. -ptysis _____________________________________________ _____________________________ 3. -emesis _____________________________________________ _____________________________ 4. -phagia _____________________________________________ _____________________________ 5. -rrhea _____________________________________________ _____________________________ 6. -rrhage, -rrhagia _____________________________________________ _____________________________ 7. -rrhaphy _____________________________________________ _____________________________ 8. -plasty _____________________________________________ _____________________________ 9. -ectasis, -ectasia _____________________________________________ _____________________________


10. -stenosis _____________________________________________ _____________________________ 11. -stasis _____________________________________________ _____________________________ 12. -spasm _____________________________________________ _____________________________ 13. -tresia _____________________________________________ _____________________________ B Build medical terms for the definitions that follow. Use the listed combining forms as appropriate to create terms. chol/e cholangi/o choledoch/o gastr/o hemat/o hem/o herni/o palat/o pylor/o 1. stoppage of bile (flow) ______________________________________ 2. suture of a hernia ______________________________________ 3. dilation of bile ducts ______________________________________


4. spi ing up blood (from the respiratory tract) ______________________________________ 5. vomiting blood (from the digestive tract) ______________________________________ 6. surgical repair of roof of the mouth ______________________________________ 7. narrowing of the pyloric sphincter ______________________________________ 8. bursting forth of blood from the stomach ______________________________________ 9. sudden, involuntary contraction of muscles at the distal region of the stomach _____________________________________ 10. bursting forth of blood ______________________________________ 11. incision of the common bile duct ______________________________________ C Give the meanings of the following terms. 1. dysphagia _____________________________________________ ___________________________ 2. polyphagia _____________________________________________ ___________________________ 3. dyspepsia _____________________________________________ ___________________________ 4. biliary atresia _____________________________________________ ___________________________


5. rhinorrhea _____________________________________________ ___________________________ 6. cholestasis _____________________________________________ ___________________________ 7. esophageal atresia _____________________________________________ ___________________________ 8. pyloroplasty _____________________________________________ ___________________________ 9. splenorrhagia _____________________________________________ ___________________________ 10. proctosigmoidoscopy _____________________________________________ ___________________________ 11. hemorrhage _____________________________________________ ___________________________ 12. cholangitis _____________________________________________ ___________________________ D Match the listed surgical procedures with the meanings that follow. abdominoplasty cecostomy cholecystectomy cholecystojejunostomy


colectomy gingivectomy herniorrhaphy ileostomy palatoplasty pancreatoduodenectomy paracentesis sphincterotomy 1. removal of the gallbladder ____________________________ 2. large bowel resection ____________________________ 3. suture of a weakened muscular wall (hernia) ____________________________ 4. new opening of the first part of the colon to the outside of the body ____________________________ 5. surgical repair of the abdomen ____________________________ 6. incision of a ring of muscles ____________________________ 7. removal of the pancreas and duodenum ____________________________ 8. opening of the third part of the small intestine to the outside of the body ____________________________ 9. removal of gum tissue ____________________________ 10. anastomosis between the gallbladder and second part of the small intestine


p ____________________________ 11. puncture of the abdomen for withdrawal of fluid ____________________________ 12. surgical repair of the roof of the mouth ____________________________ E Use the given meanings to complete the following terms. 1. discharge of fat: steat ________________________ 2. difficulty in swallowing: dys ________________________ 3. abnormal condition of gallstones: chole ________________________ 4. pertaining to the cheek: ________________________ al 5. pertaining to lips and teeth: ________________________ dental 6. vomiting blood: hemat ________________________ 7. enlargement of the liver: hepato ________________________ 8. pertaining to under the tongue: sub ________________________ 9. removal of the gallbladder: ________________________ ectomy 10. pertaining to the common bile duct: chole ________________________ 11. hemorrhage from the stomach: gastro ________________________ F Give the meanings of the following terms.


1. cecal volvulus _____________________________________________ _______________________ 2. aphthous stomatitis _____________________________________________ _______________________ 3. celiac disease _____________________________________________ _______________________ 4. lipase _____________________________________________ _______________________ 5. cheilosis _____________________________________________ _______________________ 6. oropharynx _____________________________________________ _______________________ 7. glycogen _____________________________________________ _______________________ 8. glossectomy _____________________________________________ _______________________ 9. sialadenectomy _____________________________________________ _______________________ 10. periodontal membrane _____________________________________________ _______________________


11. choledochectasia _____________________________________________ _______________________ 12. cholangiocarcinoma _____________________________________________ _______________________ G Match each listed laboratory test or clinical procedure with its description. • abdominal ultrasonography • barium enema • CT scan of the abdomen • endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography • endoscopic ultrasonography • bariatric surgery/gastric bypass • gastrostomy (G tube) • HIDA scan • laparoscopy • liver biopsy • nasogastric intubation • percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography • serum bilirubin • small bowel follow-through • stool culture • stool guaiac (Hemoccult) 1. measurement of bile pigment in the blood _________________________________ 2. placement of feces in a growth medium for bacterial analysis _________________________________


3. x-ray examination of the lower gastrointestinal tract _________________________________ 4. imaging of abdominal viscera using sound waves _________________________________ 5. test to reveal hidden blood in feces _________________________________ 6. sequential x-ray images of the small intestine _________________________________ 7. injection of contrast material through the skin into the liver, to obtain x-ray images of bile vessels _________________________________ 8. insertion of a tube through the nose into the stomach _________________________________ 9. transverse x-ray pictures of the abdominal organs _________________________________ 10. injection of contrast material through an endoscope for x-ray imaging of the pancreas and bile ducts _________________________________ 11. reduction of stomach size and gastrojejunostomy _________________________________ 12. insertion of an endoscope and use of ultrasound imaging to visualize the organs of the gastrointestinal tract _________________________________ 13. percutaneous removal of liver tissue followed by microscopic examination _________________________________ 14. visual examination (endoscopic) of abdominal viscera through small abdominal incisions _________________________________


15. new opening of the stomach to the outside of the body for feeding _________________________________ 16. radioactive imaging of the liver, gallbladder, and intestine _________________________________ H Give the meanings of the abbreviations in Column I. Then select the le er of the correct description from Column II. COLUMN I 1. TPN ___________________ 2. PUD ___________________ 3. EGD ___________________ 4. IBD ___________________ 5. BE ___________________ 6. BRBPR ___________________ 7. LFTs ___________________ 8. GERD ___________________ 9. HBV ___________________ 10. CT ___________________

_______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

COLUMN II A. Tests such as measurement of ALT, AST, alk phos, and serum bilirubin. B. Heartburn is a symptom of this condition. C. Includes Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. D. H. pylori causes this condition. E. Intravenous injection of nutrition. F. This is a lower gastrointestinal series. G. X-ray procedure that produces a series of cross-sectional images. H. This infectious agent causes chronic inflammation of the liver. I. Hematochezia describes this gastrointestinal symptom. J. Endoscopic visualization of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

_______ _______

I Give the suffixes for the following terms. 1. bursting forth (of blood) _________________________ 2. flow, discharge _________________________ 3. suture _________________________ 4. dilation _________________________ 5. narrowing (stricture) _________________________ 6. vomiting _________________________ 7. spi ing _________________________ 8. excision _________________________


9. digestion _________________________ 10. eating, swallowing _________________________ 11. hardening _________________________ 12. stopping, controlling _________________________ 13. surgical repair _________________________ 14. opening _________________________ 15. surgical puncture _________________________ 16. involuntary contraction _________________________ 17. new opening _________________________ 18. incision _________________________ J Explain what happens in a fecal transplant and why it is necessary. ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ K Circle the correct bold term in parentheses to complete each sentence. 1. When Mrs. Smith began to have diarrhea and crampy abdominal pain, she consulted a (urologist, nephrologist, gastroenterologist) and worried that the cause of her symptoms might be (inflammatory bowel disease, esophageal varices, achalasia). 2. After taking a careful history and performing a thorough physical examination, Dr. Blakemore diagnosed Mr. Bean, a longtime drinker, with


(hemorrhoids, pancreatitis, appendicitis). Mr. Bean had complained of sharp midepigastric pain and a change in bowel habits. 3. Many pregnant women cannot lie flat after eating without experiencing a burning sensation in their chest and throat. The usual cause of this symptom is (volvulus, dysentery, gastroesophageal reflux). 4. Mr. and Mrs. Cho brought their infant son to the clinic after he had several bouts of projectile vomiting. The pediatric surgeon suspected a diagnosis of (inguinal hernia, pyloric stenosis, ascites). 5. Boris had terrible problems with his teeth. He needed not only a periodontist for his (aphthous stomatitis, oral leukoplakia, gingivitis) but also an (endodontist, oral surgeon, orthodontist) to straighten his teeth. 6. After 6 weeks of radiation therapy to her throat, Be y experienced severe esophageal irritation and inflammation. She complained to her doctor about her resulting (dyspepsia, dysphagia, hematemesis). 7. Steven, age 7 years, is brought to the clinic because of recurrent abdominal pain, occasional constipation and diarrhea, and weight loss. His pediatrician's diagnosis is (lipase deficiency, dysentery, celiac disease) and recommends a (fat, gluten, sugar)-free diet. 8. Chris had been a heavy alcohol drinker all of his adult life. His wife noticed worsening yellow discoloration of the whites of his eyes and skin. After a physical examination and blood tests, his


family physician told him his (colon, skin, liver) was diseased. The yellow discoloration was (jaundice, melena, flatus), and his condition was (cheilosis, cirrhosis, steatorrhea). 9. When Carol was working as a phlebotomist, she accidentally cut her finger while drawing a patient's blood. Unfortunately the patient had (pancreatitis, hemoptysis, hepatitis), and HBV was transmi ed to Carol. Blood tests and (liver biopsy, gastrointestinal endoscopy, stool culture) confirmed Carol's unfortunate diagnosis. Her doctor told her that her condition was chronic and that she might be a candidate for a (bone marrow, liver, kidney) transplant procedure in the future. 10. Operation Smile is a rescue project that performs surgical repair including (herniorrhaphy, oral gingivectomy, palatoplasty) on children with a congenital cleft in the roof of the mouth. 11. After months of treatment with antibiotics, Anne developed abdominal pain and chronic severe diarrhea. Harmful bacteria C. difficile took over her (stomach, colon, esophagus). To restore normal bacteria to the gut, she received a (gastric bypass, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, fecal transplant).


Answers to Exercises A 1. digestion 2. spi ing (from the respiratory tract) 3. vomiting 4. eating, swallowing 5. flow, discharge 6. bursting forth of blood 7. suture 8. surgical repair 9. dilation (dilatation), widening 10. narrowing, tightening 11. to stop; control 12. sudden, involuntary contraction of muscles 13. opening B 1. cholestasis 2. herniorrhaphy 3. cholangiectasia 4. hemoptysis 5. hematemesis 6. palatoplasty


7. pyloric stenosis 8. gastrorrhagia 9. pylorospasm 10. hemorrhage 11. choledochotomy C 1. difficulty in swallowing 2. excessive (much) eating 3. difficult digestion 4. biliary ducts are not open (congenital anomaly) 5. discharge of mucus from the nose 6. stoppage of flow of bile 7. esophagus is not open (closed off) at birth (congenital anomaly) 8. surgical repair of the pyloric sphincter 9. bursting forth of blood (hemorrhage) from the spleen 10. visual (endoscopic) examination of the rectum and sigmoid colon 11. bursting forth of blood 12. inflammation of bile duct (vessel) D 1. cholecystectomy 2. colectomy


3. herniorrhaphy 4. cecostomy 5. abdominoplasty 6. sphincterotomy 7. pancreatoduodenectomy 8. ileostomy 9. gingivectomy 10. cholecystojejunostomy 11. paracentesis (abdominocentesis) 12. palatoplasty E 1. steatorrhea 2. dysphagia 3. cholelithiasis 4. buccal 5. labiodental 6. hematemesis 7. hepatomegaly 8. sublingual 9. cholecystectomy 10. choledochal 11. gastrorrhagia F


1. twisted intestine in the area of the cecum 2. inflammation of the mouth with small ulcers 3. autoimmune disorder in which villi in the lining of the small intestine are damaged, resulting from reaction to dietary glutens such as wheat, barley, and rye 4. enzyme to digest fat 5. abnormal condition of lips 6. the part of the throat near the mouth 7. storage form of sugar 8. removal of part or all of the tongue 9. removal of a salivary gland 10. membrane surrounding a tooth 11. dilation of the common bile duct 12. malignant tumor of bile vessels G 1. serum bilirubin 2. stool culture 3. barium enema 4. abdominal ultrasonography 5. stool guaiac (Hemoccult) 6. small bowel follow-through 7. percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC) 8. nasogastric intubation


9. CT scan of the abdomen 10. endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) 11. bariatric surgery (gastric bypass) 12. endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) 13. liver biopsy 14. laparoscopy (form of minimally invasive surgery) 15. gastrostomy (G tube) 16. HIDA scan H 1. total parenteral nutrition: E 2. peptic ulcer disease: D 3. esophagoduodenoscopy: J 4. inflammatory bowel disease: C 5. barium enema: F 6. bright red blood per rectum: I 7. liver function tests: A 8. gastroesophageal reflux disease: B 9. hepatitis B virus: H 10. computed tomography: G I 1. -rrhagia, -rrhage 2. -rrhea


3. -rrhaphy 4. -ectasis, -ectasia 5. -stenosis 6. -emesis 7. -ptysis 8. -ectomy 9. -pepsia 10. -phagia 11. -sclerosis 12. -stasis 13. -plasty 14. -tresia 15. -centesis 16. -spasm 17. -stomy 18. -tomy J In a fecal transplant, stool from a healthy donor, is transferred into the colon of a patient/recipient. This is necessary when the patient’s colon contains harmful bacteria, such as C. difficile. After transplant, normal stool bacteria populate the colon of the patient.

K 1. gastroenterologist; inflammatory bowel disease 2. pancreatitis


3. gastroesophageal reflux 4. pyloric stenosis 5. gingivitis; orthodontist 6. dysphagia 7. celiac disease; gluten 8. liver; jaundice; cirrhosis 9. hepatitis; liver biopsy; liver 10. palatoplasty 11. colon; fecal transplant Answers to Practical Applications Case Report: Pancreatic Cancer and Whipple Procedure

1. c 2. b 3. d 4. b Pronunciation of Terms

The terms you have learned in this chapter are presented here with their pronunciations. The meanings for all the terms are in the MiniDictionary beginning on page 897. You can also hear each term pronounced on the Evolve website (h p://


TERM abdominal ultrasonography abdominoplasty amylase and lipase tests aphthous stomatitis atresia bariatric surgery biliary atresia bronchospasm buccal cecal volvulus celiac disease cheilosis cholangiectasis cholangiocarcinoma cholangiography cholangiopancreatography cholangitis cholecystectomy cholecystojejunostomy cholecystolithiasis choledochal choledochectasia cholelithiasis cholestasis colectomy colonoscopy computed tomography dentalgia diarrhea duodenal dyspepsia dysphagia endoscopic ultrasonography esophageal atresia fecal transplant gastroenteritis gastrointestinal endoscopy gastrojejunostomy gastrorrhagia gastrostomy gingivectomy glossectomy gluconeogenesis glycogen hematemesis hemoptysis hemorrhage hepatomegaly herniorrhaphy HIDA scan ileostomy labiodental

PRONUNCIATION ab-DOM-in-al ul-trah-so-NOG-rah-fe ab-DOM-in-o-plas-te AM-ih-lays and LI-pays tests AF-thus sto-mah-TI-tis a-TRE-ze-ah bah-re-AH-trk SUR-jeh-re BIH-le-ah-re a-TRE-ze-ah BRONG-ko-spasm BUK-al SE-kal VOL-vu-lus SE-le-ak dih-ZEEZ ki-LO-sis ko-lan-je-EK-tah-sis ko-lan-je-o-kar-sih-NO-mah ko-lan-je-OG-rah-fe ko-lan-je-o-pan-kre-uh-TOG-rah-fe ko-lan-JI-tis ko-le-sis-TEK-to-me ko-le-sis-to-jeh-jun-NOS-to-me ko-le-sis-to-lih-THI-ah-sis ko-le-DOK-al ko-le-do-kek-TA-se-ah ko-le-lih-THI-ah-sis ko-le-STA-sis ko-LEK-to-me ko-lon-OS-ko-pe kom-PU-ted to-MOG-rah-fe den-TAL-jah di-ah-RE-ah du-o-DE-nal dis-PEP-se-ah dis-FA-je-ah en-do-SKOP-ikul-trah-so-NOG-rah-fe eh-sof-ah-JE-al a-TRE-ze-ah fe-kal tranz-plant gas-tro-en-teh-RI-tis gas-tro-in-TES-tih-nal en-DOS-ko-pe gas-tro-jeh-ju-NOS-to-me gas-tro-RA-jah gas-TROS-to-me gin-gih-VEK-to-me glos-EK-to-me glu-ko-ne-o-JEN-eh-sis GLI-ko-jen he-mah-TEM-eh-sis he-MOP-tih-sis HEM-or-ij hep-ah-to-MEG-ah-le her-ne-OR-ah-fe HIH-dah skan il-e-OS-to-me la-be-o-DEN-tal


TERM laparoscopy lipase liver biopsy liver function tests lower gastrointestinal series magnetic resonance imaging nasogastric intubation oropharynx palatoplasty pancreatic pancreatoduodenectomy paracentesis periodontal membrane polyphagia proctosigmoidoscopy pyloric stenosis pylorospasm rectal carcinoma sialadenectomy splenic flexure steatorrhea stool culture stool guaiac sublingual upper gastrointestinal series

PRONUNCIATION lap-ah-ROS-ko-pe LI-pays LIV-er bi-OP-se LIV-er FUNK-shun tests LO-er gas-tro-in-TES-tin-al SE-reez mag-NET-ik REH-zo-nants IM-aj-ing na-zo-GAS-trik in-tu-BA-shun or-o-FAH-rinks pah-LAT-o-plas-te pan-kre-AH-tik pan-kre-ah-to-du-o-deh-NEK-to me par-ah-sen-TE-sis peh-re-o-DON-tal MEM-brayn pol-e-FA-je-ah prok-to-sig-moyd-OS-ko-pe pi-LOR-ik steh-NO-sis pi-LOR-o-spasm REK-tal kar-sih-NO-mah si-al-ah-deh-NEK-to-me SPLEN-ik FLEK-shur ste-ah-to-RE-ah stool KUL-chur stool GWI-ak sub-LING-wal UP-er gas-tro-in-TEST-in-al SER-eez

Review Sheet

Write meanings for combining forms and suffixes in the spaces provided. Check your answers with information in Chapter 5 and this chapter or in the Glossary (Medical Word Parts—English) at the end of this book.

Combining Forms


COMBINING FORM abdomin/o amyl/o an/o append/o, appendic/o bil/i bilirubin/o bucc/o cec/o celi/o cervic/o cheil/o chlorhydr/o chol/e cholangi/o cholecyst/o choledoch/o cib/o cirrh/o col/o, colon/o dent/i duoden/o enter/o esophag/o eti/o gastr/o gingiv/o gloss/o gluc/o, glyc/o glycogen/o hem/o, hemat/o hepat/o herni/o idi/o ile/o pancreat/o peritone/o pharyng/o proct/o prote/o py/o pylor/o rect/o sialaden/o splen/o steat/o stomat/o tonsill/o

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________



SUFFIX -ase -centesis -chezia -ectasia -ectasis -ectomy -emesis -emia -genesis -graphy -iasis -megaly -orexia -ptosis -rrhage -rrhagia -rrhaphy -rrhea -scopy -spasm -stasis -stenosis -stomy -tomy -tresia

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________




Urinary System CHAPTER SECTIONS Introduction 204 Anatomy of the Major Organs 204 Physiology: How the Kidneys Produce Urine 206 Vocabulary 209 Terminology: Structures, Substances, and Urinary Signs and Symptoms 211 Urinalysis 216 Pathologic Terminology: Kidney, Bladder, and Associated Conditions 217 Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures 220 Abbreviations 225 Practical Applications 226 In Person: Kidney Transplant 228 Exercises 229 Answers to Exercises 234 Pronunciation of Terms 236 Review Sheet 238

CHAPTER GOALS • Name essential organs of the urinary system and describe their locations and functions. • Identify common pathologic conditions affecting the urinary system. • Recognize how urinalysis is used and interpreted as a diagnostic test. • Define urinary system–related combining forms, prefixes, and suffixes. • List and explain laboratory tests, clinical procedures, and abbreviations that pertain to the urinary system.


• Understand medical terms in their proper contexts, such as medical reports and records.


Introduction When foods containing proteins are used by cells in the body, nitrogenous waste products (urea, creatinine, and uric acid) are released into the bloodstream. The urinary system removes these nitrogenous wastes from the blood so that they do not accumulate and become harmful. As blood passes through the kidneys, the kidneys filter nitrogenous wastes to form urine (composed of water, salts, and acids). Urine leaves the body through the ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. Every day, the kidneys process about 200 quarts of blood to filter out 2 quarts of urine. Besides removing urea and other nitrogenous wastes from the blood, the kidneys maintain the proper balance of water, electrolytes, and acids in body fluids. Electrolytes such as sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) are small molecules that conduct an electrical charge. Electrolytes are necessary for proper functioning of muscle and nerve cells. The kidney adjusts the amounts of water and electrolytes by secreting some substances into the urine and holding back others in the bloodstream for use in the body. This is an example of homeostasis, which is the body's ability to maintain an equilibrium within its internal environment. Home/o means sameness. In addition to forming and excreting (eliminating) urine from the body, the kidneys secrete an enzyme called renin (RE-nin) and a hormone called erythropoietin (eh-rith-ro-POY-it-in). Renin raises blood pressure (to keep blood moving through the kidney). Erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow. The kidneys also secrete calciferol, an active form of vitamin D, necessary for the absorption of calcium from the intestine. In addition, the kidneys degrade and eliminate hormones such as insulin and parathyroid hormone from the bloodstream. Box 7-1 reviews the functions of the kidneys.

Box 7-1

Functions of The Kidneys • Remove nitrogenous wastes: urea, creatinine, uric acid • Balance water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium) • Release substances: renin, erythropoietin, calciferol • Degrade and eliminate hormones from bloodstream


Anatomy of the Major Organs The following paragraphs describe the organs of the urinary system. Label Figure 7-1 as you identify each organ.

FIGURE 7-1 Male urinary system.

The kidney [1] is one of two bean-shaped organs behind the abdominal cavity (retroperitoneal) on either side of the spine in the lumbar region. A cushion of adipose (fa y) tissue and fibrous connective tissue surrounds each kidney for protection. Each kidney (about the size of a fist) weighs about 4 to 6 ounces. The kidneys consist of an outer cortex region (cortex means bark, as the bark of a tree) and an inner medulla region (medulla means marrow). The hilum is a depression on the medial border of the kidney. Blood vessels and nerves pass through the hilum.


The ureter [2] is one of two muscular tubes (16 to 18 inches long) lined with mucous membrane. Ureters carry urine in peristaltic waves from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. The urinary bladder [3], a hollow, muscular sac, is a temporary reservoir for urine. The trigone is a triangular region at the base of the bladder where the ureters enter and the urethra exits. The urethra [4] is a tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. The process of expelling urine through the urethra is called urination or voiding. The external opening of the urethra is the urinary meatus. The male urethra, about 8 inches long, extends downward through the prostate gland to the urinary meatus, at the tip of the penis. In the female urinary system, the urethra, about 2 inches long, lies anterior to the vagina. See Figure 7-2A, which illustrates the female urinary system. When a patient can't empty his/her bladder, a tube called a catheter is often inserted through the urethra to drain urine from the bladder. See Figure 72B.

FIGURE 7-2 A. Female urinary system. B. Urinary catheter placement.


Physiology: How the Kidneys Produce Urine Blood enters each kidney from the aorta by way of the right and left renal arteries. After the renal artery enters the kidney (at the hilum), it branches into smaller and smaller arteries. The smallest arteries are called arterioles (Figure 7-3A).

FIGURE 7-3 A, Renal artery branching to form smaller arteries and arterioles, and glomeruli. B, Glomerulus and glomerular capsule. Afferent arteriole carries blood toward (in this term, af- is a form of ad-) the glomerulus. Efferent arteriole carries blood away (ef- is a form of ex-) from the glomerulus.

Because the arterioles are small, blood passes through them slowly but constantly. Blood flow through the kidney is so essential that the kidneys have their own special device for maintaining blood flow. If blood pressure falls in the vessels of the kidney so that blood flow diminishes, the kidney produces renin and discharges it into the blood. Renin promotes the formation of a substance that stimulates the contraction of arterioles. This increases blood pressure and restores blood flow in the kidneys to normal. Each arteriole in the cortex of the kidney leads into a mass of very tiny, coiled, and intertwined smaller blood vessels called glomeruli (see Figure 73A). Each glomerulus (singular) is a collection of tiny capillaries formed in the shape of a small ball. There are about 1 million glomeruli in the cortex region of each kidney. The kidneys produce urine by filtration. As blood passes through the many glomeruli, the thin walls of each glomerulus (the filter) permit water, salts, sugar, and urea (with other nitrogenous wastes such as creatinine and uric acid) to leave the bloodstream. These materials collect in a tiny, cup-like structure, a glomerular (Bowman) capsule, that surrounds each glomerulus (Figure 7-3B). The walls of the glomeruli prevent large substances, such as


proteins and blood cells, from filtering into the urine. These substances remain in the blood and normally do not appear in urine. A ached to each glomerular capsule is a long, twisted tube called a renal tubule (Figure 7-3B; see also Figure 7-4). As water, sugar, salts, urea, and other wastes pass through the renal tubule, most of the water, all of the sugar, and almost all of the sodium return to the bloodstream through tiny capillaries surrounding each tubule. This active process of reabsorption ensures that the body retains essential substances such as sugar (glucose), water, and sodium while allowing waste products to be excreted in the urine. The final process in the formation of urine is secretion of some substances such as potassium, acids and drugs from the bloodstream into the renal tubule. Each renal tubule, now containing urine (95% water and 5% urea, creatinine, salts and acids) connects to a larger collecting tubule.

FIGURE 7-4 A, Three steps in the formation of urine: (1) Glomerular filtration of water, sugar, wastes (urea and creatinine), and sodium; (2) Tubular reabsorption of water, sugar, and sodium; and (3) Tubular secretion of acids, potassium, and drugs. B, A nephron is the combination of a glomerulus and a renal tubule.

See Figure 7-4A, which reviews the steps involved in urine formation. Note that waste products may accumulate in the body as a result of kidney failure and may interfere with the function of vital organs, including the brain and heart. The combination of a glomerulus and a renal tubule forms a unit called a nephron (Figure 7-4B). Each kidney contains about 1 million nephrons. All collecting tubules lead to the renal pelvis, a basin-like area in the central part of the kidney. Small, cup-like regions of the renal pelvis are


called calyces or calices (singular: calyx or calix). Figure 7-5 is an x-ray image of a kidney showing the renal pelvis, calyces, and ureter.

FIGURE 7-5 Renal pelvis, calyces, and ureter as seen on CT urogram (intravenous dye was used).

The renal pelvis narrows into the ureter, which carries the urine to the urinary bladder. The bladder, a muscular sac, temporarily stores urine. Sphincter muscles control the exit area of the bladder to the urethra. As the bladder fills and pressure increases at its base, an individual notices a need to urinate and voluntarily relaxes sphincter muscles. Study the diagram in Figure 7-6 tracing the process of urine formation and excretion.


FIGURE 7-6 Flow diagram illustrating the process of forming and expelling urine.



arteriole calciferol calyx or calix (plural: calyces or calices) catheter

Small artery. Active form of vitamin D, secreted by the kidney. Cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis. The term comes from Greek, kalux meaning a cup or case surrounding a flower bud.

Tube for injecting or removing fluids. A bladder catheter drains urine from the bladder. cortex Outer region of an organ; the renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney (cortical means pertaining to the cortex). creatinine Nitrogenous waste excreted in urine. Creatinine is a product of muscle metabolism. Creatinine clearance is a measure of the efficiency of the kidneys in removing (clearing) creatinine from the blood. electrolyte Chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water. Electrolytes are necessary for functioning of muscles and nerves. The kidneys maintain the proper balance of electrolytes and water in the blood. Potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+) are electrolytes. erythropoietin Hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate the production of red blood cells. (EPO) Poietin means a substance that forms. EPO stimulates red blood cell production by bone marrow and thus increases the amount of oxygen delivered to muscles. This enhances athletic endurance. However, use of EPO is a form of blood doping and is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Authority (WADA). filtration Process whereby some substances, but not all, pass through a filter. glomerular Enclosing structure surrounding each glomerulus. The glomerular capsule is also capsule known as Bowman capsule and collects the material that is filtered from the blood through the walls of the glomerulus. glomerulus Tiny ball of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) in the kidney. (plural: glomeruli) hilum Depression in the kidney where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave. Hilum comes from the Latin meaning a small thing. It is also used in the respiratory system to mark the depression in the lung where blood vessels, bronchus, and lymphatic vessels enter and leave. kidney One of two bean-shaped organs on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region. It filters nitrogenous wastes from the bloodstream to form urine. meatus Opening or canal. medulla Inner region of an organ. The renal medulla is the inner region of the kidney. Medullary means pertaining to the medulla. The term comes from the Latin medulla, meaning marrow (inner part). nephron Functional unit of the kidney. It is the combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration, reabsorption, and secretion take place in the kidney. Each nephron is capable of forming urine by itself. There are about 1 million nephrons in a kidney. nitrogenous Substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine. Examples of nitrogenous waste wastes are urea, uric acid, and creatinine. potassium Electrolyte regulated by the kidney so that a proper concentration is maintained within the blood. Potassium is essential for allowing muscle contraction and (K+) conduction of nervous impulses. reabsorption Process whereby renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream. renal artery Blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney. renal pelvis Central collecting region in the kidney. renal tubule Microscopic tube in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration. renal vein Blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and toward the heart. renin Enzyme secreted by the kidney. It raises blood pressure by influencing vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels). sodium (Na+) Electrolyte regulated in the blood and urine by the kidneys. It is needed for proper transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and other metabolic functions. A common form of sodium is sodium chloride (table salt).


trigone urea ureter urethra uric acid urinary bladder urination (voiding)

Triangular area in the urinary bladder. Major nitrogenous waste excreted in urine. One of the two tubes leading from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. Tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. Nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine. Hollow, muscular sac that holds and stores urine. Process of expelling urine; also called micturition.

Filtration of Blood Through the Kidney

This process is maintained by output from the heart (25% of cardiac output goes to the kidneys) and adequate blood pressure to force blood through the glomerulus (filter). About 200 quarts (189 L) of fluid are filtered daily, but 98% to 99% of water and salts are returned to the blood. Only about 2 quarts (1500 mL) of urine are excreted daily.

Terminology Structures, Substances, and Urinary Signs and Symptoms Write the meanings of the medical terms in the spaces provided.



COMBINING MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING FORM cali/o, calic/o calyx caliectasis ________________________________________caliceal (calix); cup- __________________________________________ shaped cyst/o urinary cystitis __________________________________________ bladder Bacterial infections often cause acute or chronic cystitis. In acute cystitis, the bladder contains blood as a result of mucosal hemorrhage (Figure 7-7).cystectomy ______________________________________cystostomy ______________________________________ An opening is made into the urinary bladder from the outside of the body. A catheter is placed into the bladder for drainage. glomerul/o glomerulus glomerular capsule _________________________________ meat/o meatus meatal stenosis ____________________________________ nephr/o kidney paranephric ______________________________________ nephropathy ______________________________________ (neh-FROP-ah-the) nephroptosis ______________________________________ Downward displacement or dropping of a kidney when its anatomic supports are weakened. Nephropexy (-pexy means fixation) is an operation to put a “floating” kidney in place. nephrolithotomy __________________________________ Incision (percutaneous) into the kidney to remove a stone. hydronephrosis ____________________________________ Obstruction of urine flow may be caused by renal calculi (Figure 7-8), compression of the ureter by tumor, or hyperplasia of the prostate gland at the base of the bladder in males. nephrostomy ______________________________________ Surgical opening to the outside of the body (from the renal pelvis). This is necessary when a ureter becomes obstructed and the obstruction cannot be removed easily. The renal pelvis becomes distended with urine (hydronephrosis), making nephrostomy necessary. pyel/o renal pelvis pyelolithotomy ____________________________________ Removal of a large calculus (stone) contributing to blockage of urine flow and development of infection. The renal pelvis is surgically opened. ren/o kidney renal ischemia ____________________________________renal colic ________________________________________ Colic is intermi ent spasms of pain caused by inflammation and distention of an organ. In renal colic, pain results from calculi in the kidney or ureter. trigon/o trigone trigonitis _________________________________________ (region of the bladder) ureter/o ureter ureteroplasty ______________________________________ureteroileostomy __________________________________ After cystectomy, the urologic surgeon forms a pouch from a segment of the ileum, used in place of the bladder to carry urine from ureters out of the body (Figure 7-9). It is an ileal conduit. urethr/o urethra urethritis ________________________________________urethroplasty _____________________________________urethral stricture _________________________________ A stricture is an abnormal narrowing of an opening or passageway.


COMBINING MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING FORM vesic/o urinary intravesical _______________________________________ bladder Do not confuse the term vesical with the term vesicle, which is a small blister on the skin.vesicoureteral reflux ________________________________

FIGURE 7-7 Acute cystitis. Notice that the mucosa of the bladder is red and swollen. Bladder and urinary tract infections are more common in women because of the shorter urethra, which allows easier bacterial colonization of the urinary bladder. They usually occur without a known cause but may be acquired during sexual intercourse (“honeymoon cystitis”) or after surgical procedures and urinary catheterization.


FIGURE 7-8 A, Hydronephrosis caused by a stone (obstruction) in the proximal part of a ureter. Notice the buildup of excess fluid in the kidney. B, Hydroureter with hydronephrosis caused by a stone in the distal part of the ureter.


FIGURE 7-9 Ileostomy and ileal conduit after cystectomy.

Substances and Urinary Signs and Symptoms


COMBINING FORM OR MEANING SUFFIX albumin/o albumin (a protein in the blood)



albuminuria ____________________________________ The suffix -uria means urine condition. This finding can indicate malfunction of the kidney as protein leaks out of damaged glomeruli. Microalbuminuria is leakage of very small amounts of albumin through the glomeruli. azot/o nitrogen azotemia ____________________________________ This toxic condition is characteristic of uremia. It is indicated by an elevated BUN (blood urea nitrogen) test. bacteri/o bacteria bacteriuria ____________________________________ Usually a sign of urinary tract infection (UTI). The bacteria in the urine are cultured (grown in a special nutrient environment) and then tested with antibiotics to determine which will inhibit growth. This is known as culture and sensitivity testing (C&S). dips/o thirst polydipsia ____________________________________ Commonly, a sign of diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus. Polydipsia occurs when excessive urination (polyuria) signals the brain to cause thirst. kal/i potassium hyperkalemia ____________________________________ Because potassium (K+) normally is excreted by the kidneys, it accumulates in blood when the kidneys fail. ket/o, keton/o ketone ketosis ____________________________________ bodies Often called ketoacidosis, because acids accumulate in the blood (ketoacids and tissues. The breath of a patient with ketosis has a sweet or and “fruity” odor. This is produced by acetone (a ketone body) released acetone) from the blood in the lungs and exhaled through the mouth.ketonuria ____________________________________ lith/o stone nephrolithiasis ____________________________________ natr/o sodium hyponatremia ____________________________________ This condition can occur when water intake is excessive—primary polydipsia, or when athletes drink too much water in highendurance events. noct/o night nocturia ____________________________________ Frequent, excessive urination at night. olig/o scanty oliguria ____________________________________ -poietin substance that erythropoietin ____________________________________ forms py/o pus pyuria ____________________________________ -tripsy crushing lithotripsy ____________________________________ ur/o urine (urea) uremia ____________________________________ This toxic state results when nitrogenous waste accumulates abnormally in the blood.enuresis ____________________________________ Literally, a condition (-esis) of being “in urine”; bed-we ing. diuresis ____________________________________ Di- (from dia-) means complete. Caffeine and alcohol are wellknown diuretics—they induce increased excretion of urine (diuresis).antidiuretic hormone ______________________________ This hormone from the pituitary gland normally acts on the renal tubules to promote water reabsorption. It is also called vasopressin and is abbreviated ADH.




urination; urine condition



urinary incontinence ________________________________ Incontinence literally means not (in-) able to hold (tin) together (con-). This is loss of control of the passage of urine from the bladder. Stress incontinence occurs with strain on the bladder opening during coughing or sneezing. Urgency incontinence occurs with the inability to hold back urination when feeling the urge to void.urinary retention _______________________________ This symptom results when the outflow of urine from the bladder is blocked. dysuria __________________________________anuria ____________________________________ Commonly caused by renal failure or urinary tract obstruction.hematuria ____________________________________ Microhematuria is hematuria that is visible only under a microscope, as opposed to gross hematuria, which can be seen with the naked eye.glycosuria ____________________________________ A sign of diabetes mellitus.polyuria ____________________________________ A symptom of both diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus.


Don't confuse enuresis, which is involuntary, with nocturia, which is voluntary, frequent urination at night.


Urinalysis Urinalysis is an examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements that may indicate various pathologic conditions. It is an inexpensive, noninvasive test that provides valuable information not only about the contents of urine, but about diseases affecting the body as a whole. Urinalysis may be done in an office se ing with almost instant results. See Figure 7-10.

FIGURE 7-10 Dipstick testing and urinalysis.

The following are some of the tests included in a urinalysis: 1. Color—Normal urine color is yellow (amber) or straw-colored. A colorless, pale urine indicates a large amount of water in the urine, whereas a smoky-red or brown color of urine indicates the presence of large amounts of blood. Foods such as beets and certain drugs also can produce a red coloration of urine. 2. Appearance—Normally, urine should be clear. Cloudy or turbid urine indicates a urinary tract infection with pus (pyuria) and bacteria (bacteriuria). 3. pH—Determination of pH reveals the chemical nature of urine. It indicates to what degree a solution is acid or alkaline (basic) (Figure 7-11). Normal urine has a slightly acidic pH of 6.5. However, in some infections of the bladder, the urine pH may be alkaline, owing to the actions of bacteria in the urine that break down urea and release ammonia (an alkaline substance).



The pH scale. Pure water has a neutral pH.

4. Protein—Small amounts of protein are normally found in the urine but not in sufficient quantity to produce a positive result by ordinary methods of testing. When urinary tests for protein become positive, albumin is usually responsible. Albumin is the major protein in blood plasma. If it is detected in urine (albuminuria), it may indicate a leak in the glomerular membrane, which allows albumin to enter the renal tubule and pass into the urine. Through more sensitive testing, smaller abnormal amounts of albumin may be detected, revealing microalbuminuria, when ordinary tests are negative. Microalbuminuria is recognized as the earliest sign of renal involvement in diabetes mellitus. 5. Glucose—Sugar is not normally found in the urine. In most cases, when it does appear (glycosuria), it indicates diabetes mellitus. In diabetes mellitus, there is excess sugar in the bloodstream (hyperglycemia), which leads to the “spilling over” of sugar into the urine. The renal tubules cannot reabsorb all the sugar that filters out through the glomerular membrane. 6. Specific gravity—The specific gravity of urine reflects the amounts of wastes, minerals, and solids in the urine. It is a comparison of the density of urine with that of water. The urine of patients with diabetes mellitus has a higher-than-normal specific gravity because of the presence of sugar. 7. Ketone bodies—Ketones (or acetones, a type of ketone body) are formed when fa y acids are broken down in the liver. Ketones accumulate in blood and urine when the body breaks down fat, instead of sugar, for fuel. Ketonuria occurs in diabetes mellitus when cells deprived of sugar must use up their available fat for energy. In starvation, when sugar is not available, ketonuria and ketosis (ketones in the blood) occur as fat is catabolized abnormally. Ketones in the blood are dangerous because they increase the acidity of the blood (ketoacidosis). If severe, this may lead to coma (unconsciousness) and death. 8. Sediment and casts—The presence of abnormal particles in the urine is a sign of a pathologic condition. Such particles, which may se le to the bo om of a urine sample as sediment, may include cells (epithelial, white, or red blood cells), bacteria, crystals, and casts (cylindrical structures of protein often containing cellular elements). 9. Phenylketonuria (PKU)—This is a rare condition in which a baby is born unable to break down an amino acid, phenylalanine. Resulting


high blood levels of phenylalanine (phenylketones are detected in urine) can lead to mental retardation. Although the PKU test originally was performed on urine specimens, now it is done by pricking the newborn's heel to obtain a small blood sample. If phenylalanine is detected, the infant is fed a diet excluding phenylalanine. Affected children remain on this diet until adulthood. 10. Bilirubin—A small amount of this pigment substance is present in urine and gives its distinctive yellow color. Bilirubin is a product of red blood cell breakdown, and increased levels in urine (bilirubinuria) are present in patients with liver disease.


Pathologic Terminology: Kidney, Bladder, and Associated Conditions Kidney



interstitial nephritis


nephrotic syndrome (nephrosis)

polycystic kidney disease (PKD)


renal cell carcinoma

renal failure

renal hypertension

Inflammation of the glomeruli within the kidney. This condition can follow a streptococcal infection or can be associated with an autoimmune disease. It results in leaky glomeruli, hematuria, red blood cell casts, albuminuria, and when severe, renal failure and uremia. Drugs may be useful to control inflammation, and dialysis or renal transplantation may be necessary if uremia occurs. Inflammation of connective tissue that lies between the renal tubules. Connective, supportive tissue lying between the renal tubules is made up of renal interstitial cells. Interstitial cells in any organ are found in addition to the essential, main functional cells, which make up the parenchyma. The parenchyma in the kidney consists of the glomeruli and the renal tubules (nephrons). Acute interstitial nephritis, an increasingly common disorder, may develop after use of NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin and ibuprofen) and other drugs. It may be marked by fever, skin rash, and eosinophils in the blood and urine. Kidney stones (renal calculi). Kidney stones usually are composed of uric acid or calcium salts. Stones often lodge in the ureter or bladder, as well as in the renal pelvis, and may require removal by lithotripsy (see page 222) or surgery. Group of clinical signs and symptoms caused by excessive protein loss in urine. Nephrotic syndrome may follow glomerulonephritis or exposure to toxins or certain drugs, immune diseases, and other pathologic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and cancer. Two important signs of nephrotic syndrome are edema (swelling caused by fluid in tissue spaces) and hypoalbuminemia. Both of these changes are caused by massive leakage of protein into urine. Multiple fluid-filled sacs (cysts) within and on the kidney. There are two types of hereditary PKD. One type usually is asymptomatic (without symptoms) until middle age and then is marked by hematuria, urinary tract infections, nephrolithiasis, and renal failure. The other type of PKD occurs in infants or children and results in renal failure. Figure 7-12A shows polycystic kidney disease. Inflammation of the lining of the renal pelvis and renal parenchyma. The parenchyma of an organ is its essential and distinctive tissue. Nephrons make up the renal parenchyma. Bacterial infection in the urinary tract causes collections of pus to form in the kidney, often associated with bacteria spilling into the bloodstream. Urinalysis reveals pyuria. Treatment consists of antibiotics and surgical correction of any obstruction to urine flow. Cancerous tumor of the kidney in adulthood. This tumor (see Figure 7-12B) accounts for 2% of all cancers in adults. Hematuria is the primary abnormal finding, and the tumor often metastasizes to bones and lungs. Nephrectomy or partial nephrectomy is the primary treatment. Decrease in excretion of wastes results from impaired filtration function. A large number of conditions, including high blood pressure, infection, and diabetes, can lead to renal failure, which may be acute (ARF) or chronic (CRF), reversible or progressive, mild or severe. A newer classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) classifies its severity by the level of creatinine clearance and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), ranging from normal (stage 1) to end-stage renal failure or ESRF (stage 5), See Spotlight on CKD stages on page 225. High blood pressure resulting from kidney disease. Renal hypertension is a type of secondary hypertension (high blood pressure caused by an abnormal condition such as glomerulonephritis). However, the most common type of high blood pressure is essential


Wilms tumor

hypertension, or primary hypertension. In essential hypertension there is no obvious underlying medical condition. Chronic essential hypertension can damage blood vessels, potentially resulting in stroke, myocardial infarction (heart a ack), heart failure, or renal failure. Malignant tumor of the kidney occurring in childhood. This tumor may be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

FIGURE 7-12 A, Polycystic kidney disease. The kidneys contain masses of cysts. Typically, polycystic kidneys weigh 20 times more than their usual weight (150 to 200 grams). B, Renal cell carcinoma.

Urinary Bladder


bladder cancer

Malignant tumor of the urinary bladder. Bladder cancer occurs more frequently in men (often smokers) and in persons older than 50 years of age, especially industrial workers exposed to dyes and leathertanning agents. Signs and symptoms include gross (visible to the naked eye) or microscopic hematuria and dysuria. Cystoscopy with biopsy is the most common diagnostic procedure. Staging of the tumor is based on the depth to which the tumor invades the bladder wall and presence of metastasis. Superficial tumors are removed by electrocauterization (burning). Cystectomy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are treatments for disease that has spread deeply into the bladder wall, to regional lymph nodes, or to distant organs.

Associated Conditions diabetes insipidus (DI)

diabetes mellitus (DM)

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is not secreted, or there is a resistance of the kidney to ADH. In DI, the kidney produces large amounts of dilute urine (polyuria). Lack of ADH prevents water from being reabsorbed into the blood through the renal tubules. Insipidus means tasteless, reflecting very dilute and watery urine, not sweet as in diabetes mellitus. The term diabetes comes from the Greek diabainein, meaning to pass through. Both types of diabetes (insipidus and mellitus) are marked by polyuria and polydipsia. Insulin is not secreted adequately or tissues are resistant to its effects. The major signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus are glycosuria, hyperglycemia, polyuria, and polydipsia. Without insulin, sugar cannot leave the bloodstream and is not available to body cells for energy. Sugar remains in the blood (hyperglycemia) and spills over into the urine (glycosuria). Mellitus means sweet, reflecting the content of the urine. The term diabetes, when used alone, refers to diabetes mellitus. See Chapter 18 for more information about diabetes mellitus.


Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures Laboratory Tests BUN (blood urea nitrogen) creatinine clearance

Measurement of urea levels in blood. Normally, the BUN (pronounced be-u-n) level is low because urea is excreted in the urine continuously. However, when the kidney is diseased or fails, the BUN may be very high. Urea accumulates in the blood (uremia), leading to unconsciousness and death. Measurement of the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney. This is an important test to assess the functioning of the kidney. A blood sample is drawn and the creatinine concentration in blood is compared with the amount of creatinine excreted in the urine during a fixed time period. If the kidney is not functioning well in its job of clearing creatinine from the blood, the amount of creatinine in the blood will be high relative to the amount in urine. Creatinine clearance is a useful indicator of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which normally is 90 to 120 mL/minute.

Clinical Procedures X-Ray Studies CT urography

KUB (kidneys, ureters, and bladder) renal angiography retrograde pyelogram (RP) voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)

X-ray images obtained using computed tomography (CT) show multiple cross-sectional and other views of the kidney. CT scanners show multiple views of the kidney, taken with or without contrast material. Two main indications are to detect kidney stones and to evaluate patients with hematuria (Figure 7-13A). X-ray examination (without contrast) of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. A KUB (prounced k-u-be) study demonstrates the size and location of the kidneys in relation to other organs in the abdominopelvic region. It can also show kidney stones. X-ray examination (with contrast) of the blood vessels of the kidney. This procedure helps diagnose obstruction or constriction of blood vessels leading to the kidney. The same changes can be seen on CT and MRI urography. X-ray image of the renal pelvis and ureters after injection of contrast through a urinary catheter into the ureters from the bladder. This technique is useful in locating urinary stones and obstructions. X-ray image (with contrast) of the urinary bladder and urethra obtained while the patient is voiding. See Figure 7-13B. The bladder is filled with contrast material, followed by fluoroscopy (realtime x-ray imaging). Reflux of contrast into the ureters is abnormal and may occur with recurrent urinary tract infections.


FIGURE 7-13 A, CT urography with contrast (axial view) shows a benign cyst on the kidney. It does not take up the contrast and is smooth and round. B, Voiding cystourethrogram showing a normal female urethra. (Courtesy William H. Bush, Jr., MD, University of Washington, Seattle.)

Ultrasound Examination ultrasonography

Imaging of urinary tract structures using high-frequency sound waves. Kidney size, tumors, hydronephrosis, polycystic kidney disease, and ureteral and bladder obstruction can be diagnosed using ultrasound techniques.

Radioactive Study radioisotope scan

Image of the kidney obtained after injecting a radioactive substance (radioisotope) into the bloodstream. Pictures show the size and shape of the kidney (renal scan) and its functioning (renogram). These studies can indicate narrowing of blood vessels, diagnose obstruction, and determine the individual functioning of each kidney.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI urography

Changing magnetic field produces images of the kidney and surrounding structures in three planes of the body. The patient lies within a cylindrical magnetic resonance machine, and images are made of the pelvic and retroperitoneal regions using magnetic waves. The test shows tumor invasion of blood vessels, lymph nodes, and adjacent tissues.

Other Procedures



Direct visualization of the urethra and urinary bladder with an endoscope (cystoscope). The procedure can be performed in two ways. Flexible cystoscopy uses a thin fiberoptic cystoscope and is used for diagnosis and check-ups of the urinary bladder. Rigid cystoscopy uses a hollow metal tube, passed through the urethra and into the bladder. It is used to take biopsy samples, remove polyps, or perform laser treatments. Both these tests can be done in the office or operating room. See Figure 7-14A and B. dialysis Process of separating nitrogenous waste materials from the blood. Dialysis is used to treat acute or chronic renal failure and some cases of drug use. There are two methods: 1. Hemodialysis (HD) uses an artificial kidney machine that receives wastefilled blood from the patient's bloodstream, filters it through an artificial porous membrane (dialyzer), and returns the dialyzed blood to the patient's body (Figure 7-15A). An arteriovenous fistula (communication between an artery and a vein) is created surgically, often in the patient's arm, to provide easy access for hemodialysis (Figure 7-15B). 2. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) uses a catheter to introduce fluid into the peritoneal (abdominal) cavity. Waste materials, such as urea, in the capillaries of the peritoneum pass out of the bloodstream and into the fluid. The fluid (with wastes) is then removed by catheter. When used to treat patients with chronic kidney disease, PD may be performed continuously by the patient without mechanical support (CAPD—continuous ambulatory PD; Figure 7-16) or with the aid of a mechanical apparatus used at night during sleep. lithotripsy Urinary tract stones are crushed. The extracorporeal method uses shock waves directed toward the stone from the outside of the body (extra = outside, corpor/o = body). The patient receives light sedation or an anesthetic. Stones pass from the body in urine after the procedure. Abbreviation is ESWL (extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy). renal Dilation of narrowed areas in renal arteries. angioplasty A balloon a ached to a catheter is inserted into the artery and then inflated to enlarge the vessel diameter. Afterward, stents (metal-mesh tubes) may be inserted to keep the vessel open. This procedure is used to treat renal hypertension and to preserve renal function. renal biopsy Removal of kidney tissue for microscopic examination. Biopsy may be performed at the time of surgery (open) or through the skin (percutaneous, or closed). When the la er technique is used, the patient lies in the prone position; then, after administration of local anesthesia to the overlying skin and muscles of the back, the physician inserts a biopsy needle down into the kidney. Several specimens are obtained for examination by a pathologist. renal Surgical transfer of a kidney from a donor to a recipient. transplantation Patients with renal failure may receive a kidney from a living donor, such as an identical twin (isograft) or other person (allograft), or from a patient at the time of death (cadaver transplant). Best results occur when the donor is closely related to the recipient—98% of transplanted kidneys survive for 1 year or longer (Figure 7-17). See the In Person: Kidney Transplant on page 228. urinary Passage of a flexible, tubular instrument through the urethra into the catheterization urinary bladder. Catheters are used primarily for short- or long-term drainage of urine. A Foley catheter is an indwelling (left in the bladder) catheter held in place by a balloon inflated with liquid (Figure 7-18).


FIGURE 7-14 Cystoscopy. A, Rigid cystoscope in place within the urethra. B, Flexible cystoscope.

FIGURE 7-15 Hemodialysis (HD). A, Patient receiving HD. Conventional HD involves 3 to 4 hours of dialysis three times weekly. Newer alternative modalities include slower and longer dialysis, nocturnal HD, and daily short HD. B, Arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis.


FIGURE 7-16 Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). A, The dialysis solution (dialysate) flows from a collapsible plastic bag through a catheter (Tenckhoff peritoneal catheter) into the patient's peritoneal cavity. The empty bag is then folded and inserted into undergarments. B, After 4 to 8 hours, the bag is unfolded, and the fluid is allowed to drain into it by gravity. The full bag is discarded, and a new bag of fresh dialysate is attached.


FIGURE 7-17 Renal (kidney) transplantation. A, Left kidney of donor is removed for transplantation. B, Kidney is transplanted to the right pelvis (iliac fossa) of the recipient. The renal artery and vein of the donor kidney are joined to the recipient kidney's artery and vein, and the end of the donor ureter is connected to the recipient's bladder (ureteroneocystostomy). The health of the donor is not affected by losing one kidney. In fact, the remaining kidney is able to take over full function.

FIGURE 7-18 Foley catheter in place in the urinary bladder. The three-way catheter has three separate lumens: for drainage of urine, for inflation of balloons in the bladder, and for introduction of irrigating solutions into the bladder.




antidiuretic hormone—vasopressin acute kidney (renal) injury blood urea nitrogen continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis chronic kidney disease—a condition during which serum creatinine and BUN levels rise, which may result in impairment of all body systems − chloride—an electrolyte excreted by the kidney Cl CrCl creatinine clearance CRF chronic renal failure—progressive loss of kidney function; same as CKD C&S culture and sensitivity testing—to determine antibiotic effectiveness against bacteria grown from a patient's urine specimen cysto cystoscopic examination eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate ESRD end-stage renal disease ESWL extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy HCO3− bicarbonate—an electrolyte conserved by the kidney HD hemodialysis IC interstitial cystitis—chronic inflammation of the bladder wall; not caused by bacterial infection and not responsive to conventional antibiotic therapy IVP intravenous pyelogram + potassium—an electrolyte K KUB kidney, ureters, and bladder + sodium—an electrolyte Na PD peritoneal dialysis pH potential hydrogen; scale to indicate degree of acidity or alkalinity PKD polycystic kidney disease PUL percutaneous ultrasound lithotripsy RP retrograde pyelography sp gr specific gravity UA urinalysis UTI urinary tract infection VCUG voiding cystourethrogram

CKD Stages

The five stages of CKD reflect increasing severity of kidney disease: Stage 1: eGFR >90 Stage 2: eGFR 60-90 Stage 3: eGFR 30-60 Stage 4: eGFR 15-30 Stage 5: eGFR 100 bacilli (rods) WBC casts

NORMAL FINDINGS amber-yellow clear 1.003-1.030 6.5 (range, 4.6-8.0) neg neg neg neg 0 0 none

What's the probable diagnosis? a. Diabetes mellitus with glycosuria b. Glomerulonephritis with staphylococcal infection c. Nephrotic syndrome with albuminuria d. Urinary tract infection with pyelonephritis

In Person Kidney Transplant

This first-person narrative was wri en by a kidney donor. When my 64-year-old father-in-law announced to my wife and me that his kidney function was failing, it didn't really enter our minds that one of us might ultimately have a part to play in his survival. Five years later, dialysis was taking its toll on his organ systems, and there had been no success in obtaining a cadaveric kidney. Things had reached the point where he needed a kidney in short order, before his health deteriorated to the point where he would no longer be a candidate for transplantation. My wife's blood type ruled out the possibility of her being a direct donor, so I volunteered to be tested. Turns out that her father and I were a match


on 5 of the 7 key traits—a really good fit! The next round of testing—blood work and my kidney function—was able to be done locally. I remember carrying around a specimen container (on ice), having to provide a full liter of urine in 24 hours! The results of those tests were favorable, and two weeks later I made the -hour drive to the transplant center at the University of Virginia in Charlo esville. While a transplant is really a team of two—donor and recipient—the entire process at UVA was very much individualized. A transplant coordinator (an experienced RN) was assigned specifically to our case, and I had a team of doctors and support staff dedicated exclusively to me, the donor. Similarly, there was a team that dealt only with my father-inlaw as the recipient. My visit involved some more in-depth blood tests and cardiac studies largely to determine that I was healthy enough for major surgery. My transplant team and I spent an entire afternoon discussing the implications of being a donor—the inherent risk in any surgery, potential implications for me and my family, the likely recovery time, and the possibility that, despite all of the up-front testing, the transplant might not be successful. The discussions that afternoon only reaffirmed that I was making the right decision. I had an opportunity to have a positive impact on someone else's life, with relatively li le risk to my own health. The events around the surgery itself were pre y straightforward. The surgery is a more involved procedure for the donor than for the recipient, so I was taken back first. A nurse started an IV and injected a mild sedative. From that point, my only memory is of one last hug for my wife and children, and then being shifted from the stretcher onto the operating table. When I woke up in recovery, the news was all good. My surgery had gone well—four laparoscopic incisions through which the surgeons did most all of their work, and a lateral incision in my lower abdomen through which the kidney was removed. Equally important, my father-in-law had come through his surgery well and the kidney had immediately begun to function! I was discharged from the hospital on Sunday, and cleared to return home the next Friday, 8 days post-op. As is typical following a major surgery, it took about 6 weeks for me to feel “normal” again. During those 6 weeks, I had weekly blood tests to chart the progress of my kidney function. I went back to UVA for a routine follow-up visit at the 6-week mark. I was recovering as expected, and my remaining kidney was actually growing in size and capacity. Blood tests continued on a monthly basis until I was officially “discharged” from the transplant center's care 6 months after the surgery. Now, 8 years after the transplant, both my father-in-law and I continue to do well. As my mother-in-law likes to say, I donated a “rock star” kidney that has allowed our family to enjoy many visits and create many cherished memories that will last a lifetime. My two children, now 20 and 17, have enjoyed their grandfather's love and guidance during some very important years in their lives. This is especially meaningful to me, as I lost my father


before my wife and I started our family, and our children missed out on an opportunity to know and love a wonderful man. John Melson lives in Greensboro, North Carolina. He is pictured with his fatherin-law, Rod Beckwith.


Exercises Remember to check your answers carefully with the Answers to Exercises, pages 234 and 235.

A Using the following terms, trace the path of urine from the renal arterioles (bloodstream) to the point at which urine leaves the body. The first answer is provided. glomerular capsule glomerulus renal pelvis renal tubule ureter urethra urinary bladder urinary meatus 1. glomerulus__________________________ 2. ____________________________________ 3. ____________________________________ 4. ____________________________________ 5. ___________________________________ 6. ___________________________________ 7. ___________________________________ 8. ___________________________________ B Match the term in Column I with its definition or a term of similar meaning in Column II. Write the correct le er in the spaces provided.



_______ 1. voiding _______ 2. trigone _______ 3. renal cortex 4. renal medulla _______ _______ 5. urea 6. erythropoietin _______ _______ 7. renin _______ 8. electrolyte _______ 9. hilum _______ 10. calyx (calix)

COLUMN II A. Hormone secreted by the kidney that stimulates formation of red blood cells B. Notch on the surface of the kidney where blood vessels and nerves enter C. Urination; micturition D. Nitrogenous waste E. Cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis F. Small molecule that carries an electric charge in solution G. Inner region of the kidney H. Enzyme made by the kidney; increases blood pressure I. Triangular area in the bladder J. Outer section of the kidney

C Give the meanings of the following medical terms. 1. caliceal ________________________________________________ ______________ 2. uric acid ________________________________________________ _______________ 3. urinary meatal stenosis ________________________________________________ _____ 4. cystocele ________________________________________________ _________________ 5. pyelolithotomy ________________________________________________ ____________ 6. trigonitis ________________________________________________ _________________ 7. ureteroileostomy ________________________________________________ ___________ 8. urethrostenosis ________________________________________________ ______________


9. vesicoureteral reflux ________________________________________________ _________ 10. creatinine ________________________________________________ __________________ 11. medullary ________________________________________________ _________________ 12. cortical ________________________________________________ ___________________ 13. calciferol ________________________________________________ __________________ D The following terms all contain the suffix -uria, meaning urination. Write their meanings in the spaces provided. 1. nocturia ________________________________________________ _________________ 2. dysuria ________________________________________________ ____________________ 3. oliguria ________________________________________________ __________________ 4. polyuria ________________________________________________ _________________ 5. anuria ________________________________________________ _____________________


E In the following terms, -uria means urine condition (substance in the urine). What's in the urine? 1. pyuria _________________________ 2. albuminuria ___________________ 3. hematuria _________________ 4. glycosuria _________________ 5. ketonuria _____________________ 6. bacteriuria ______________________ F Give the meanings of the following terms that relate to urinary signs and symptoms. 1. azotemia ________________________________________________ ______________________ 2. polydipsia ________________________________________________ ____________ 3. urinary incontinence ________________________________________________ __ 4. enuresis ________________________________________________ ___________ 5. urinary retention ________________________________________________ _______ 6. ketosis ________________________________________________ _______ G Give short answers for the following. 1. What is the difference between hematuria and uremia? __________________________


2. What is diuresis? _____________________________________ 3. What is a diuretic? _____________________________________ 4. What is antidiuretic hormone? ________________________________ 5. What is hyponatremia? _____________________________________ 6. What is hyperkalemia? ___________________________________ 7. What is PKU? _________________________________ H Match the listed terms, pertaining to urinalysis, with their meanings/descriptions that follow. albuminuria bilirubinuria glycosuria hematuria ketonuria pH pyuria sediment specific gravity 1. Abnormal particles present in the urine—cells, bacteria, casts, and crystals ____________________ 2. Smoky-red color of urine caused by the presence of blood __________________ 3. Turbid (cloudy) urine caused by the presence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and pus _______________________ 4. Sugar in the urine; a sign of diabetes mellitus and a result of hyperglycemia _______________________


5. Urine test that reflects the acidity or alkalinity of the urine _____________________ 6. High levels of acids and acetones accumulate in the urine as a result of abnormal fat breakdown _______________________ 7. Dark pigment that accumulates in urine as a result of liver or gallbladder disease _______________________ 8. Urine test that reflects the concentration of the urine _______________________ 9. Leaky glomeruli can produce accumulation of protein in the urine _________________ I Describe the following abnormal conditions that affect the kidney. 1. renal failure _______________________ 2. polycystic kidney _______________________ 3. interstitial nephritis _______________________ 4. glomerulonephritis _______________________ 5. nephrolithiasis _______________________ 6. renal cell carcinoma _______________________ 7. pyelonephritis _______________________ 8. Wilms tumor _______________________ 9. nephrotic syndrome _______________________ 10. renal hypertension _______________________ J Match the listed terms with their meanings/descriptions that follow. abscess catheter diabetes insipidus diabetes mellitus edema


essential hypertension nephroptosis renal colic secondary hypertension stricture 1. idiopathic high blood pressure ________________________________ 2. swelling, fluid in tissues ______________________________________ 3. narrowed area in a tube __________________________________________ 4. collection of pus __________________________________________ 5. inadequate secretion of insulin or improper utilization of insulin leads to this condition __________________________________________ 6. high blood pressure caused by kidney disease or another disease __________________________________________ 7. tube for withdrawing or giving fluid __________________________________________ 8. inadequate secretion or resistance of the kidney to the action of antidiuretic hormone __________________________________________ 9. prolapse of a kidney _______________________________________ 10. severe pain resulting from a stone that is blocking a ureter or a kidney __________________________________ K Give the meanings of the abbreviations in Column I. Then select the le er of the sentence in Column II that is the best association for each.


COLUMN I 1. CAPD __________________________ 2. BUN __________________________ 3. RP __________________________ 4. cysto __________________________ 5. UA __________________________ 6. UTI __________________________ 7. CKD __________________________ 8. K+ __________________________ 9. VCUG __________________________ 10. HD __________________________

_______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

COLUMN II A. Bacterial invasion leads to this condition; acute cystitis is an example. B. This electrolyte is secreted by renal tubules into the urine. C. A machine removes nitrogenous wastes from the patient's blood. D. High levels measured on this test lead to the suspicion of renal disease. E. This endoscopic procedure is used to examine the interior of the urinary bladder. F. Dialysate (fluid) is injected into the peritoneal cavity and then drained out. G. Contrast is injected into the urinary bladder and ureters and x-ray pictures of the urinary tract are taken. H. X-ray pictures of the urinary bladder and urethra are taken while the patient urinates. I. Parts of this test include specific gravity, color, protein, glucose, and pH. J. This condition includes mild to severe kidney failure.

L Match the listed procedures with their definitions/meanings that follow. cystectomy cystoscopy cystostomy lithotripsy nephrectomy nephrolithotomy nephrostomy ureterolithotomy urethroplasty ureteroileostomy 1. Excision of a kidney _______________________________________ 2. Surgical incision into the kidney to remove a stone _______________________ 3. Visual examination of the urinary bladder via endoscope ________________________ 4. Crushing of stones _______________________________________


5. New opening of the ureters to a segment of ileum (in place of the bladder) _______________________________________ 6. Surgical repair of the urethra ______________________________________ 7. Creation of an artificial opening into the kidney (via catheter) from the outside of the body _______________________________________ 8. Surgical formation of an opening from the bladder to the outside of the body _______________________________________ 9. Removal of the urinary bladder _______________________________________ 10. Incision of a ureter to remove a stone _____________________________________ M Circle the correct term to complete the following sentences. 1. After diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (made by renal biopsy), Dr. Davis advised Donna that (nephrostomy, meatotomy, nephrectomy) would be necessary. 2. Ever since Bill's condition of gout was diagnosed, he has been warned that uric acid crystals could accumulate in his blood and tissues, leading to (pyuria, renal calculi, cystocele). 3. The voiding cystourethrogram demonstrated blockage of urine flow from Jim's bladder and (hydronephrosis, renal ischemia, azotemia). 4. Narrowed arterioles in the kidney increase blood pressure, so (urinary incontinence, urinary retention, nephrosclerosis) is often associated with hypertension. 5. Eight-year-old Willy continually wet his bed at night while sleeping. His pediatrician instructed his mother


to limit Willy's intake of fluids in the evening to discourage his (nocturia, oliguria, enuresis). 6. David's chronic type 1 diabetes eventually resulted in (nephropathy, meatal stenosis, urolithiasis), which led to renal failure. 7. After Sue's bilateral renal failure, her doctor advised dialysis and possible (cystostomy, nephrolithotomy, renal transplantation). 8. When Maria's left kidney stopped functioning, her contralateral kidney overdeveloped or (metastasized, atrophied, hypertrophied) to meet the increased workload. 9. A popular diet program recommends eating foods high in fats and protein. People on this diet check their urine for the presence of (ketones, glucose, amino acids). 10. Andrea's urinalysis revealed proteinuria, and her ankles began to swell, demonstrating pi ing, a condition known as (ascites, edema, stricture). Her (gastroenterologist, urologist, nephrologist) diagnosed Andrea's condition as (polycystic kidneys, nephrotic syndrome, bladder carcinoma) and recommended drugs to heal leaky glomeruli and diuretics to reduce swelling.


Answers to Exercises A 1. glomerulus 2. glomerular capsule 3. renal tubule 4. renal pelvis 5. ureter 6. urinary bladder 7. urethra 8. urinary meatus B 1. C 2. I 3. J 4. G 5. D 6. A 7. H 8. F 9. B 10. E C 1. pertaining to a calix (collecting cup of renal pelvis)


2. nitrogenous waste excreted in urine; high levels of uric acid in the blood are associated with gouty arthritis 3. narrowing of the urinary meatus 4. hernia of the urinary bladder 5. incision to remove a stone from the renal pelvis 6. inflammation of the trigone (triangular area in the bladder in which the ureters enter and urethra exits) 7. new opening between the ureter and the ileum (an anastomosis); urine then leaves the body through an ileostomy; this surgery (ileal conduit) is performed when the bladder has been removed 8. narrowing (narrowed portion) of the urethra 9. backflow of urine from the bladder into the ureter 10. nitrogenous waste produced as a result of muscle metabolism and excreted in the urine 11. pertaining to the inner, middle section (of the kidney) 12. pertaining to the outer section (of the kidney) 13. active form of vitamin D secreted by the kidneys D 1. frequent urination at night 2. painful urination 3. scanty urination 4. excessive urination 5. no urination E 1. pus


2. protein 3. blood 4. sugar 5. ketones or acetones 6. bacteria F 1. excess nitrogenous waste in the bloodstream 2. condition of much thirst 3. inability to hold urine in the bladder 4. bedwe ing 5. inability to release urine from the bladder 6. abnormal condition of ketone bodies (acids and acetones) in the blood and body tissues G 1. Hematuria is the presence of blood in the urine, and uremia is a toxic condition of excess urea (nitrogenous waste) in the bloodstream. Hematuria is a symptomatic condition of the urine (-uria), and uremia is an abnormal condition of the blood (-emia). 2. Diuresis is the excessive production of urine (polyuria). 3. A diuretic is a drug or chemical (caffeine or alcohol) that causes diuresis to occur. 4. Antidiuretic hormone is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that normally helps the renal tubules to reabsorb water back into the bloodstream. It works against diuresis to help retain water in the blood.


5. Hyponatremia is abnormally low levels of sodium in the bloodstream. 6. Hyperkalemia is abnormally high concentration of potassium in the blood. The major cause is chronic renal failure. 7. PKU is phenylketonuria. This occurs when there are high levels of phenylketones in urine and phenylalanine in the blood. The condition causes mental retardation in infants. H 1. sediment 2. hematuria (blood in the urine) 3. pyuria (pus in the urine) 4. glycosuria (sugar in the urine) 5. pH 6. ketonuria (ketone bodies in the urine) 7. bilirubinuria (high levels of bilirubin in the urine) 8. specific gravity 9. albuminuria I 1. kidney does not excrete wastes 2. multiple fluid-filled sacs form in and on the kidney 3. inflammation of the connective tissue (interstitium) lying between the renal tubules 4. inflammation of the glomerulus of the kidney (may be a complication after a streptococcal infection) 5. condition of kidney stones (renal calculi)


6. malignant tumor of the kidney in adults 7. inflammation of the renal pelvis and parenchyma of the kidney (caused by a bacterial infection, such as with Escherichia coli, that spreads to the urinary tract from the gastrointestinal tract) 8. malignant tumor of the kidney in children 9. group of symptoms (proteinuria, edema, hypoalbuminemia) that appears when the kidney is damaged by disease; also called nephrosis 10. high blood pressure caused by kidney disease J 1. essential hypertension 2. edema 3. stricture 4. abscess 5. diabetes mellitus 6. secondary hypertension 7. catheter 8. diabetes insipidus 9. nephroptosis 10. renal colic K 1. continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: F 2. blood urea nitrogen: D 3. retrograde pyelogram: G 4. cystoscopy: E


5. urinalysis: I 6. urinary tract infection: A 7. chronic kidney disease: J 8. potassium: B 9. voiding cystourethrogram: H 10. hemodialysis: C L 1. nephrectomy 2. nephrolithotomy 3. cystoscopy 4. lithotripsy 5. ureteroileostomy 6. urethroplasty 7. nephrostomy 8. cystostomy 9. cystectomy 10. ureterolithotomy M 1. nephrectomy 2. renal calculi—don't confuse a calculus (stone) with dental calculus, which is an accumulation of dental plaque that has hardened 3. hydronephrosis 4. nephrosclerosis 5. enuresis


6. nephropathy 7. renal transplantation 8. hypertrophied 9. ketones 10. edema, nephrologist, nephrotic syndrome Answers to Practical Applications Urologic Case Report

1. c 2. c 3. a 4. b 5. a 6. b Urinalysis Findings

1. glucose 2. bilirubin 3. color 4. protein 5. sediment 6. pH 7. specific gravity 8. ketones 9. appearance Urologic Case Study

Correct diagnosis is d.


Pronunciation of Terms

The terms you have learned in this chapter are presented here with their pronunciations. The meanings for all the terms are in the Mini-Dictionary beginning on page 897. You can also hear each term pronounced on the Evolve website (h p://


TERM acetone albuminuria antidiuretic hormone anuria arteriole azotemia bacteriuria BUN calciferol caliceal caliectasis calyx; pl. calyces catheter cortex cortical creatinine creatinine clearance CT urography cystectomy cystitis cystoscopy cystostomy diabetes insipidus diabetes mellitus diuresis dysuria edema electrolyte enuresis erythropoietin essential hypertension filtration glomerular capsule glomerulonephritis glomerulus; pl. glomeruli glycosuria hematuria hemodialysis hilum hydronephrosis hyperkalemia hypernatremia interstitial nephritis intravesical ketonuria ketosis kidney KUB lithotripsy meatal stenosis meatus medulla medullary MRI urography nephrolithiasis

PRONUNCIATION AS-eh-tohn al-bu-min-U-re-ah an-tih-di-u-RET-ik HOR-mohn an-U-re-ah ar-TE-re-ohl az-o-TE-me-ah bak-te-re-U-re-ah B-U-N kal-SIF-er-ol ka-lih-SE-al ka-le-EK-tah-sis KA-liks; KA-lih-seez KATH-et-er KOR-teks KOR-tik-al kre-AH-tih-neen kre-AH-tih-neen KLE-ranz CT u-ROG-rah-fe sis-TEK-to-me sis-TI-tis sis-TOS-ko-pe sis-TOS-to-me di-ah-BE-teez in-SIP-ih-dus di-ah-BE-teez MEL-ih-tus di-u-RE-sis dis-U-re-a eh-DE-mah eh-LEK-tro-lite en-u-RE-sis eh-rith-ro-PO-eh-tin e-SEN-shul hi-per-TEN-shun fil-TRA-shun glo-MER-u-lar KAP-sul glo-mer-u-lo-nef-RI-tis glo-MER-u-lus; glo-MER-u-li gli-kohs-U-re-ah hem-ah-TU-re-ah he-mo-di-AL-ih-sis HI-lum hi-dro-neh-FRO-sis hi-per-ka-LE-me-ah hi-per-na-TRE-me-ah in-ter-STIH-shul neh-FRI-tis in-trah-VES-ih-kal ke-to-NU-re-ah ke-TO-sis KID-ne K-U-B LITH-o-trip-se me-A-tal sten-O-sis me-A-tus meh-DU-lah MED-u-lah-re MRI u-ROG-raf-e neh-fro-lih-THI-ah-sis


TERM nephrolithotomy nephron nephropathy nephroptosis nephrostomy nephrotic syndrome nitrogenous waste nocturia oliguria paranephric parenchyma peritoneal dialysis phenylketonuria polycystic kidney disease polydipsia polyuria potassium pyelolithotomy pyelonephritis pyuria reabsorption renal angiography renal angioplasty renal artery renal calculi renal cell carcinoma renal colic renal failure renal hypertension renal ischemia renal pelvis renal transplantation renal tubule renal vein renin retrograde pyelogram secondary hypertension sodium stricture trigone trigonitis urea uremia ureter ureteroileostomy ureteroneocystostomy ureteroplasty urethra urethral stricture urethritis urethroplasty uric acid urinalysis urinary bladder urinary catherization

PRONUNCIATION neh-fro-lih-THOT-o-me NEH-fron neh-FROP-ah-the neh-FROP-to-sis neh-FROS-to-me neh-FROT-ik sin-drome ni-TROJ-en-us waste nok-TU-re-ah ol-ig-U-re-ah par-ah-NEF-rik pah-RENK-ih-mah per-it-o-NE-al di-AL-ih-sis fe-nil-ke-to-NU-re-ah pol-e-SIS-tik KID-ne dih-ZEEZ pol-e-DIP-se-ah pol-e-U-re-ah po-TAS-e-um pi-el-o-lith-OT-o-me pi-el-o-neh-FRI-tis pi-U-re-ah re-ab-SORP-shun RE-nal an-je-OG-rah-fe RE-nal AN-je-o-plas-te RE-nal AR-teh-re RE-nal KAL-ku-li RE-nal sel kar-sih-NO-mah RE-nal KOL-ik RE-nal FA-lyur RE-nal hi-per-TEN-shun RE-nal is-KE-me-ah RE-nal PEL-vis RE-nal trans-plan-TA-shun RE-nal TU-bule RE-nal vayn RE-nin RET-ro-grade PI-el-o-gram SEK-on-dah-re hi-per-TEN-shun SO-de-um STRIK-shur TRI-gohn tri-go-NI-tis u-RE-ah u-RE-me-ah U-reh-ter u-re-ter-o-il-OS-to-me u-re-ter-o-ne-o-sis-TOS-to-me u-re-ter-o-PLAS-te u-RE-thrah u-RE-thral STRIK-shur u-re-THRI-tis u-re-thro-PLAS-te U-rik acid u-rin-AL-ih-sis U-rin-ar-e BLAD-er U-rin-ar-e kath-et-er-ih-ZA-shun


TERM urinary incontinence urinary retention urination vesicoureteral reflux voiding voiding cystourethrogram Wilms tumor

PRONUNCIATION U-rin-ar-e in-KON-tin-en U-rin-ar-e re-TEN-shun u-rin-A-shun ves-ik-o-u-RE-ter-al RE-fluks VOY-ding VOY-ding sis-to-u-RE-thro-gram wilmz TU-mur

Review Sheet

Write the meanings of the combining forms, suffixes, and prefixes in the spaces provided. Check your answers with the information in the chapter or in the Glossary (Medical Word Parts—English) at the end of this book.

Combining Forms COMBINING FORM albumin/o angi/o azot/o bacteri/o cali/o calic/o cyst/o dips/o glomerul/o glycos/o hydr/o isch/o kal/i ket/o keton/o lith/o

MEANING COMBINING FORM ____________________ meat/o ____________________ natr/o ____________________ necr/o ____________________ nephr/o ____________________ noct/o ____________________ olig/o ____________________ py/o ____________________ pyel/o ____________________ ren/o ____________________ trigon/o ____________________ ur/o ____________________ ureter/o ____________________ urethr/o ____________________ urin/o ____________________ vesic/o ____________________

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Suffixes SUFFIX -ectasis -ectomy -emia -esis -gram -lithiasis -lithotomy -lysis -megaly -ole -osis

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

SUFFIX -pathy -plasty -poietin -ptosis -rrhea -sclerosis -stenosis -stomy -tomy -tripsy -uria



MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

PREFIX a-, anantidiadysen-

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

PREFIX hypoperipolyretro-

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Anatomic Terms Match the locations/functions in Column I with the urinary system structures in Column II. Write the number of the correct structure in the blanks provided. COLUMN I Tiny structure surrounding each glomerulus; receives filtered materials from blood. Tubes carrying urine from kidney to urinary bladder. Tubules leading from the glomerular capsule. Urine is formed there as water, sugar, and salts are reabsorbed into the bloodstream. Inner (middle) region of the kidney. Muscular sac that serves as a reservoir for urine. Cup-like divisions of the renal pelvis that receive urine from the renal tubules. Tube carrying urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. Central urine-collecting basin in the kidney that narrows into the ureter. Collection of capillaries through which materials from the blood are filtered into the glomerular capsule. Outer region of the kidney.

COLUMN II ______ 1. urethra 2. cortex ______ 3. glomerular capsule ______ 4. calices 5. renal ______ pelvis ______ 6. ______ glomerulu s ______ 7. medulla 8. renal ______ tubules ______ 9. urinary bladder ______ 10. ureters

Give the medical terms for the following conditions related to urine or substances in urine. 1. sugar in urine _____________________________________________ 2. protein in urine _____________________________________________ 3. painful urination _____________________________________________ 4. scanty urination _____________________________________________ 5. bacteria in urine _____________________________________________ 6. excessive urination _____________________________________________ 7. blood in urine _____________________________________________ 8. ketones in urine _____________________________________________ 9. absence of urination _______________________________________ 10. pus in urine _____________________________________________ 11. excessive urination at night _____________________________




Female Reproductive System CHAPTER SECTIONS: Introduction 242 Organs of the Female Reproductive System 242 Menstruation and Pregnancy 246 Vocabulary 250 Terminology 252 Pathology: Gynecologic, Breast, Pregnancy, and Neonatal 258 Clinical Tests and Procedures 266 Abbreviations 272 Practical Applications 273 In Person: Prophylactic Mastectomy 275 Exercises 276 Answers to Exercises 284 Pronunciation of Terms 286 Review Sheet 289

CHAPTER GOALS • Name and locate female reproductive organs and learn their combining forms. • Explain how these organs and their hormones function in the normal processes of ovulation, menstruation, and pregnancy. • Identify abnormal conditions of the female reproductive system and of the newborn.


• Describe important laboratory tests and clinical procedures used in gynecology and obstetrics, and recognize related abbreviations. • Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical terms in their proper contexts, such as medical reports and records.


Introduction Sexual reproduction is the union of the ovum (female sex cell) and the sperm (male sex cell). Each sex cell, known as a gamete, has half the number of chromosomes needed to create a new organism. In fertilization, nuclei of the two gametes unite to form a single nucleus with half of the chromosomes and genetic code from each parent. Special organs called gonads in males and females produce the egg and sperm cells. The female gonads are the ovaries, and the male gonads are the testes. After an ovum leaves the ovary during ovulation, it travels down one of two fallopian tubes leading to the uterus (womb). If coitus (copulation, sexual intercourse) has occurred, millions of sperm cells travel into the fallopian tubes, but only one sperm cell can penetrate the ovum. This is fertilization. The fertilized ovum is then known as a zygote. After many cell divisions, a ball of cells forms, and the zygote is called an embryo (2 to 8 weeks) and finally a fetus (8 to 38 or 40 weeks). The period of development within the uterus is gestation, or pregnancy. The female reproductive system consists of organs that produce ova (singular; ovum) and provide a place for the growth of the embryo. In addition, the female reproductive organs supply important hormones that contribute to the development of female secondary sex characteristics (body hair, breast development, structural changes in bones and fat). The eggs, or ova, are present from birth in the female ovary but begin to mature and are released from the ovary in a 21- to 28-day cycle when secondary sex characteristics develop. The occurrence of the first cycle is called menarche. Menstrual cycles continue until menopause, when all eggs have been released, hormone production diminishes, and menstruation ends. If fertilization occurs during the years between menarche and menopause, the fertilized egg may grow and develop within the uterus. A new, blood vessel–rich organ called a placenta (connected to the embryo by the umbilical cord) develops to nourish the embryo, which implants in the uterine lining. Various hormones are secreted from the ovary and from the placenta to stimulate the expansion of the placenta. If fertilization does not occur, hormonal changes result in the shedding of the uterine lining, and bleeding, or menstruation, occurs. The hormones of the ovaries, estrogen and progesterone, play important roles in the processes of menstruation and pregnancy, and in the development of secondary sex characteristics. The pituitary gland,


located at the base of the brain, secretes other hormones that govern the reproductive functions of the ovaries, breasts, and uterus. Gynecology is the study of the female reproductive system (organs, hormones, and diseases); obstetrics (Latin obstetrix means midwife) is a specialty concerned with pregnancy and the delivery of the fetus; and neonatology is the study of the care and treatment of the newborn.


Organs of the Female Reproductive System Uterus, Ovaries, and Associated Organs Label Figures 8-1 and 8-3 as you read the following description of the female reproductive system.

FIGURE 8-1 Organs of the female reproductive system, lateral view.

Figure 8-1 shows a side view of the female reproductive organs and their relationship to other organs in the pelvic cavity. The ovaries [1] (only one ovary is shown in this lateral view) are a pair of small almond-shaped organs located in the pelvis. The fallopian tubes [2] (only one is shown in this view) lead from each ovary to the uterus [3], which is a fibromuscular organ situated between the urinary bladder and the rectum. The uterus normally is the size and shape of a pear and is about 3 to 4 inches long in a nonpregnant woman. Midway between the uterus and the rectum is a region in the abdominal cavity known as the cul-de-sac [4]. The vagina [5], a tubular structure, extends from the uterus to the exterior of the body. Bartholin glands [6] are two small, rounded glands on either side of the vaginal orifice. These glands produce a


mucous secretion that lubricates the vagina. The clitoris [7] is an organ of sensitive, erectile tissue located anterior to the vaginal orifice (opening) and in front of the urethral orifice. The region between the vaginal orifice and the anus is the perineum [8]. The external genitalia of the female are collectively called the vulva. Figure 8-2 shows the various structures that are part of the vulva. The labia majora, the outer lips of the vagina, surround the smaller, inner lips, the labia minora. The hymen, a thin membrane partially covering the entrance to the vagina, is broken apart during the first episode of intercourse. The clitoris and Bartholin glands also are parts of the vulva.

FIGURE 8-2 Female external genitalia (vulva). The mons pubis (Latin mons, mountain) is a pad of tissue overlying the pubic symphysis. After puberty it is covered with pubic hair.

Figure 8-3 shows an anterior view of the female reproductive system. Each ovary [1] is held in place on either side of the uterus by a uteroovarian ligament [2].


FIGURE 8-3 Organs of the female reproductive system, anterior view.

Within each ovary are thousands of small sacs—the ovarian follicles [3]. Each follicle contains an ovum [4]. During ovulation, an ovum matures; its follicle ruptures through the surface and releases the ovum from the ovary. A ruptured follicle fills with a yellow, fat-like material. It is then called the corpus luteum [5], meaning yellow body. The corpus luteum secretes hormones (both estrogen and progesterone) that maintain the very first stages of pregnancy. A fallopian tube [6] is about inches long and lies near each ovary. Collectively, the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and supporting ligaments are the adnexa (accessory structures) of the uterus. The finger-like ends of the fallopian tube are the fimbriae [7]. They catch the egg after its release from the ovary. Cilia (small hairs) line the fallopian tube and, through their motion, sweep the ovum toward the uterus. It usually takes the ovum about 2 to 3 days to pass through the fallopian tube. If sperm cells are present in the fallopian tube, fertilization may occur (Figure 8-4). If sperm cells are not present, the ovum remains unfertilized and eventually disintegrates.


FIGURE 8-4 Fertilization. A, Once a single sperm cell has penetrated the ovum, others are prevented from entering. B, Electromicrograph showing a sperm cell penetrating an ovum.

The fallopian tubes, one on each side, lead into the uterus [8], a pearshaped organ with muscular walls and a mucous membrane lining filled with a rich supply of blood vessels. The rounded upper portion of the uterus is the fundus, and the larger, central section is the corpus (body of the organ). The inner layer, a specialized epithelial mucosa of the uterus is the endometrium [9]; the middle, muscular layer of the uterine wall is the myometrium [10]; and the outer, membranous tissue layer is the perimetrium (uterine serosa) [11], a lining that produces a watery, serum-like secretion. The outermost layer of an organ in the abdomen or thorax is also known as a serosa. The narrow, lowermost portion of the uterus is the cervix [12] (Latin cervix means neck). The cervical opening leads into a 3-inch-long muscular, mucosa-lined canal called the vagina [13], which opens to the outside of the body.

The Breast (Accessory Organ of Reproduction) Label Figure 8-5 as you read the following description of breast structures.


FIGURE 8-5 Views of the breast. A, Sagittal. B, Frontal. Notice the numerous lymph nodes.

The breasts, located on the upper anterior region of the chest, are composed mostly of mammary glands. The glandular tissue [1] contains milk glands that develop in response to hormones from the ovaries during puberty. The breasts also contain fibrous and fa y tissue [2], special lactiferous (milk-carrying) ducts [3], and sinuses (cavities) [4] that carry milk to the nipple, which has small openings for the ducts to release their milk. The breast nipple is the mammary papilla [5], and the dark pigmented area around the mammary papilla is the areola [6]. During pregnancy the hormones from the ovaries and the placenta stimulate glandular and other tissues in the breasts to their full development. After parturition (giving birth), hormones from the pituitary gland stimulate the normal secretion of milk (lactation).


Menstruation and Pregnancy Menstrual Cycle (Figure 8-6) Menarche, or onset of menstruation with the first menstrual cycle, occurs at the time of puberty. An average menstrual cycle lasts for 28 days but may be shorter or longer, and cycles may be irregular in length. These days can be divided into four time periods, useful in describing the events of the cycle. The approximate time periods are as follows:

FIGURE 8-6 The menstrual cycle. Tip: Don't try to memorize this figure. Just get the big picture! In the ovary, as the ovum matures, hormone levels rise, culminating in ovulation (days 13 and 14). At the same time, in the uterus, the endometrium is building up in anticipation of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, hormone levels drop and menstruation begins.

Days 1 to 5 (menstrual period) Discharge of bloody fluid containing disintegrated endometrial cells, glandular secretions, and blood cells. Days 6 to 12 After bleeding ceases, the endometrium begins to repair itself. The maturing follicle in the ovary releases estrogen, which aids in the repair. The ovum grows in the follicle during this period. Days 13 and 14 (ovulatory period) On about the 14th day of the cycle, the follicle ruptures and the egg leaves the ovary (ovulation), passing through the fallopian tube.


Days 15 to 28 The empty follicle that has just released the egg becomes a corpus luteum (Latin for yellow body because of its color). The corpus luteum functions as an endocrine organ, continuing to make estrogen and now secreting the hormone progesterone into the bloodstream. Progesterone stimulates the endometrial buildup in anticipation of fertilization of the egg and pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum in the ovary stops producing progesterone and regresses. At this time, lowered levels of progesterone and estrogen probably are responsible for some women's symptoms of depression, breast tenderness, and irritability before menstruation. The combination of these symptoms is known as premenstrual syndrome (PMS). After 2 days of decrease in hormones, the uterine endometrium breaks down, and the menstrual period begins (days 1 to 5). Note: Cycles vary in length, ranging from 21 to 42 days or longer. Ovulation typically occurs 14 days before the end of the cycle. A woman with a 42-day cycle ovulates on day 28, whereas a woman with a 21-day cycle ovulates on day 7.

Pregnancy If fertilization does occur in the fallopian tube, the fertilized egg travels to the uterus and implants in the uterine endometrium. The corpus luteum in the ovary continues to produce progesterone and estrogen. These hormones support the vascular and glandular development of the uterine lining. The placenta, a vascular organ, now forms, a ached to the uterine wall. The placenta is derived from maternal endometrium and from the chorion, the outermost membrane that surrounds the developing embryo. The amnion, the innermost of the embryonic membranes, holds the fetus suspended in an amniotic cavity surrounded by a fluid called the amniotic fluid. The amnion with its fluid also is known as the “bag of waters” or amniotic sac, which ruptures (breaks) during labor. The maternal blood and the fetal blood never mix during pregnancy, but important nutrients, oxygen, and wastes are exchanged as the blood vessels of the fetus (coming from the umbilical cord) lie side by side with the mother's blood vessels in the placenta. Figure 8-7A and B shows implantation in the uterus and the embryo's relationship to the placenta and enveloping membranes (chorion and amnion).


FIGURE 8-7 A, Implantation of the embryo in the endometrium. B, The placenta, with chorion and amnion membranes.

As the placenta develops, it produces its own hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). When women test their urine with a pregnancy test kit, presence or absence of hCG confirms or rules out that they are pregnant. This hormone stimulates the corpus luteum to continue producing hormones until about the third month of pregnancy, when the placenta takes over the endocrine function and releases estrogen and progesterone. Progesterone maintains the development of the placenta. Low levels of progesterone can lead to spontaneous abortion in pregnant women and menstrual irregularities in nonpregnant women. The uterus normally lies within the pelvis. During pregnancy the uterus expands as the fetus grows, and the superior part rises out of the pelvic cavity to become an abdominal organ. By about 28 to 30 weeks, it occupies a large part of the abdominopelvic cavity and reaches the epigastric region (Figure 8-8).


FIGURE 8-8 The growing uterus changes the pelvic anatomy during pregnancy, as shown here in sagittal section: A, nonpregnant woman, B, 20 weeks pregnant, C, 30 weeks pregnant.

The onset of true labor is marked by rhythmic contractions, dilation and thinning (effacement) of the cervix, and a discharge of bloody mucus from the cervix and vagina (the “show”). In a normal delivery position, the baby's head appears first (cephalic presentation). After vaginal delivery of the baby, the umbilical cord is cut and the placenta follows (Figure 8-9). Figure 8-10A and B shows photographs of a newborn and the placenta with a ached cord, minutes after birth. The expelled placenta is the afterbirth.


FIGURE 8-9 A, Cephalic presentation (“crowning”) of the fetus during delivery from the vaginal (birth) canal. B, Usually within 15 minutes after parturition (birth), the placenta separates from the uterine wall. Forceful contractions expel the placenta and attached membranes, now called the afterbirth. The three phases of labor are (1) dilation of the cervix, (2) expulsion or birth of the infant, and (3) delivery of the placenta.

FIGURE 8-10 A, My newborn granddaughter, Beatrix Bess (Bebe) Thompson, and her mother, Dr. Elizabeth Chabner Thompson, minutes after Bebe's birth. Notice that Bebe's skin is covered with vernix caseosa, a mixture of a fatty secretion from fetal sebaceous (oil) glands and dead skin. The vernix protects the fetus's delicate skin from abrasions, chapping, and hardening as a result of being bathed in amniotic fluid. B, The placenta and umbilical cord just after expulsion from the uterus.

Hormonal Interactions


The events of menstruation and pregnancy depend on hormones not only from the ovaries (estrogen and progesterone) but also from the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland secretes follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) after the onset of menstruation. As their levels rise in the bloodstream, FSH and LH stimulate maturation of the ovum and ovulation. The spike in LH levels is called the LH surge. This triggers ovulation and the development of the corpus luteum. The surge can last for a few hours or a few days, and ovulation usually occurs 24 hours after its onset. Home ovulation kits track LH levels in urine. After ovulation, LH influences the maintenance of the corpus luteum and its production of estrogen and progesterone. During pregnancy, the high levels of estrogen and progesterone from the ovary and placenta cause the pituitary gland to stop producing FSH and LH. Therefore, while a woman is pregnant, additional eggs do not mature and ovulation cannot occur. Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) work in the same way. Another female birth control method is an IUD (intrauterine device). A health care professional inserts the IUD, a small device designed to remain inside the uterus. It works by preventing implantation of the embryo. Birth control pills and an IUD do not protect a woman against sexually transmi ed infections such as that caused by HIV. See page 274 for a table of contraceptive choices and their features.

How Do Birth Control Pills Work?

Birth control pills contain a combination of estrogen and progesterone or progesterone only. When taken as directed, they increase the levels of these hormones in the woman's bloodstream. High levels of estrogen and progesterone send a signal to the pituitary gland to shut down its secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). When these hormones are blocked, the ovaries will not release eggs, and pregnancy cannot occur. During pregnancy, levels of estrogen and progesterone also are high—and the ovaries will not release eggs then either! So birth control pills effectively fool the body into “thinking” that the woman is pregnant, and her ovaries stop producing eggs. When all of the ova are released and secretion of estrogen from the ovaries lessens, menopause begins. Menopause signals the gradual ending of menstrual cycles. Premature menopause occurs before age 40, whereas delayed menopause occurs after age 55. Artificial menopause


occurs if the ovaries are removed by surgery or made nonfunctional as a result of radiation therapy or some forms of chemotherapy. During menopause, when estrogen levels fall, the most common signs and symptoms are hot flashes (temperature regulation in the brain is disturbed), insomnia, and vaginal atrophy (lining of the vagina dries and thins, predisposing the affected woman to irritation and discomfort during sexual intercourse). Hormone replacement therapy (HRT), given orally or as a transdermal patch or vaginal ring, relieves these symptoms of menopause and delays the development of weak bones (osteoporosis). HRT use may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, endometrial cancer, stroke, or heart a ack. This therapy should be used only after careful consideration of potential risks and benefits. Table 8-1 reviews the various female hormones, including the sites where they are produced, their target organs, and their effect on the body. TABLE 8-1 FEMALE HORMONES PRODUCTION SITE(S) FSH Pituitary gland LH Pituitary gland Estrogen Ovary Placenta (during pregnancy) Progesterone Ovary (corpus luteum) Placenta (during pregnancy) hCG Placenta HORMONE

TARGET ORGAN Ovary Ovary Uterus Uterus

EFFECT Stimulates maturation of the ovum Stimulates ovulation Builds up the endometrial lining Sustains uterine lining and placenta during pregnancy

Ovary (corpus Sustains pregnancy luteum)

FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone; hCG, human chorionic gonadotropin; LH, luteinizing hormone.


The following list reviews many of the new terms introduced in the text. Short definitions reinforce your understanding of the terms.


adnexa uteri amnion areola Bartholin glands

Fallopian tubes, ovaries, and supporting ligaments. Innermost membrane surrounding the embryo and fetus. Dark-pigmented area surrounding the breast nipple. Small mucus-secreting exocrine glands at the vaginal orifice (opening to outside of the body). Caspar Bartholin was a Danish anatomist who described the glands in 1637. cervix Lower, neck-like portion of the uterus. chorion Outermost membrane surrounding the embryo and fetus; it forms the fetal part of the placenta. clitoris Organ of sensitive erectile tissue anterior to the opening of the female urethra. coitus Sexual intercourse; copulation. Pronunciation is KO-ih-tus. corpus Empty ovarian follicle that secretes progesterone after release of the egg cell; luteum literally means yellow (luteum) body (corpus). cul-de-sac Region in the lower abdomen, midway between the rectum and the uterus. embryo Stage in prenatal development from 2 to 8 weeks. endometrium Inner, mucous membrane lining of the uterus. estrogen Hormone produced by the ovaries; promotes female secondary sex characteristics. fallopian One of a pair of ducts through which the ovum travels to the uterus; also tube called an oviduct. The tubes were named for Gabriello Fallopia, an Italian anatomist. fertilization Union of the sperm and ovum from which the embryo develops. fetus Stage in prenatal development from 8 weeks to birth. fimbriae Finger- or fringe-like projections at the end of the fallopian tubes. (singular: fimbria) follicleSecreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate maturation of the egg cell stimulating (ovum). hormone (FSH) gamete Male or female sexual reproductive cell; sperm cell or ovum. genitalia Reproductive organs; also called genitals. gestation Time period from fertilization of the ovum to birth; pregnancy. gonad Female or male reproductive organ that produces sex cells and hormones; ovary or testis. gynecology Study of the female reproductive organs, including the breasts. human Hormone produced by the placenta to sustain pregnancy by stimulating (chorionic tropin) the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone. gonadotropin (hCG) hymen Mucous membrane partially or completely covering the opening to the vagina. labia Lips of the vagina; labia majora are the larger, outermost lips, and labia minora are the smaller, innermost lips. lactiferous Tubes that carry milk from the mammary glands to the nipple. ducts luteinizing Secreted by the pituitary gland to promote ovulation. hormone (LH) mammary Nipple of the breast. A papilla is any small nipple-shaped projection. papilla menarche Beginning of the first menstrual period and ability to reproduce. menopause Gradual ending of menstruation.


menstruation Monthly shedding of the uterine lining. The flow of blood and tissue normally discharged during menstruation is called the menses (Latin mensis means month). myometrium Muscle layer of the uterus. neonatology Study of the medical care of the newborn (neonate). obstetrics Branch of medicine and surgery concerned with pregnancy and childbirth. orifice An opening. ovarian Developing sac enclosing each ovum within the ovary. Only about 400 of follicle these sacs mature in a woman's lifetime. ovary One of a pair of female organs (gonads) on each side of the pelvis. Ovaries are almond-shaped, about the size of large walnuts, and produce egg cells (ova) and hormones. ovulation Release of the ovum from the ovary. ovum (plural: Mature egg cell (female gamete). Ova develop from immature egg cells ova) called oocytes. parturition Act of giving birth. perimetrium Outermost layer of the uterus; uterine serosa. perineum In females, the area between the anus and the vagina. pituitary Endocrine gland at the base of the brain. It produces hormones that gland stimulate the ovaries. The pituitary gland also regulates other endocrine organs. placenta Vascular organ a ached to the uterine wall during pregnancy. It permits the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and fetus. pregnancy Gestation. progesterone Hormone produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary and the placenta of pregnant women. puberty Period of adolescent development at which secondary sex characteristics appear and gametes are produced. uterus Hollow, pear-shaped muscular female organ in which the embryo and fetus develop, and from which menstruation occurs. The upper portion is the fundus; the middle portion is the corpus; and the lowermost, neck-like portion is the cervix (see Figure 8-3, page 244). vagina Muscular, mucosa-lined canal extending from the uterus to the exterior of the body. vulva External female genitalia; includes the labia, hymen, clitoris, and vaginal orifice. zygote Stage in prenatal development from fertilization and implantation up to 2 weeks.


Write the meanings of the medical terms in the spaces provided.

Combining Forms


COMBINING MEANING FORM amni/o amnion bartholin/o

Bartholin gland

cervic/o chori/o, chorion/o colp/o culd/o

cervix, neck chorion






woman, female


uterus, womb







vagina cul-de-sac



amniocentesis __________________________________ amniotic fluid ___________________________________ Produced by fetal membranes and the fetus. bartholinitis ___________________________________ A Bartholin cyst is a fluid-filled sac caused by blockage of a duct from the Bartholin gland. If bacterial infection occurs, an abscess may form. endocervicitis ___________________________________ chorionic ___________________________________ colposcopy ___________________________________ culdocentesis ___________________________________ A needle is placed through the posterior wall of the vagina and fluid is withdrawn for diagnostic purposes. episiotomy ___________________________________ An incision through the skin of the perineum enlarges the vaginal orifice for delivery. The incision is repaired by perineorrhaphy. galactorrhea ___________________________________ Abnormal, persistent discharge of milk, commonly seen with pituitary gland tumors. gynecomastia ___________________________________ Enlargement of breasts in a male. It often occurs with puberty or aging, or the condition can be drug-related. hysterectomy ___________________________________ Total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) is removal of the entire uterus (including the cervix) through an abdominal incision (Figure 8-11). Vaginal hysterectomy (VH) is removal through the vagina. Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (see Figure 8-11) is a partial hysterectomy that preserves the cervix. hysteroscopy ___________________________________ A gynecologist uses an endoscope (passed through the vagina and cervix) to view the uterine cavity. lactation ___________________________________ The normal secretion of milk. inframammary ___________________________________ Infra- means below. mammoplasty ___________________________________ Includes reduction and augmentation (enlargement) operations. mastitis ___________________________________ Usually caused by streptococcal or staphylococcal infection. mastectomy ___________________________________ Mastectomy procedures are discussed under breast cancer (see page 262).


COMBINING MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING FORM men/o menses, amenorrhea ___________________________________ menstruation Absence of menses for 6 months or for more than three of the patient's normal menstrual cycles. dysmenorrhea ___________________________________ oligomenorrhea ___________________________________ Infrequent menstrual periods or scanty menses. menorrhagia ___________________________________ Abnormally heavy or long menstrual periods. Fibroids (see page 260) are a leading cause of menorrhagia. metr/o, uterus metrorrhagia ___________________________________ metri/o Bleeding between menses. Possible causes of metrorrhagia include ectopic pregnancy, cervical polyps, and ovarian and uterine tumors. menometrorrhagia ___________________________________ Excessive uterine bleeding during and between menstrual periods. my/o, myom/o muscle, myometrium ___________________________________ muscle myomectomy ___________________________________ tumor Removal of fibroids (myomas) from the uterus. nat/i birth neonatal ___________________________________ obstetr/o pregnancy obstetrics ___________________________________ and From the Latin obstetrix, midwife. childbirth o/o egg oogenesis ___________________________________ oocyte ___________________________________ Immature ovum. oophor/o ovary oophorectomy ___________________________________ Oophor/o means to bear (phor/o) eggs (o/o). In a bilateral oophorectomy, both ovaries are removed. ov/o egg ovum ___________________________________ Mature egg cell. ovari/o ovary ovarian ___________________________________ ovul/o egg anovulatory ___________________________________ perine/o perineum perineorrhaphy ___________________________________ phor/o to bear oophoritis ___________________________________ salping/o fallopian salpingectomy ___________________________________ tubes Figure 8-12 shows a total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). uter/o uterus uterine prolapse ___________________________________ vagin/o vagina vaginal orifice ___________________________________ An orifice is an opening. vaginitis ___________________________________ Bacteria and yeasts (usually Candida) commonly cause this infection. Use of antibiotic therapy may cause loss of normal vaginal bacteria, resulting in an environment allowing yeast to grow. vulv/o vulva vulvovaginitis ___________________________________ vulvodynia ___________________________________ Chronic pain (with no identifiable cause) that affects the vulvar area (labia, clitoris, and vaginal opening).


FIGURE 8-11 Normal uterus and hysterectomies. Total hysterectomy is removal of the entire uterus—fundus, corpus, and cervix. This may be performed via an abdominal incision or vaginally. Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy is removal of the top portion of the uterus (above the cervix), leaving the cervix intact. Three to five small incisions are made in the abdomen and the uterus is removed via laparoscope. Robotic hysterectomy (da Vinci surgery) is another option using small incisions, three-dimensional vision, and a magnified view of the surgical site.

FIGURE 8-12 Total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooophorectomy.



SUFFIX MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING -arche beginning menarche ____________________________________ -cyesis pregnancy pseudocyesis _________________________________ Pseudo- means false. No pregnancy exists, but physical changes such as weight gain and amenorrhea occur. pregnant primigravida ________________________________ gravida A woman during her first pregnancy (primi- means first). Gravida also is used to designate a pregnant woman, often followed by a number to indicate the number of pregnancies (gravida 1, 2, 3). -parous bearing, primiparous __________________________________ bringing An adjective describing a woman who has given birth to at least one forth child. Para also is used as a noun, often followed by a number to indicate the number of deliveries after the 20th week of gestation (para 1, para 2, para 3). When a woman arrives in the birthing facility, her gravidity and parity are important facts to include in the medical and surgical history. For example, G2P2 is medical shorthand for a woman who has had 2 pregnancies and 2 deliveries. -rrhea discharge leukorrhea ___________________________________ This vaginal discharge is normal or becomes more yellow (purulent or pus-containing) as a sign of infection. menorrhea ___________________________________ fallopian pyosalpinx ___________________________________ salpinx (uterine) tube -tocia labor, birth dystocia ___________________________________ oxytocia ___________________________________ Oxy- means sharp or quick. The pituitary gland releases oxytocin, which stimulates the pregnant uterus to contract (labor begins). It also stimulates milk secretion from mammary glands. act of cephalic version ___________________________________ version turning The fetus turns so that the head is the body part closest to the cervix (version can occur spontaneously or can be performed by the obstetrician). Fetal presentation is the manner in which the fetus appears to the examiner during delivery. A breech presentation is bu ocks first, or feet first in a footling breech; a cephalic presentation is head first.



PREFIX MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING dyspainful dyspareunia ____________________________________ (dis-pah-RU-ne-ah) Pareunia means sexual intercourse. endowithin endometritis ____________________________________ Usually caused by a bacterial infection. inin involution of the uterus ________________________________ Vol- means to roll. The uterus returns to its normal nonpregnant size. intrawithin intrauterine device ____________________________________ Figure 8-13A shows an IUD. multi- many multipara ____________________________________ multigravida ____________________________________ A woman who has been pregnant more than once. nullino, not, nulligravida ____________________________________ none nullipara ____________________________________ Para 0. Figure 8-13B shows the cervix of a nulliparous woman and the cervix of a parous woman (who has had a vaginal delivery). prebefore prenatal ____________________________________ primi- first primipara ____________________________________ retrobackward retroversion ____________________________________ The uterus is abnormally tilted backward. This occurs in 30% of women.

FIGURE 8-13 A, Intrauterine device (IUD) in place to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg. B, The cervix of a nulliparous woman (the os, or opening, is small and perfectly round) and the cervix of a parous woman (the os is wide and irregular). These views would be visible under colposcopic examination.


Pathology: Gynecologic, Breast, Pregnancy, and Neonatal Gynecologic Uterus Cervical cancer (carcinoma of the cervix)

Malignant cells within the cervix. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause and risk factor for developing cancer. Other factors that may act together with HPV to increase the risk of developing cervical cancer include cigare e smoking, having multiple sexual partners, and having a weakened immune system (e.g., patients with AIDS). Human papillomavirus is the most widespread sexually transmi ed infection in the world. In countries with high rates of HPV infection, cervical cancer may become the most common cancer in adult women. There are over 200 types of HPV. Some cause genital warts (benign growths on the vulva, cervix, vagina, or anus), whereas others can cause cancer, most commonly of the cervix, vagina, vulva, anus, penis, or head and heck. Most HPV infections are cleared by a person's immune system. A persistent infection may lead to precancerous changes called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). See Figure 8-14 showing CIN progression. CIN is also known as cervical dysplasia (abnormal cell growth). Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is considered an early, localized, precancerous form of cervical cancer and local resection (conization) of CIS may be necessary to prevent development of invasive cancer. Figure 8-15 shows a normal cervix and one with cervical cancer. Surgical treatment for cervical cancer requires radical hysterectomy, in which the entire uterus with ligaments, supportive tissues, and the top one third of the vagina are removed. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy with cisplatin are used to treat disease that has spread beyond the cervix, into neighboring pelvic tissues, and to distant organs. Brachytherapy (radioactive seeds implanted into the cervix) may also be an effective treatment.


FIGURE 8-14 Precancerous neoplastic lesions are called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Pathologists diagnose such lesions from a Pap test (microscopic examination of cells scraped from cervical epithelium) and grade them as CIN-1 to CIN-3. Cervical carcinoma in situ (CIS) is equivalent to CIN-3. These are precancerous lesions that have not yet invaded the substance of the cervix.

FIGURE 8-15 Normal cervix (A) and cervix with cervical cancer (B) as seen on colposcopy.

HPV Vaccine

HPV vaccines are given in a series of three shots over 6 months to protect females and males against HPV infections. Girls can get this vaccine to prevent cervical cancer, vulvar and vaginal cancer, and


genital warts. Boys get the vaccine to prevent anal cancer and genital warts. The names of these vaccines are Cervarix, Gardasil, and Gardasil 9. cervicitis

endometrial cancer (carcinoma of the endometrium)



Inflammation of the cervix. Bacteria such as Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae commonly cause cervicitis. In acute cervicitis, the cervix is reddened and can have an exudate (discharge) or even ulcerations. After the presence of malignancy has been excluded (by Pap test or biopsy), cryocauterization (destroying tissue by freezing) of the diseased area and treatment with antibiotics may be indicated. Malignant tumor of the uterine lining (adenocarcinoma). The most common sign of endometrial cancer is postmenopausal bleeding. This malignancy occurs more often in women exposed to high levels of estrogen, either from estrogen replacement therapy, estrogen-producing tumors, or obesity (estrogen is produced by fat tissue). Physicians perform endometrial biopsy, hysteroscopy, and dilation (widening the cervical canal) and cure age (scraping the inner lining of the uterus) for diagnosis. When the cancer is confined to the uterus, surgery (hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy) is curative. Radiation oncologists administer radiation therapy as additional treatment. Endometrial tissue located outside the uterus. In endometriosis, endometrial tissue may be found in ovaries, fallopian tubes, supporting ligaments, or small intestine, causing inflammation and scar tissue. When the endometrium sheds and bleeds in its monthly cycle, it may cause dysmenorrhea or pelvic pain. Infertility (inability to become pregnant) and dyspareunia may also occur. Most cases are the result of growth of bits of menstrual endometrium that have passed backward through the lumen (opening) of the fallopian tube and into the peritoneal cavity. When endometriosis affects the ovaries, large cysts filled with menstrual blood (“chocolate cysts”) develop. Symptoms may not correlate with the amount of the endometriosis. Women may have extensive disease but no symptoms, while others may have minimal endometriosis but severe symptoms. Treatment ranges from symptomatic relief of pain and hormonal drugs that suppress the menstrual cycle to surgical removal of ectopic endometrial tissue and hysterectomy. Benign tumors in the uterus. Fibroids, also called leiomyomata or leiomyomas (lei/o = smooth, my/o = muscle, and -oma = tumor), are composed of fibrous tissue and muscle. If fibroids grow and cause symptoms such as metrorrhagia (irregular periods), pelvic pain, or menorrhagia, (heavy periods), either a myomectomy or hysterectomy is indicated. Fibroid ablation (destruction) without surgery may be accomplished by uterine artery embolization (UAE), in which tiny pellets (acting as emboli) are injected into a uterine artery, blocking the blood supply to fibroids, causing them to shrink. Figure 8-16A and B shows the location of uterine fibroids.


FIGURE 8-16 A, Location of uterine fibroids (leiomyomas). Pedunculated growths protrude on stalks. A subserosal mass lies under the serosal (outermost) layer of the uterus. A submucosal leiomyoma grows under the mucosal (innermost) layer. Intramural (mural means wall) masses arise within the muscular uterine wall. B, Fibroids shown after hysterectectomy.



ovarian cancer

ovarian cysts

Malignant tumor of the ovary (adenocarcinoma). Each year, about 22,000 women in the United States are diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Two types of ovarian cancer are most common: serous (clear fluid) and mucinous (thick, pasty fluid) cystadenocarcinomas. The tumor usually is discovered in an advanced stage as an abdominal mass and may produce few symptoms in its early stages. When the disease metastasizes beyond the ovary before diagnosis, ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity) is often present. Treatment consists of surgery to remove as much of the tumor as possible (tumor debulking). This may include hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and removal of the omentum (fa y tissue that covers abdominal organs and often contains deposits of tumor). Surgery is followed by systemic drug therapy, which is dependent on the type of ovarian cancer. A protein marker produced by tumor cells, CA 125, can be measured in the bloodstream to assess effectiveness of treatment. Inherited mutations (changes) in genes greatly increase the risk of developing ovarian and breast cancer. These mutations are BRCA1 and BRCA2 (short for breast cancer 1 and breast cancer 2). Women with a strong family history of ovarian cancer (with multiple members of the family affected) may seek genetic counseling to determine if they should be tested for these inherited defects. Prophylactic (preventive) oophorectomy significantly reduces the odds of developing ovarian cancer if a woman is at high risk. Fluid-filled sacs within the ovary. Some cysts are benign and lined with typical ovarian cells. These cysts originate in unruptured ovarian follicles (follicular cysts) or in follicles that have ruptured and have immediately been sealed (luteal cysts). Other cysts are malignant and lined with tumor cells (cystadenocarcinomas). Physicians decide to remove these cysts to distinguish between benign and malignant tumors. Other benign ovarian cysts are dermoid cysts. They contain a variety of cell types, including skin, hair, teeth, and cartilage, and arise from immature egg cells in the ovary. Because of the strange assortment of tissue types in the tumor (Figure 8-17), this tumor often is called a benign cystic teratoma (terat/o = monster) or a mature teratoma. Surgical removal of the cyst cures the condition.

FIGURE 8-17 Dermoid cyst of the ovary with hair, skin, and teeth. (Courtesy Dr. Elizabeth Chabner Thompson.)


Fallopian Tubes pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

Inflammation and infection of organs in the pelvis and abdomen; salpingitis, oophoritis, endometritis, endocervicitis. PID is caused by sexually transmi ed infections. Repetitive episodes of these infections lead to formation of adhesions and scarring within the fallopian tubes. After PID, women have an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy and infertility. Signs and symptoms include fever, vaginal discharge, abdominal pain in the left and right lower quadrants (LLQ and RLQ), and tenderness to palpation (examining by touch) of the cervix. Antibiotics treat PID.

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

Examples of bacterial and viral STIs in women are:

• gonorrhea (gonococcal bacteria) • chlamydia (chlamydial bacteria) • syphilis (spirochete bacteria) • genital herpes (herpes simplex virus—HSV) • HPV infection and genital warts (human papillomavirus) More information on STIs in women and men is on page 302.



breast cancer

Malignant tumor of the breast (arising from milk glands and ducts). The most common type of breast cancer is invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Invasive means that the tumor has spread to surrounding breast tissue. Figure 8-18A shows the tumor on a mammogram. Figure 8-18B shows a cut section of an invasive ductal carcinoma. Other histopathologic (histo- means tissue) types are lobular and medullary carcinoma of the breast. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is non-invasive breast cancer. It starts in milk ducts and does not spread beyond its original location (in situ). DCIS can increase the risk of developing invasive breast cancer and is treated by lumpectomy. Breast cancer spreads first to lymph nodes in the axilla (armpit) nearest the affected breast and then to the skin and chest wall. From the lymph nodes it also may metastasize to other body organs, including bone, liver, lung, and brain. The diagnosis is first established by biopsy, either core needle aspiration or surgical removal of the specimen (solid mass or area of microcalcification). A stereotactic core needle biopsy is performed with the help of mammography for guidance. For small primary tumors, the lump with immediately surrounding tissue can be removed (lumpectomy). To determine whether the tumor has spread to lymph nodes, a sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is performed. For this procedure, a blue dye or a radioisotope is injected into the tumor site and tracks to the axillary (underarm) lymph nodes. See Figure 8-19. After lumpectomy, radiation therapy to the breast and to any involved lymph nodes then follows, to kill remaining tumor cells. An alternative surgical procedure is mastectomy (Figure 8-20A), which is removal of the entire breast. After either lumpectomy or mastectomy if lymph nodes are involved, or if the primary tumor was large, adjuvant (aiding) chemotherapy is given to prevent recurrence of the tumor. Breast reconstruction is an option after mastectomy. See Figure 8-20B. In patients with large primary tumors, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (added prior to surgery) may be administered to reduce tumor bulk and allow for complete surgical removal of the tumor. After surgery, further treatment may be indicated to prevent recurrence. To determine which treatment is best, it is important to test the breast cancer tumor for the presence of estrogen receptors (ERs). Two thirds of breast cancers are ER-positive (ER+). These receptor proteins indicate that the tumor will respond to therapy that blocks the estrogen stimulation of estrogen. If metastases should subsequently develop, this information will be valuable in selecting further treatment. There are two types of drugs that block the effects of estrogen and thereby kill ER-positive breast cancer cells. Drugs of the first type directly block the ER reception. An example is tamoxifen. Drugs of the second type block the production of estrogen by inhibiting the enzyme aromatase. These aromatase inhibitors are particularly useful in treating postmenopausal women. Examples are anastrozole (Arimidex) and letrozole (Femara). A second receptor protein, HER2, is found in some breast cancers and signals a high risk of tumor recurrence. Herceptin, an antibody that binds to and blocks HER2, is effective in stopping growth when used with chemotherapy. A new drug, pertuzumab, also targets HER2 and, combined with Herceptin, is effective in treating HER2–positive advanced breast cancer. Triple-negative tumors lack estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 and are rapidly growing but respond well to chemotherapy. Testing for hereditary mutations BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 (partner and localizer of BRCA1 and BRCA2) is advised for women with a strong family history of breast cancer. Some women who test positively for the breast


fibrocystic breast disease

cancer genes elect to have prophylactic (preventive) bilateral mastectomy with reconstruction to eliminate the risk of developing a new breast cancer. See the In Person: Prophylactic Mastectomy story on page 275. Numerous small sacs of fluid surrounded by dense strands of fibrous tissue in the breast. Women with this common benign condition notice a nodular (lumpy) consistency of the breast, often associated with premenstrual tenderness and fullness. Mammography and surgical biopsy are often indicated to differentiate fibrocystic changes from breast cancer.

FIGURE 8-18 A, Arrows in mammogram point to invasive breast cancer. A dense white fragment of calcium is seen at 2 o'clock in the mass; calcifications like this frequently are a sign of cancer. B, Cut section of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.


FIGURE 8-19 Sentinel node biopsy. After injection of dye or radioisotope, its path is visualized and the sentinel (first) lymph node is identified. It is the one most likely to contain a tumor if cells have left the breast. The sentinel node is removed and biopsied. If it is negative for tumor cells, the breast cancer has not spread.

FIGURE 8-20 A, Surgical scar, mastectomy, right breast. A modified radical mastectomy removes the breast and axillary lymph nodes (usually 20 to 30 nodes). B, Reconstruction of right breast after skin-sparing mastectomy. A gel silicone implant was used. At a second operation, local tissue was manipulated to create the semblance of a nipple-areola complex. The procedure was completed by tattooing color around the nipple. In this patient, the right breast tissue was removed prophylactically and a silicone implant was inserted through an inframammary incision. (A, Courtesy Dr. Elizabeth Chabner Thompson.)



abruptio placentae


ectopic pregnancy

multiple gestations

placenta previa


Premature separation of the normally implanted placenta. Abruptio placentae (Latin ab, away from; ruptus, ruptured) occurs because of trauma, such as a fall, or may be secondary to vascular insufficiency resulting from hypertension or preeclampsia (see page 265). Signs and symptoms of acute abruption include sudden searing (burning) abdominal pain and bleeding. It is an obstetric emergency. Malignant tumor of the placenta. This extremely rare cancerous tumor comes from cells that were part of the placenta in a normal pregnancy. Treatment of metastatic choriocarcinoma may include chemotherapy and radiation therapy to distant sites of cancer. Implantation of the fertilized egg outside the uterus. The condition occurs in 1-2% of all pregnancies, and most of these occur in the fallopian tubes (tubal pregnancy). Rupture of the ectopic implant within the fallopian tube can lead to massive abdominal bleeding and death. Surgeons can remove the implant, or treatment with medication (methotrexate) can destroy it, thereby preserving the fallopian tube before rupture occurs. Other sites of ectopic pregnancy include the ovaries and abdominal cavity; whatever the location, ectopic pregnancy often constitutes a surgical emergency. Presence of more than one embryo developing in the uterus during pregnancy. Multiple births are increasing in the United States. This is because of assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as ovulation induction followed by intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). These pregnancies are at higher risk for preterm delivery, fetal growth restriction, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Implantation of the placenta over the cervical opening or in the lower region of the uterus (Figure 8-21). Maternal signs and symptoms include painless bleeding, hemorrhage, and premature labor. Cesarean delivery usually is recommended. Abnormal condition associated with pregnancy, marked by high blood pressure, proteinuria, edema, and headache. Mild preeclampsia can be managed by bed rest and close monitoring of blood pressure. Women with severe preeclampsia need treatment with medications such as magnesium sulfate to prevent seizures, and the baby is delivered as quickly as possible. The Greek word eklampein means to shine forth, referring to the convulsions and hypertension—typically with visual symptoms of flashing lights— that accompany the condition. Eclampsia is the final and most severe phase of untreated preeclampsia. It often causes seizures and even death of the mother and baby.


Placenta previa. Previa means before or in the front of. Three forms of this abnormal implantation of the placenta are: placenta accreta (on the wall but not in muscle), placenta increta (in uterine muscle), and placenta percreta (attaching to another organ). FIGURE 8-21

Neonatal The following terms describe conditions or symptoms that can affect the newborn. The Apgar score (Figure 8-22) is a system of scoring an infant's physical condition at 1 minute and again at 5 minutes after birth. Heart rate, respiration, color, muscle tone, and response to stimuli each are rated 0, 1, or 2. The maximum total score is 10. Infants with Apgar scores below 7 require immediate medical a ention such as suctioning of the airways or oxygen to help breathing.

(Video) Chapter 3 Direction, Planes, Positions, Regions, Quadrants 10thed

Apgar scoring chart. This test is named for anesthesiologist Virginia Apgar (1909-1974), who devised it in 1953. Dr. Joseph Butterfield, in 1963, introduced an “APGAR” acronym as a mnemonic (memory device): Appearance (color), Pulse (heart rate), Grimace (response to catheter in nostril), Activity (muscle tone), and Respiration (respiratory effort). FIGURE 8-22


Down syndrome Hemolytic disease in the newborn (HDN) infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) hydrocephalus

meconium aspiration syndrome

pyloric stenosis

Chromosomal abnormality (trisomy 21) results in mental retardation, retarded growth, and a flat face with a short nose, low-set ears, and slanted eyes. Destruction of red blood cells in the newborn caused by a blood group (Rh factor) incompatibility between the mother and the fetus. See explanation in Chapter 4, page 115. Acute lung disease commonly seen in the premature newborn. This condition is caused by deficiency of surfactant, a protein necessary for proper lung function. Surfactant can be administered to the newborn to cure the condition. This condition was previously called hyaline membrane disease. Accumulation of fluid in the spaces of the brain. In an infant with this condition, the entire head can enlarge because the bones of the skull do not completely fuse together at birth. Infants normally have a soft spot or fontanelle between the cranial bones that allows for some swelling during the birth of the baby. Hydrocephalus occurs because of a problem in the circulation of fluid within the brain and spinal cord, resulting in fluid accumulation. Abnormal inhalation of meconium produced by a fetus or newborn. Meconium, a thick, sticky, greenish to black substance, is the first intestinal discharge (stools) from newborns. Intrauterine distress can cause its passage into amniotic fluid. Once the meconium has passed into the surrounding amniotic fluid, the fetus may breath meconium into its lungs. It can cause breathing problems due to inflammation in the baby's lungs after birth. Narrowing of the opening of the stomach to the duodenum. This condition may be present at birth and frequently is associated with Down syndrome. Surgical repair of the pyloric opening may be necessary.


Clinical Tests and Procedures Clinical Tests Pap test (Pap smear)

Microscopic examination of stained cells removed from the vagina and cervix. After inserting a vaginal speculum (instrument to hold apart the vaginal walls), the physician uses a small spatula to remove exfoliated (peeling and sloughing off) cells from the cervix and vagina (Figure 8-23). Microscopic analysis of the cell smear detects cervical or vaginal cellular abnormalities. pregnancy Blood or urine test to detect the presence of hCG. test

FIGURE 8-23 Method of obtaining a sample for a Pap test. The test is 95% accurate in diagnosing early cervical cancer. It was invented by and named for a Greek physician, Georgios Papanicolaou.

Procedures X-Ray Studies


hysterosalpingography (HSG) mammography

X-ray imaging of the uterus and fallopian tubes after injection of contrast material. This radiologic procedure is used to evaluate tubal patency (adequate opening) and uterine cavity abnormalities. X-ray imaging of the breast. Women are advised to have a baseline mammogram at 40-44 years of age for later comparison if needed. The most recent method of mammography is digital tomosynthesis. See Figure 8-24. In this procedure, an x-ray tube moves in an arc around the breast as several images are taken. These images are sent to a computer and clear, highly focused three-dimensional pictures are produced. This procedure makes breast cancer easier to find in dense breast tissue; also called 3D mammography.


FIGURE 8-24 A, Mammography. The machine compresses the breast and x-ray pictures (top to bottom and lateral) are taken. B, Comparison of mammogram and digital tomosynthesis images.

Ultrasound Examination and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)


breast ultrasound imaging and breast MRI

pelvic ultrasonography

Technologies using sound waves and a magnetic field to create images of breast tissue. These imaging techniques confirm the presence of a mass and can distinguish a cystic from a solid mass. MRI is very useful in detecting masses in young women with dense breasts or in women with a strong family history of breast cancer and at high risk for this condition. Breast ultrasound imaging is useful to evaluate a specific area of cancer on a mammogram. Recording images of sound waves as they bounce off organs in the pelvic region. This technique can evaluate fetal size and anatomy, as well as fetal and placental position. Uterine tumors and other pelvic masses, including abscesses, also are diagnosed by ultrasonography. Transvaginal ultrasound allows the radiologist a closer, sharper look at organs within the pelvis. The sound probe is placed in the vagina instead of over the pelvis or abdomen; this method is best used to evaluate fluid-filled cysts.

Gynecologic Procedures





cryosurgery culdocentesis

dilation (dilatation) and cure age (D&C)

exenteration fine needle aspiration laparoscopy

tubal ligation

Destruction of tissue by burning. Destruction of abnormal tissue with chemicals (silver nitrate) or an electrically heated instrument. Cauterization is used to treat cervical dysplasia or cervical erosion. The loop electrocautery excision procedure (LEEP) (see Figure 8-26A) is used to further assess and often treat abnormal cervical tissue. Visual examination of the vagina and cervix using a colposcope. A colposcope is a lighted magnifying instrument resembling a small, mounted pair of binoculars. Gynecologists prefer colposcopy for pelvic examination when cervical dysplasia is present because it identifies the specific areas of abnormal cells. A biopsy specimen can then be taken for more accurate diagnosis (Figure 8-25). Removal of a cone-shaped section (cone biopsy) of the cervix. The physician resects the tissue using a LEEP (loop electrocautery excision procedure), or with a carbon dioxide laser or surgical knife (scalpel). Figure 8-26A shows conization with LEEP, and Figure 8-26B shows the cone biopsy specimen removed surgically. Use of cold temperatures to destroy tissue. A liquid nitrogen probe produces the freezing (cry/o means cold) temperature. Also called cryocauterization. Needle aspiration of fluid from the cul-de-sac. The physician inserts a needle through the vagina into the cul-de-sac. The presence of blood may indicate a ruptured ectopic pregnancy or ruptured ovarian cyst. Widening the cervix and scraping off the endometrial lining of the uterus. Dilation is accomplished by inserting a series of dilators of increasing diameter. A curet (metal loop at the end of a long, thin handle) is then used to sample the uterine lining. This procedure helps diagnose uterine disease and can temporarily halt prolonged or heavy uterine bleeding. When necessary, a D&C is used to remove the tissue during a spontaneous or therapeutic abortion (Figure 8-27). Removal of internal organs within a cavity. Pelvic exenteration is removal of the organs and adjacent structures of the pelvis. Withdrawal of fluid or tissue from a cyst or solid mass by suction with a needle. FNA is a valuable diagnostic technique in evaluating lumps of the breast. Visual examination of the abdominal cavity using an endoscope (laparoscope). In this procedure, a form of minimally invasive surgery (MIS), small incisions (5 to 10 mm long) are made near the woman's navel for introduction of the laparoscope and other instruments. Uses of laparoscopy include inspection and removal of ovaries and fallopian tubes, diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis, and removal of fibroids. Laparoscopy also is used to perform subtotal (cervix is left in place) and total hysterectomies (Figure 8-28). Morcellation (cu ing up uterine tissue in the abdomen) is commonly performed when the uterus or fibroids are removed laparoscopically. It is contraindicated in situations of suspcious or pre-malignancy. Blocking the fallopian tubes to prevent fertilization from occurring. This sterilization procedure (making an individual incapable of reproduction) is performed using laparoscopy or through a hysteroscope inserted via the cervical os (opening). Ligation means


tying off and does not pertain solely to the fallopian tubes—which may be “tied” using clips or bands, or by surgically cu ing or burning through the tissue.

FIGURE 8-25 Colposcopy is used to evaluate a patient with an abnormal Pap test result. For this examination, the woman lies in the dorsal lithotomy position. This is the same position used to remove a urinary tract stone (lithotomy means incision to remove a stone).

FIGURE 8-26 A, Cervical loop electrocautery excision procedure (LEEP) for cone biopsy. B, Surgical removal of cone biopsy specimen. (A, Courtesy Dr. A. K. Goodman, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.)


FIGURE 8-27 Dilation and curettage (D&C) of the uterus. A, The uterine cavity is explored with a uterine sound (a slender instrument used to measure the depth of the uterus) to prevent perforation during dilation. B, Uterine dilators (Hanks or Hagar) in graduated sizes are used to gradually dilate the cervix. C, The uterus is gently curetted and specimens are collected.

FIGURE 8-28 Laparoscopic oophorectomy. A, Notice the ovary placed in a plastic bag. The bag was inserted through the laparoscope and then opened, and the ovary was placed inside. B, Both are extracted through the laparoscope, leaving the uterus and the cut end of the fallopian tube. (Courtesy Dr. A. K. Goodman, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.)

Procedures Related to Pregnancy


abortion (AB)

Termination of pregnancy before the embryo or fetus can exist on its own. Abortions are spontaneous or induced. Spontaneous abortions, commonly called “miscarriages,” occur without apparent cause. Induced abortions can be therapeutic or elective. A therapeutic abortion is performed when the health of the pregnant woman is endangered. An elective abortion is performed at the request of the woman. Major methods for abortion include vaginal evacuation by D&C or vacuum aspiration (suction) and stimulation of uterine contractions by injection of saline (salt solution) into the amniotic cavity (in second-trimester pregnancies). amniocentesis Needle puncture of the amniotic sac to withdraw amniotic fluid for analysis (Figure 8-29). The cells of the fetus, found in the fluid, are cultured (grown), and cytologic and biochemical studies are performed to check fetal chromosomes, concentrations of proteins and bilirubin, and fetal maturation. cesarean Surgical incision of the abdominal wall and uterus to deliver a fetus. section Indications for cesarean section include cephalopelvic disproportion (the baby's head is too big for the mother's birth canal), abruptio placentae or placenta previa, fetal distress (fetal hypoxia), and breech or shoulder presentation. The name comes from a law during the time of Julius Caesar requiring removal of the fetus before a deceased pregnant woman could be buried. chorionic Sampling of placental tissues (chorionic villi) for prenatal diagnosis. villus The sample of tissue is removed with a catheter inserted into the sampling uterus. The procedure can be performed earlier than amniocentesis, at (CVS) 10 or more weeks of gestation. fetal Continuous recording of the fetal heart rate and maternal uterine monitoring contractions to assess fetal status and the progress of labor. in vitro Egg and sperm cells are combined outside the body in a laboratory fertilization dish (in vitro) to facilitate fertilization. (IVF) After an incubation period of 3 to 5 days, the fertilized ova are injected into the uterus through the cervix. (Latin in vitro means in glass, as used for laboratory containers.) From 30% to 50% of all IVF procedures are now associated with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). This is the direct injection of sperm into harvested ova.


FIGURE 8-29 Amniocentesis. The obstetrician places a long needle through the pregnant woman's abdominal wall into the amniotic cavity. Needle placement (avoiding the fetus and the placenta) is guided by concurrent ultrasound imaging, performed using the transducer in the radiologist's hand. The yellow amniotic fluid is aspirated into the syringe attached to the needle. This procedure took place in the 16th week of pregnancy. The indication for the amniocentesis was a low alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level. This finding suggested a higher risk of Down syndrome in the baby. Karyotype analysis (received 10 days later) showed normal chromosome configuration.




abortion alpha-fetoprotein—high levels in amniotic fluid of fetus or maternal serum indicate increased risk of neurologic birth defects in the infant. ART Assisted Reproductive Techniques including IVF and sperm donation BRCA1 breast cancer 1 and 2—genetic mutations associated with increased risk for BRCA2 breast cancer BSE breast self-examination CA-125 protein marker elevated in ovarian cancer C-section, cesarean section CS CIN cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CIS carcinoma in situ CVS chorionic villus sampling Cx cervix D&C dilation (dilatation) and cure age DCIS ductal carcinoma in situ; a precancerous breast lesion that indicates a higher risk for invasive ductal breast cancer DUB dysfunctional uterine bleeding FHR fetal heart rate FNA fine needle aspiration FSH follicle-stimulating hormone G gravida (pregnant) GnRH gonadotropin-releasing hormone—secreted by the hypothalamus to stimulate release of FSH and LH from the pituitary gland GYN gynecology hCG or human chorionic gonadotropin HCG HDN hemolytic disease of the newborn HPV human papillomavirus HRT hormone replacement therapy HSG hysterosalpingography IUD intrauterine device; contraceptive IDC invasive ductal carcinoma IRDS infant respiratory distress syndrome IVF in vitro fertilization LEEP loop electrocautery excision procedure LH luteinizing hormone LMP last menstrual period multip multipara; multiparous OB obstetrics para 2-0-1- a woman's reproductive history: 2 full-term infants, 0 preterm, 1 abortion, and 2 2 living children Pap test test for cervical or vaginal cancer PID pelvic inflammatory disease PMS premenstrual syndrome primip primipara; primiparous SLN sentinel lymph node biopsy—blue dye or a radioisotope (or both) identifies the biopsy or first lymph node draining the breast lymphatics SNB TAH-BSO total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy UAE uterine artery embolization VH vaginal hysterectomy


Practical Applications

This section contains an actual operative report and brief excerpts from other medical records using words that you have studied in this and previous chapters. Explanations of more difficult terms are added in brackets.

Operative Report Preoperative diagnosis: Menorrhagia, leiomyomata Anesthetic: General Material forwarded to laboratory for examination: A. Endocervical cure ings B. Endometrial cure ings Operation performed: Dilation and cure age of the uterus With the patient in the dorsal lithotomy position [legs are flexed on the thighs, thighs flexed on the abdomen and abducted] and sterilely prepped and draped, manual examination of the uterus revealed it to be 6- to 8-week size, retroflexed; no adnexal masses noted. The anterior lip of the cervix was then grasped with a tenaculum [a hook-like surgical instrument for grasping and holding parts]. The cervix was dilated up to a #20 Hank's dilator. The uterus was sounded [depth measured] up to 4 inches. A sharp cure age of the endocervix showed only a scant amount of tissue. With a sharp curet, the uterus was cure ed in a clockwise fashion with an irregularity noted in the posterior floor. A large amount of endometrial tissue was removed. The patient tolerated the procedure well. Operative diagnosis: Leiomyomata uteri Recommendation: Hysterectomy for myomectomy

Sentences Using Medical Terminology 1. Mammogram report: The breast parenchyma [essential tissue] is symmetric bilaterally. There are no abnormal masses or calcifications in either breast. The axillae are normal. 2. This is a 43-year-old gravida 3, para 2 with premature ovarian failure and now on HRT. She has history of endocervical atypia [cells are not normal or typical] secondary to chlamydial infection, which is now being treated.


3. The patient is a 40-year-old gravida 3, para 2 admi ed for exploratory laparotomy to remove and evaluate a 10-cm left adnexal mass. Discharge diagnosis: (1) endometriosis, left ovary; (2) benign cystic teratoma [dermoid cyst], left ovary. 4. History: 51-year-old G3 P3; LMP early 40s; on HRT until age 49 when diagnosed with carcinoma of breast; treated with mastectomy and tamoxifen. Followed by ultrasounds showing slightly thickened 9-10 mm endometrium. No bleeding. Operative findings: office endometrial biopsy, scant tissue Clinical diagnosis: rule out hyperplasia

Operating Room Schedule The operating room schedule for one day in a large general hospital listed six different gynecologic procedures. Match the surgical procedures in Column I with the indications for surgery in Column II. Write the le er of the indication in the blanks provided. Answers are on page 286. COLUMN I 1. Left oophorectomy 2. Vaginal hysterectomy with colporrhaphy 3. TAH-BSO, pelvic and periaortic lymphadenectomy 4. Exploratory laparotomy for uterine myomectomy 5. Conization of the cervix 6. Lumpectomy with SLN biopsy

COLUMN II _______ A. LLQ pain; ovarian mass on pelvic _______ ultrasound _______ B. Fibroids C. Endometrial cancer _______ D. Small invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast E. Suspected cervical cancer _______ F. Uterine prolapse _______

Contraceptive Choices Review and compare the various birth control options available today.


METHOD 1. Abstinence—no sexual intercourse 2. Cervical cap—inserted by doctor or nurse 3. Condom—male 4. Condom—female 5. Diaphragm (with spermicide) 6. Film and foam (with spermicide) 7. Implant—inserted into upper arm; releases hormones; effective for 3 years 8. Injectable—Depo-Provera given every 3 months 9. Intrauterine device (IUD) 10. Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) 11. Patch—applied to skin weekly 12. Ring—inserted in vagina; effective for 1 month 13. Sponge—used by women who have never given birth 14. Suppositories—inserted in vagina (with spermicide) 15. Withdrawal

UNINTENDED PREGNANCY RATES: TYPICAL USE/PERFECT USE 0% / 0% 16% / 9% 15% / 2% 21% / 5% 16% / 6% 29% / 18% 0.05% / 0.05% 3% / 3% less than 1% 8% / 3% 8% / 3% 8% / less than 1% 16% / 9% 29% / 15% 27% / 4%

In Person Prophylactic Mastectomy

Whenever May rolls around, I think about my surgery and the decision I made many years ago to have prophylactic mastectomies. I grew up in a family of strong women. They were determined to work, play sports,


and raise their families, except they all had breast cancer. It was a bump in the road for each one of them and, at age 36, I had 4 children, a wonderful career and a husband and abnormal mammograms. I had friends, holidays, and biopsies, and being a physician (radiation oncologist) and the daughter of a medical oncologist, I was worried about my own health. When my mother tested negative for the BRCA gene, it did not relieve my anxiety. It just intensified it. What was causing the breast cancer in my family? Genetic counselors explained that only about 15% of breast cancer can be a ributed to the BRCA genes; the rest are caused by other “faulty genes” or just changes in the breast cells. I heard about a new procedure that physicians were pioneering— direct-to-implant breast reconstruction after mastectomy. One step and one surgery would drop my risk from 40% to close to 2% or 3%. I could preserve my anatomy and get rid of those breast cells that might kill me someday. It had a lot to do with my family and career. I did not want to have breast cancer. So I decided, after much research and discussion, to have prophylactic mastectomies with reconstruction. On a Tuesday in the first week of May 2006, I had my surgery. My mother was there when I woke up from anesthesia, and I have never seen her so relieved. My husband took care of the kids, closed the car doors for me, and took over mowing the lawn for a while. I didn't discuss my surgery, especially not with the freedom that Angelina Jolie did in 2013. In 2006, no one had heard of my surgery; they couldn't even pronounce the name of it. But I was convinced that it meant I might very well “dodge a bullet.” Nine years later, I smile when I see morning television shows talk about the “Angelina Effect”—implants and breast reconstruction, nipples, and risk reduction, all in the same story. It's wonderful that women can talk about their “faulty parts” without feeling shame. It's a great example for our daughters as well. In March of 2015, Angelina wrote another op-ed, discussing her oophorectomy and salpingectomy surgery (removal of both ovaries and both fallopian tubes). Women with BRCA genes have an increased risk not only for breast cancer but also for ovarian cancer. And this was the disease that took Angelina's mother's life. Ovarian cancer, unlike breast cancer, is often diagnosed at a very late stage. A majority of breast cancers are diagnosed at stage 1 or 2 or even at a “pre-cancer” DCIS [ductal carcinoma in situ] stage. Ovarian cancer, on the other hand, often is diagnosed after the cancer has already spread. Angelina also discussed another “taboo” subject: Removing ovaries and the fallopian tubes in a premenopausal woman (Angelina was 39 years old at the


time of her surgery) sends her into early menopause. Hot flashes, skin changes, dryness (you know where) are hard topics to discuss in public. She put it out there, front and center, to destigmatize the subject for all women. There is no history of ovarian cancer in my family, and we are BRCAnegative, so my genetic counselor did not recommend removing my ovaries and fallopian tubes. Rather, I have a pelvic ultrasound once a year and a blood test (CA-125) to make sure that nothing is abnormal. Because of my decision to undergo prophylactic mastectomies, I know that my life has changed for the be er. I don't have the fear of ge ing breast cancer. I also have decided to devote my life work to helping women recover with comfort, dignity, and grace after being blindsided by the disease. Angelina Jolie says that knowledge is power! It behooves us to learn as much as we can to prevent disease and proactively take care of the fragile, precious thing we call our health. Elizabeth Chabner Thompson is the CEO/Founder of Masthead, a company devoted to bringing innovative products to patients with breast cancer. She is a physician, swimmer, cross country skier and the proud mother of four children ages 16-21.


Exercises Remember to check your answers carefully with the Answers to Exercises, page 284.

A Match the following terms for structures or tissues with their meanings below. amnion areola cervix chorion clitoris endometrium fallopian tubes fimbriae labia mammary papilla ovaries perineum placenta perimetrium vagina vulva 1. inner lining of the uterus _____________________________________ 2. area between the anus and the vagina in females _____________________________________ 3. dark-pigmented area around the breast nipple _____________________________________


4. finger-like ends of the fallopian tube _____________________________________ 5. ducts through which the egg travels into the uterus from the ovary _____________________________________ 6. organ of sensitive erectile tissue in females; anterior to urethral orifice __________________________________ 7. nipple of the breast _____________________________________ 8. vascular organ that a aches to the uterine wall during pregnancy _________________________ 9. lower, neck-like portion of the uterus _____________________________________ 10. innermost membrane around the developing embryo ___________________________________ 11. outermost layer of the membranes around the developing embryo and forming part of the placenta _____________________________________ 12. outermost layer surrounding the uterus _____________________________________ 13. lips of the vulva _____________________________________ 14. female gonads; producing ova and hormones _____________________________________ 15. includes the perineum, labia and clitoris, and hymen; external genitalia _____________________ 16. muscular, mucosa-lined canal extending from the uterus to the exterior of the body___________________________________


B Identify the following terms. 1. fetus ___________________________________________ 2. lactiferous ducts _____________________________________ 3. gametes _____________________________________ 4. gonads _____________________________________ 5. adnexa uteri _____________________________________ 6. cul-de-sac _____________________________________ 7. genitalia _____________________________________ 8. Bartholin glands _____________________________________ 9. ovarian follicle _____________________________________ 10. corpus luteum _____________________________________ C Match the listed terms with the descriptions/definitions that follow. coitus estrogen fertilization follicle-stimulating hormone human chorionic gonadotropin luteinizing hormone menarche myometrium prenatal


progesterone 1. hormone produced by the ovaries; promotes female secondary sex characteristics__________________ 2. hormone secreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate maturation of the egg cell (ovum)_____________________________________ 3. sexual intercourse _____________________________________ 4. before birth _____________________________________ 5. beginning of the first menstrual period _____________________________________ 6. hormone produced by the placenta to sustain pregnancy by stimulating the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone _____________________________________ 7. muscle layer of the uterus _____________________________________ 8. hormone produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary and the placenta of a pregnant woman_____________________________________ 9. hormone produced by the pituitary gland to promote ovulation ___________________________ 10. union of the sperm cell and ovum from which the embryo develops _______________________ D Supply definitions to complete the following sentences. 1. galact/o and lact/o both mean ______________________________.


2. colp/o and vagin/o both mean ______________________________. 3. mamm/o and mast/o both mean _____________________________. 4. metr/o, uter/o, and hyster/o all mean _________________________. 5. oophor/o and ovari/o both mean ____________________________. 6. o/o, ov/o, and ovul/o all mean ______________________________. 7. in- and endo- both mean __________________________________. 8. -cyesis and -gravida both mean _____________________________. 9. salping/o and -salpinx both mean ___________________________. 10. episi/o and vulv/o both mean _____________________________. E Match the listed terms with the meanings/descriptions that follow. bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy cervicitis chorion culdocentesis lactation neonatology obstetrics oxytocin total hysterectomy


vulvovaginitis 1. study of the newborn ______________________________ 2. hormone that stimulates the pregnant uterus to contract ______________________________ 3. secretion of milk ______________________________ 4. removal of the entire uterus ______________________________ 5. inflammation of the neck of the uterus ______________________________ 6. branch of medicine concerned with pregnancy and childbirth ___________________________ 7. outermost membrane surrounding the fetus ______________________________ 8. removal of both fallopian tubes and both ovaries ______________________________ 9. inflammation of the external female genitalia and vagina ______________________________ 10. needle puncture to remove fluid from the cul-desac ______________________________ F Give the meanings of the following signs and symptoms. 1. amenorrhea _____________________________________________ ______________________ 2. dysmenorrhea _____________________________________________ ______________________ 3. leukorrhea _____________________________________________


________________________ 4. metrorrhagia _____________________________________________ _______________________ 5. galactorrhea _____________________________________________ ________________________ 6. menorrhagia _____________________________________________ ________________________ 7. pyosalpinx _____________________________________________ ________________________ 8. dyspareunia _____________________________________________ ____________________ 9. menometrorrhagia _____________________________________________ ______________ 10. oligomenorrhea _____________________________________________ ______________ G State whether the following sentences are true or false, and explain your answers. 1. After a total (complete) hysterectomy, a woman still has regular menstrual periods. _______________________________________________ ________________ 2. After a total hysterectomy, a woman may still produce estrogen and progesterone.


___________________________________________ 3. Birth control pills prevent pregnancy by keeping levels of estrogen and progesterone high. _______________________________________________ _______________________ 4. After a total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooophorectomy, a doctor may advise hormone replacement therapy. _______________________________________________ ______ 5. Human papillomavirus can cause genital warts and ovarian cancer. _______________________________________________ _________________ 6. A Pap test can detect cervical dysplasia. _______________________________________ 7. Human chorionic gonadotropin is produced by the ovaries during pregnancy. _______________________________________________ ________________________ 8. Gynecomastia is a common condition in pregnant women. _______________________________________________ ________________________ 9. Treatment for endometriosis is uterine myomectomy. _______________________________________________ ________________________ 10. A gravida 3 para 2 is a woman who has given birth 3 times.


_______________________________________________ _____________________ 11. A nulligravida is a woman who has had several pregnancies. _______________________________________________ ___________________________ 12. Pseudocyesis is the same condition as a tubal pregnancy. _______________________________________________ _________________________ 13. Fibrocystic changes in the breast are a malignant condition. _______________________________________________ ________________________ 14. Cystadenomas occur in the ovaries. _______________________________________________ _____________________ 15. FSH and LH are ovarian hormones. _______________________________________________ ____________________ H Give the meanings of the following terms. 1. parturition _____________________________________________ __ 2. menopause _____________________________________________ __ 3. menarche _____________________________________________ __


4. ovulation _____________________________________________ __ 5. gestation _____________________________________________ __ 6. anovulatory _____________________________________________ __ 7. dilatation _____________________________________________ __ 8. lactation _____________________________________________ __ 9. nulliparous _____________________________________________ __ 10. oophoritis _____________________________________________ __ 11. bartholinitis _____________________________________________ __ 12. vulvodynia _____________________________________________ __ I Match the listed terms with the meanings/descriptions that follow. abruptio placentae cervical cancer


cervicitis cystadenocarcinoma endometrial cancer endometriosis leiomyoma multiple gestations placenta previa preeclampsia 1. malignant tumor of the ovary ___________________________ 2. inflammation in the lower, neck-like portion of the uterus ___________________________ 3. condition during pregnancy or shortly thereafter, marked by hypertension, proteinuria, and edema ___________________________ 4. uterine tissue located outside the uterus—for example, in the ovaries, cul-de-sac, fallopian tubes, or peritoneum ___________________________ 5. premature separation of a normally implanted placenta ___________________________ 6. placenta implantation over the cervical opening ___________________________ 7. more than one fetus inside the uterus ___________________________ 8. malignant condition of the lower portion of the uterus ___________________________ 9. malignant condition of the inner lining of the uterus ___________________________ 10. benign muscle tumor in the uterus ___________________________


J Name the appropriate test or procedure for each of the following descriptions. 1. Burning of abnormal tissue with chemicals or an electrically heated instrument: ____________________________________ 2. Contrast material is injected into the uterus and fallopian tubes, and x-ray images are obtained:____________________________________ 3. Cold temperature is used to destroy tissue: _______________________________ 4. Visual examination of the vagina and cervix: ____________________________________ 5. Widening the cervical opening and scraping the lining of the uterus:____________________________________ 6. Withdrawal of fluid or tissue from a cyst or solid mass by suction with a needle:____________________________________ 7. Process of recording x-ray images of the breast: ____________________________________ 8. Removal of a cone-shaped section of the cervix for diagnosis or treatment of cervical dysplasia: ____________________________________ 9. Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the cul-desac: ___________________________ 10. Echoes from sound waves create an image of structures in the pelvic region:____________________________________ 11. Blocking the fallopian tubes to prevent fertilization from occurring: ____________________________________


12. Visual examination of the abdominal cavity with an endoscope:___________________________________ _ 13. hCG is measured in the urine or blood: ____________________________________ 14. Cells are scraped from the cervix or vagina for microscopic analysis:____________________________________ 15. Removal of internal gynecologic organs and adjacent structures in the pelvis:____________________________________ K Give medical terms for the following definitions. Pay careful a ention to spelling. 1. benign muscle tumors in the uterus ____________________________________ 2. no menses _____________________________________ 3. removal of an ovary _____________________________________ 4. condition of female breasts (in a male) _____________________________________ 5. ovarian hormone that sustains pregnancy _____________________________________ 6. nipple-shaped elevation on the breast _________________________________ L Match the obstetric and neonatal terms with the descriptions that follow. • abortion • Apgar score


• cephalic version • cesarean section • fetal monitoring • fetal presentation • fontanelle • infant respiratory distress syndrome • hemolytic disease of the newborn • hydrocephalus • in vitro fertilization • meconium aspiration syndrome • pyloric stenosis 1. Turning the fetus so that the head presents during birth _________________________________ 2. The soft spot between the newborn's cranial bones _____________________________________ 3. The evaluation of the newborn's physical condition _____________________________________ 4. Premature termination of pregnancy _____________________________________ 5. Removal of the fetus by abdominal incision of the uterus ___________________________ 6. Acute lung disease in the premature newborn: surfactant deficiency ____________________ 7. Use of a machine to electronically record fetal heart rate during labor ______________________ 8. Narrowing of the opening of the stomach to the small intestine in the infant ___________ 9. Rh factor incompatibility between the mother and fetus _____________________________________


10. Accumulation of fluid in the spaces of a neonate's brain _________________________ 11. Manner in which the fetus appears to the examiner during delivery _______________________ 12. Thick, sticky green-black substance is discharged into the amniotic fluid, causing fetal lung problems _______________________ 13. Union of the egg and sperm cell in a laboratory dish ___________________________________________ M Give the meanings of the abbreviations in Column I. Then select the le er of the correct description from Column II. COLUMN I 1. CIS __________________________ 2. FSH __________________________ 3. D&C __________________________ 4. multip ___________________ 5. C-section __________________ 6. IVF __________________________ 7. Cx __________________________ 8. TAH-BSO _______________ 9. primip ___________________ 10. OB ___________________

_______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

COLUMN II A. This woman has given birth to more than one infant. B. Egg and sperm cells are combined outside the body. C. This woman has given birth for the first time. D. Secretion from the pituitary gland stimulates the ovaries. E. This procedure helps diagnose uterine disease. F. Localized cancer growth. G. Surgical procedure to remove the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. H. Surgical delivery of an infant through an abdominal incision. I. Branch of medicine dealing with pregnancy and delivery of infants. J. Lower, neck-like region of the uterus.

N Match the following abbreviations in Column I with the best description in Column II.


COLUMN I 1. Pap test 2. HSG 3. AB 4. HPV 5. DCIS 6. HRT

_______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

COLUMN II A. Precancerous lesion in the breast B. X-ray record of the uterus and fallopian tubes C. Hormones given to menopausal women D. Diagnoses cervical and vaginal cancer E. Termination of pregnancy; spontaneous or induced F. Cause of cervical cancer

O Circle the term in parentheses that best completes the meaning of each sentence. 1. Dr. Hanson felt that it was important to do a (culdocentesis, Pap test, amniocentesis) once yearly on each of her GYN patients to screen for abnormal cells. 2. When Doris missed her period, her doctor checked for the presence of (LH, IUD, hCG) in Doris's urine to see if she was pregnant. 3. Ellen was 34 weeks pregnant and experiencing bad headaches and blurry vision, with a 10-pound weight gain in 2 days. Dr. Murphy told her to go to the obstetric emergency department because she suspected (preeclampsia, pelvic inflammatory disease, fibroids). 4. Fifty-two-year-old Sally noticed increasing pain, fullness, and swelling in her abdomen. She had a history of ovarian cancer, so her physician recommended (sentinel node biopsy, pelvic ultrasonography, colposcopy). 5. Clara knew that she should not ignore her fevers and yellow vaginal discharge and the pain in her side. She had previous episodes of (PMS, PID, HRT) treated with IV antibiotics. She worried that she might have a recurrence. 6. After years of trying to become pregnant, Jill decided to speak to her (hematologist,


gynecologist, urologist) about in vitro (gestation, parturition, fertilization). 7. To harvest her ova, Jill's physician prescribed hormones to stimulate egg maturation and (coitus, lactation, ovulation). Ova were surgically removed and fertilized with sperm cells in a Petri dish. 8. Next, multiple embryos were implanted into Jill's (fallopian tube, vagina, uterus), and she received hormones to ensure the survival of at least one embryo. 9. The IVF was successful and after (abdominal CT, ultrasound examination), Jill was told that she would have twins in months. 10. At 37 weeks, Jill went into labor. Under continuous (chorionic villus sampling, culdocentesis, fetal monitoring), two healthy infants were delivered vaginally. 11. At age 41, Carol had a screening (hysterosalpingogram, mammogram, conization) of her breasts. The results showed tiny calcium deposits, or calcifications, behind her (areola, chorion, adnexa uteri). A core needle (laparoscopy, colposcopy, biopsy) was performed and showed cells that were an early sign of cancer called (CIN, DCIS, DUB). Her surgical oncologist recommended (lumpectomy, TAH-BSO, chorionic villus sampling) to remove the calcifications and surrounding tissue as treatment.


Answers to Exercises A 1. endometrium 2. perineum 3. areola 4. fimbriae 5. fallopian tubes 6. clitoris 7. mammary papilla 8. placenta 9. cervix 10. amnion 11. chorion 12. perimetrium 13. labia 14. ovaries 15. vulva 16. vagina B 1. embryo from the third month (after 8 weeks) to birth 2. tubes that carry milk within the breast 3. sex cells; the egg and sperm cells


4. organs (ovaries and testes) in the female and male that produce gametes 5. ovaries, fallopian tubes, and supporting ligaments (accessory parts of the uterus) 6. region of the abdomen between the rectum and the uterus 7. reproductive organs (genitals) 8. small exocrine glands at the vaginal orifice that secrete a lubricating fluid 9. developing sac in the ovary that encloses the ovum 10. empty follicle that secretes progesterone after ovulation C 1. estrogen 2. follicle-stimulating hormone 3. coitus 4. prenatal 5. menarche 6. human chorionic gonadotropin 7. myometrium 8. progesterone 9. luteinizing hormone 10. fertilization D


1. milk 2. vagina 3. breast 4. uterus 5. ovary 6. egg 7. in, within 8. pregnancy 9. fallopian tube 10. vulva (external female genitalia) E 1. neonatology 2. oxytocin 3. lactation 4. total hysterectomy 5. cervicitis 6. obstetrics 7. chorion 8. bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy 9. vulvovaginitis 10. culdocentesis F 1. no menstrual flow


2. painful menstrual flow 3. white discharge (normally from the vagina and also associated with cervicitis) 4. bleeding from the uterus at irregular intervals 5. abnormal discharge of milk from the breasts 6. profuse or prolonged menstrual periods occurring at regular intervals 7. pus in the fallopian (uterine) tubes 8. painful sexual intercourse 9. heavy bleeding at and between menstrual periods 10. scanty menstrual flow G 1. False. Total hysterectomy means removal of the entire uterus so that menstruation does not occur. 2. True. Total hysterectomy does not mean that the ovaries have been removed. 3. True. Birth control pills contain estrogen and progesterone; high levels prevent ovulation and pregnancy. 4. True. This may be necessary to treat symptoms of estrogen loss (vaginal atrophy, hot flashes) and to prevent bone deterioration (osteoporosis). 5. False. HPV does produce genital warts but not ovarian cancer. In some cases, HPV infection may lead to cervical cancer.


6. True. A Pap test can detect abnormal changes in the cervix from cervical dysplasia to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and CIS (carcinoma in situ). 7. False. The hormone hCG is produced by the placenta during pregnancy. 8. False. Gynecomastia is a condition of increased breast development in males. 9. False. Myomectomy means removal of muscle tumors (fibroids). Endometriosis is abnormal location of uterine tissue outside the uterine lining. 10. False. A gravida 3 para 2 is a woman who has had two children and three pregnancies. 11. False. A nulligravida has had no pregnancies. A multigravida has had many pregnancies. 12. False. A pseudocyesis is a false pregnancy (no pregnancy occurs), and a tubal pregnancy is an example of ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy occurs in the fallopian tube, not in the uterus). 13. False. Fibrocystic changes in the breast are a benign condition. 14. True. Cystadenomas are glandular sacs lined with tumor cells; they occur in the ovaries. 15. False. FSH and LH are pituitary gland hormones. Estrogen and progesterone are secreted by the ovaries. H 1. act of giving birth


2. gradual ending of menstrual function 3. beginning of the first menstrual period at puberty 4. release of the ovum from the ovary 5. pregnancy 6. pertaining to no ovulation (egg is not released from the ovary) 7. widening 8. natural secretion of milk 9. a woman who has never given birth 10. inflammation of the ovaries 11. inflammation of Bartholin glands 12. pain in the vulva I 1. cystadenocarcinoma 2. cervicitis 3. preeclampsia 4. endometriosis 5. abruptio placentae 6. placenta previa 7. multiple gestations 8. cervical cancer 9. endometrial cancer 10. leiomyoma


J 1. cauterization 2. hysterosalpingography 3. cryosurgery or cryocauterization 4. colposcopy 5. dilation (dilatation) and cure age 6. fine needle aspiration 7. mammography 8. conization 9. culdocentesis 10. pelvic ultrasonography 11. tubal ligation 12. laparoscopy 13. pregnancy test 14. Pap test 15. pelvic exenteration K 1. fibroids or leiomyomata 2. amenorrhea 3. oophorectomy 4. gynecomastia 5. progesterone 6. mammary papilla


L 1. cephalic version 2. fontanelle 3. Apgar score 4. abortion 5. cesarean section 6. infant respiratory distress syndrome 7. fetal monitoring 8. pyloric stenosis 9. hemolytic disease of the newborn 10. hydrocephalus 11. fetal presentation 12. meconium aspiration syndrome 13. in vitro fertilization M 1. carcinoma in situ: F 2. follicle-stimulating hormone: D 3. dilation (dilatation) and cure age: E 4. multipara: A 5. cesarean section: H 6. in vitro fertilization: B 7. cervix: J


8. total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooophorectomy: G 9. primipara: C 10. obstetrics: I N 1. D 2. B 3. E 4. F 5. A 6. C O 1. Pap test 2. hCG 3. preeclampsia 4. pelvic ultrasonography 5. PID 6. gynecologist; fertilization 7. ovulation 8. uterus 9. ultrasound examination 10. fetal monitoring 11. mammogram; areola; biopsy; DCIS; lumpectomy


Answers to Practical Applications Operating Room Schedule

1. A 2. F 3. C 4. B 5. E 6. D Pronunciation of Terms

The terms you have learned in this chapter are presented here with their pronunciations. The meanings for all the terms are in the MiniDictionary beginning on page 897. You can also hear each term pronounced on the Evolve website (h p://

Vocabulary and Terminology


TERM adnexa uteri amenorrhea amniocentesis amnion amniotic fluid anovulatory areola Bartholin glands bartholinitis cephalic version cervix chorion chorionic clitoris coitus colposcopy corpus luteum cul-de-sac culdocentesis dysmenorrhea dyspareunia dystocia embryo endocervicitis endometritis endometrium episiotomy estrogen fallopian tube fertilization fetal presentation fetus fimbriae follicle-stimulating hormone galactorrhea gamete genitalia gestation gonad gynecology gynecomastia human chorionic gonadotropin hymen hysterectomy hysteroscopy inframammary intrauterine device involution labia lactation lactiferous ducts leukorrhea

PRONUNCIATION ad-NEK-sah U-ter-i a-men-o-RE-ah am-ne-o-sen-TE-sis AM-ne-on am-ne-OT-ik FLU-id an-OV-u-lah-tor-e ah-re-O-lah BAR-tho-lin glandz bar-tho-lih-NI-tis seh-FAL-ik VER-zhun SER-viks KOR-e-on kor-e-ON-ik KLIH-tor-is KO-it-us kol-POS-ko-pe KOR-pus LU-te-um KUL-deh-sak kul-do-sen-TE-sis dis-men-o-RE-ah dis-pah-RU-ne-ah dis-TO-se-ah EM-bre-o en-do-ser-vih-SI-tis en-do-meh-TRI-tis en-do-ME-tre-um eh-pe-ze-OT-o-me ES-tro-jen fah-LO-pe-an toob fer-tih-lih-ZA-shun FE-tal pres-en-TA-shun FE-tus FIM-bre-e FOL-lik-il STIM-u-la-ting HOR-mone gah-lak-to-RE-ah GAM-eet jeh-nih-TA-le-ah jes-TA-shun GO-nad gi-neh-KOL-o-je gi-neh-ko-MAS-te-ah HU-man ko-re-ON- ik go-nad-o-TRO-pin HI-men his-ter-EK-to-me his-ter-OS-ko-pe in-frah-MAM-ar-e in-trah-U-ter-in de-VISE in-vo-LU-shun LA-be-ah lak-TA-shun lak-TIH-fer-us dukts lu-ko-RE-ah


TERM luteinizing hormone mammary papilla mammoplasty mastectomy mastitis menarche menometrorrhagia menopause menorrhagia menorrhea menstruation metrorrhagia multigravida multipara myomectomy myometrium neonatal neonatology nulligravida nullipara obstetrics oligomenorrhea oocyte oogenesis oophorectomy oophoritis orifice ovarian ovarian follicle ovary ovulation ovum; pl. ova oxytocia oxytocin parturition perimetrium perineorrhaphy perineum pituitary gland placenta pregnancy prenatal primigravida primipara primiparous progesterone pseudocyesis puberty pyosalpinx retroversion salpingectomy salpingitis

PRONUNCIATION LU-teh-ni-zing HOR-mone MAH-meh-re pah-PIL-ah MAH-mo-plas-te mah-STEK-to-me mah-STI-tis meh-NAR-ke meh-no-meh-tro-RA-jah MEN-o-pawz men-o-RA-jah men-o-RE-ah men-stru-A-shun met-ro-RA-jah mul-tih-GRAV-ih-dah mul-TIH-pah-rah mi-o-MEK-to-me mi-o-ME-tre-um ne-o-NA-tal ne-o-na-TOL-o-je nul-leh-GRAV-ih-dah nul-LIH-pah-rah ob-STET-riks ol-ig-o-men-o-RE-ah o-o-SITE o-o-JEN-eh-sis oo-fo-REK-to-me oo-fo-RI-tis OR-ih-fis o-VAH-re-an o-VAH-re-an FOL-ih-kil O-vah-re ov-u-LA-shun O-vum; O-va ox-e-TO-se-ah ox-se-TO-sin par-tu-RIH-shun peh-rih-ME-tre-um peh-rih-ne-OR-ah-fe peh-rih-NE-um pih-TU-ih-tah-re gland plah-SEN-tah PREG-nan-se pre-NA-tal prih-mih-GRAV-ih-dah prih-MIP-ah-rah prih-MIP-pah-rus pro-JES-teh-rone su-do-si-E-sis PU-ber-te pi-o-SAL-pinks re-tro-VER-zhun sal-pin-JEK-to-me sal-pin-JI-tis


TERM uterine prolapse uterus vagina vaginal orifice vaginitis vulva vulvodynia vulvovaginitis zygote

PRONUNCIATION U-teh-rin PRO-laps U-ter-us vah-JI-nah VAH-jih-nal OR-ih-fis vah-jih-NI-tis VUL-vah vul-vo-DIH-ne-ah vul-vo-vah-jih-NI-tis ZI-gote

Pathologic Conditions, Clinical Tests, and Procedures


TERM abortion abruptio placentae Apgar score breast cancer carcinoma in situ cauterization cesarean section cervical cancer cervical dysplasia cervicitis choriocarcinoma chorionic villus sampling colposcopy conization cryosurgery culdocentesis dermoid cysts dilatation dilation and cure age Down syndrome ectopic preganancy endometrial cancer endometriosis exenteration fetal monitoring fibrocystic breast disease fibroids fine needle aspiration hemolytic disease of the newborn hydrocephalus hysterosalpingography in vitro fertilizaiton infant respiratory distress syndrome laparoscopy leiomyomas mammography meconium aspiration syndrome multiple gestation ovarian cancer ovarian cysts palpation Pap test pelvic inflammatory disease pelvic ultrasonography placenta previa preeclampsia pregnancy test pyloric stenosis tubal ligation

PRONUNCIATION ah-BOR-shun ah-BRUP-se-o plah-SEN-ta AP-gar score brest KAN-ser kar-sih-NO-mah in SI-tu kaw-ter-ih-ZA-shun seh-ZAH-re-an SEK-shun SER-vih-kul KAN-ser SER-vih-kul dis-PLA-ze-ah ser-vih-SI-tis ko-re-o-kar-sih-NO-mah ko-re-ON-ik VIL-us SAMP-ling kol-POS-ko-pe ko-nih-ZA-shun kri-o-SUR-jer-e kul-do-sen-TE-sis DER-moyd sists dih-lah-TA-shun di-LA-shun & kur-eh-TAZH Down SIN-drohm ek-TOP-ik PREG-nan-se en-do-ME-tre-al KAN-ser en-do-me-tre-O-sis eks-en-teh-RA-shun FE-tal MON-it-or-ing fi-bro-SIS-tik brest dih-ZEEZ FI-broydz fine NE-dil as-pih-RA-shun he-mo-LIH-tic dih-ZEEZ of the nu-born hi-dro-SEF-ah-lus his-ter-o-sal-ping-OG-rah-fe in VE-tro fer-til-ih-ZA-shun IN-fant RES-pih-rah-tor-e dis-TRES SIN-drohm lap-ah-ROS-ko-pe li-o-mi-O-maz mah-MOG-rah-fe meh-KO-ne-um as-pih-RA-shun SIN-drohm MUL-tih-pel jes-TA-shun o-VAH-re-an KAN-ser o-VAH-re-an sists pal-PA-shun pap test PEL-vik in-FLAM-mah-tor-e dih-ZEEZ PEL-vic ul-trah-son-OG-rah-fe plah-sen-tah PREH-ve-ah pre-e-KLAMP-se-ah PREG-nan-se test pi-LOR-ik steh-NO-sis TOOB-al li-GA-shun


Review Sheet

Write the meanings of the word parts in the spaces provided, and test yourself. Check your answers with the information in the chapter or in the Glossary (Medical Word Parts—English) at the end of the book.

Combining Forms COMBINING FORM amni/o bartholin/o cephal/o cervic/o chori/o, chorion/o colp/o culd/o episi/o galact/o gynec/o hyster/o lact/o mamm/o, mast/o men/o metr/o, metri/o my/o, myom/o nat/i obstetr/o olig/o o/o, ov/o, ovul/o oophor/o, ovari/o perine/o phor/o py/o salping/o uter/o vagin/o vulv/o

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________



PREFIX bidysendoinintramultinullioxyperipreprimipseudoretrouni-

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Suffixes SUFFIX -arche -cyesis -dynia -ectomy -flexion -genesis -gravida -itis -pareunia -parous -plasia -plasty -rrhagia -rrhaphy -rrhea -salpinx -scopy -stenosis -stomy -tocia, -tocin -tomy -version

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Diagnostic Procedures Match the diagnostic procedures in Column I with their descriptions in Column II. Check your answers with the information in the chapter.


COLUMN I 1. fine needle aspiration 2. colposcopy 3. culdocentesis 4. hysterosalpingograph y 5. mammography 6. Pap test 7. pregnancy test 8. pelvic ultrasonography

_______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

COLUMN II A. Uterus and fallopian tubes are imaged (x-ray procedure). B. hCG is measured. C. X-ray images are taken of the breast. D. Procedure to biopsy breast tissue. E. Removal of cervical and vaginal cells for analysis. F. Fluid is obtained from the region between the rectum and the uterus. G. Images of the region of the hip are obtained using sound waves. H. Microscopic visual examination of the vagina and cervix.




Male Reproductive System CHAPTER SECTIONS: Introduction 292 Anatomy 293 Vocabulary 295 Terminology 297 Pathologic Conditions; Sexually Transmitted Diseases 299 Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures 304 Abbreviations 306 Practical Applications 307 In Person: Prostate Cancer 309 Exercises 310 Answers to Exercises 316 Pronunciation of Terms 318 Review Sheet 320

CHAPTER GOALS • Name, locate, and describe the functions of the organs of the male reproductive system. • Define abnormal conditions and infectious diseases that affect the male reproductive system. • Differentiate among several types of sexually transmitted infections. • Define combining forms used to describe the structures of this system. • Describe various laboratory tests and clinical procedures pertinent to disorders of the male reproductive system, and recognize related abbreviations.


• Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical terms in their proper contexts, such as medical reports and records.


Introduction The male sex cell, the spermatozoon (sperm cell), is microscopic—in volume, only one third the size of a red blood cell and less than 1/100,000 the size of the female ovum. A relatively uncomplicated cell, the sperm is composed of a head region, containing nuclear hereditary material (chromosomes), and a tail region, consisting of a flagellum (hair-like process). The flagellum makes the sperm motile and makes it look somewhat like a tadpole. The spermatozoon cell contains relatively li le food and cytoplasm, because it lives only long enough (3 to 5 days) to travel from its point of release from the male to where the egg cell lies within the female reproductive tract (fallopian tube). Only one spermatozoon out of approximately 300 million sperm cells released during a single ejaculation (ejection of sperm and fluid from the male urethra) can penetrate a single ovum and result in fertilization of the ovum. Figure 9-1 shows a diagram of a sperm cell and a photograph of spermatozoa.

FIGURE 9-1 A, Sperm cell. B, Photograph of spermatozoa.

If more than one egg is passing down the fallopian tube when sperm are present, multiple fertilizations are possible, and twins, triplets, quadruplets, and so on may occur. Twins resulting from the fertilization of separate ova by separate sperm cells are called fraternal twins. Fraternal twins, developing with separate placentas, can be of the same sex or different sexes and resemble each other no more than ordinary brothers and sisters. Fraternal twinning is hereditary; the daughters of mothers of twins can carry the gene.


Identical twins result from fertilization of a single egg cell by a single sperm. As the fertilized egg cell divides and forms many cells, it somehow splits, and each part continues separately to undergo further division, each producing an embryo. The split usually occurs between the third and fifth days of embryonic development. Most identical twins have one placenta and two amniotic sacs. Identical twins have the same DNA and are, therefore, of the same sex and of very similar form and feature. The organs of the male reproductive system are designed to produce and release billions of spermatozoa throughout the lifetime of a male from puberty onward. In addition, the male reproductive system secretes a hormone called testosterone. Testosterone is responsible for the production of the bodily characteristics of the male (such as beard, pubic hair, and deeper voice) and for the proper development of male gonads (testes) and accessory organs (prostate gland and seminal vesicles) that secrete fluids to ensure the lubrication and viability of sperm.


Anatomy Label Figure 9-2 as you study the following description of the anatomy of the male reproductive system.

FIGURE 9-2 Male reproductive system, sagittal view.

Each male gonad is a testis [1]. There are two testes (plural) or testicles that develop in the abdomen at about the level of the kidneys before descending during embryonic development into the scrotum [2], a sac enclosing the testes on the outside of the body. The scrotum, lying between the thighs, exposes the testes to a lower temperature than that of the rest of the body. This lower temperature is necessary for the adequate maturation and development of sperm (spermatogenesis). Located between the anus and the scrotum, at the floor of the pelvic cavity in the male, the perineum [3] is analogous to the perineal region in the female. The interior of a testis is composed of a large mass of narrow, coiled tubules called the seminiferous tubules [4]. These tubules contain cells that manufacture spermatozoa. The seminiferous tubules are the parenchymal tissue of the testis, which means that they perform the essential work of the organ (formation of sperm). Other cells in the testis,


lying adjacent to seminiferous tubules, are interstitial cells. They manufacture an important male hormone, testosterone. All body organs contain parenchyma, which perform the essential functions of the organ. Organs also contain supportive, connective, and framework tissue, such as blood vessels, connective tissues, and sometimes muscle as well. This supportive tissue is called stroma (stromal tissue). After formation, sperm cells move through the seminiferous tubules and collect in ducts that lead to a large tube, the epididymis [5], at the upper part of each testis. The spermatozoa mature, become motile in the epididymis, and are temporarily stored there. An epididymis runs down the length of each testicle (the coiled tube is about 16 feet long) and then turns upward again and becomes a narrow, straight tube called the vas deferens [6] or ductus deferens. Figure 9-3 shows the internal structure of a testis and the epididymis. The vas deferens is about 2 feet long and carries the sperm up into the pelvic region, at the level of the urinary bladder, merging with ducts from the seminal vesicles [7] to form the ejaculatory duct [8] leading toward the urethra. During a vasectomy or sterilization procedure, the urologist cuts and ties off each vas deferens by making an incision in the scrotum.

FIGURE 9-3 Internal structure of a testis and the epididymis.

The seminal vesicles, two glands (only one is shown in Figure 9-2) located at the base of the bladder, open into the ejaculatory duct as it joins the urethra [9]. They secrete a thick, sugary, yellowish substance that nourishes the sperm cells and forms a portion of ejaculated semen. Semen,


a combination of fluid (seminal fluid) and spermatozoa (sperm cells account for less than 1% of the semen volume), is ejected from the body through the urethra. In the male, as opposed to that in the female, the genital orifice combines with the urinary (urethral) opening. The prostate gland [10] lies at the region where the vas deferens enters the urethra, almost encircling the upper end of the urethra. It secretes a milky white fluid that is a mixture of sugars, enzymes, and alkaline chemicals. As part of semen, this fluid is nutritious for sperm cells, and after ejaculation into the vagina, the alkaline chemicals promote the survival of sperm in the acidic environment of the vagina. Muscular tissue of the prostate aids in the expulsion of fluid during ejaculation. Bulbourethral glands [11], lying below the prostate gland, also secrete fluid into the urethra during ejaculation. The urethra passes through the penis [12] to the outside of the body. The penis is composed of erectile tissue and at its tip expands to form a soft, sensitive region called the glans penis [13]. Ordinarily, a fold of skin called the prepuce, or foreskin [14], covers the glans penis. The foreskin is a ached to glans penis in uncircumcised babies. Between 2 and 10 years of age, the foreskin naturally detaches and can be pulled back from the head of the penis. If an infant is circumcised, the foreskin is removed, leaving the glans penis visible at all times. Erectile dysfunction (impotence) is the inability of the adult male to achieve an erection. Viagra (sildenafil), Cialis (tadalafil), and Stendra (avanafil) are drugs that increase blood flow to the penis, enhancing ability to have an erection. Male infertility is any problem in a man that lowers the chances of his female partner ge ing pregnant. The flow diagram in Figure 9-4 traces the path of spermatozoa from their formation in the seminiferous tubules of the testes to the outside of the body.


FIGURE 9-4 The passage of sperm from the seminiferous tubules in the testes to the outside of the body.


This list reviews new terms introduced in the text. Short definitions reinforce your understanding.


bulbourethral Pair of exocrine glands near the male urethra. They secrete fluid into the glands urethra. Also called Cowper glands. circumcision Removal of the prepuce (foreskin). It is a common elective procedure performed shortly after birth. ejaculation Ejection of sperm and fluid from the male urethra. ejaculatory Tube through which semen enters the male urethra. duct epididymis One of a pair of long, tightly coiled tubes above each testis. It stores and (plural: carries sperm from seminiferous tubules to the vas deferens. epididymides) erectile Inability of an adult male to achieve an erection; impotence. dysfunction flagellum Hair-like projection on a sperm cell that makes it motile (able to move). foreskin Fold of skin covering the head of the penis; prepuce. fraternal Two infants resulting from fertilization of two separate ova by two separate twins sperm cells (Figure 9-5). glans penis Sensitive tip of the penis; comparable to the clitoris in the female. identical Two infants resulting from division of one fertilized egg. Conjoined twins (“Siamese”) twins are incompletely separated identical twins. infertility In a man, any problem that lowers the chances of his female partner ge ing pregnant. interstitial Specialized cells that lie adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testes. cells of the These cells produce testosterone and are also called Leydig cells. testes parenchymal Essential distinctive cells of an organ. In the testis, the seminiferous tubules tissue that produce sperm are parenchymal. penis Male external organ of reproduction. perineum External region between the anus and scrotum in the male. prepuce Foreskin; fold of skin covering the tip of the penis. prostate gland Exocrine gland at the base of the male urinary bladder. The prostate secretes fluid that contributes to semen during ejaculation. HINT: Don't confuse prostate with prostrate, which means lying down. scrotum External sac that contains the testes. semen Spermatozoa (sperm cells) and seminal fluid (prostatic and seminal vesicle secretions), discharged from the urethra during ejaculation. seminal Paired sac-like exocrine glands that secrete fluid (a major component of vesicles semen) into the vas deferens. seminiferous Narrow, coiled tubules that produce sperm in the testes. tubules spermatozoon Sperm cell. (plural: spermatozoa) sterilization Procedure that removes a person's ability to produce or release reproductive cells; removal of testicles, vasectomy, and oophorectomy are sterilization procedures. stromal tissue Supportive, connective tissue of an organ, as distinguished from its parenchyma. Also called stroma. testis (plural: Male gonad (testicle) that produces spermatozoa and testosterone. Remember: testes) Testis means one testicle, and testes are two testicles. testosterone Hormone secreted by the interstitial tissue of the testes; responsible for male sex characteristics. vas deferens Narrow tube (one on each side) carrying sperm from the epididymis toward the urethra. Also called ductus deferens.


FIGURE 9-5 Fraternal twins. A, Notice the 6-week-old embryos in two separate amniotic sacs. B, Twins Marcos and Matheus Do Carmo are 16 years old. (Courtesy Juliana Do Carmo.)


Don't confuse perineum, which is the area between the anus and scrotum in the male and the anus and vagina in females, with the peritoneum, which is the membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity!


Don't confuse semen with sperm. Semen is the thick, whitish secretion discharged from the urethra during ejaculation. Sperm (spermatozoa) are cells that develop in the testes. Semen contains sperm.


Don't confuse sterilization, which can be performed in men and women, with impotence, which is the inability of a male to sustain an erection or achieve ejaculation.


Write the meanings of the medical terms in the spaces provided.

Combining Forms


COMBINING MEANING FORM andr/o male balan/o


glans penis (Greek balanos, means acorn) cold






seed (Greek gone, seed) water, fluid

hydr/o orch/o, orchi/o, orchid/o

testis, testicle




prostate gland


semen, seed

sperm/o, spermat/o

spermatozoa, semen


monster (Greek teras, monster)


testis, testicle



androgen _______________________________________ Testosterone is an androgen. The testes in males and the adrenal glands in both men and women produce androgens. balanitis ________________________________________ An inflammation usually caused by overgrowth of organisms (bacteria and yeast) (Figure 9-6A). cryogenic surgery _________________________________ Technique for prostate cancer treatment using freezing temperatures to destroy cancer cells. cryptorchidism ___________________________________ In this congenital condition, one or both testicles do not descend, by the time of birth, into the scrotal sac from the abdominal cavity (Figure 9-6B). epididymitis _____________________________________ This is an inflammation usually caused by bacteria. Signs and symptoms are fever, chills, pain in the groin, and tender, swollen epididymis. gonorrhea _______________________________________ See page 302. hydrocele _______________________________________ See page 300. orchiectomy _____________________________________ Castration in males. (Also called orchidectomy.) orchitis _________________________________________ Caused by injury or by the mumps virus, which also infects the salivary glands. penile __________________________________________ -ile means pertaining to. penoscrotal _____________________________________ prostatitis ______________________________________ Bacterial (E. coli) prostatitis often is associated with urethritis and infection of the lower urinary tract. prostatectomy ___________________________________ Robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) is a treatment option for prostate removal. seminiferous tubules ______________________________ The suffix -ferous means pertaining to bearing, or bearing or carrying. spermolytic _____________________________________ Noun suffixes ending in -sis, such as -lysis, form adjectives by dropping the -sis and adding -tic. oligospermia ____________________________________ aspermia _______________________________________ Lack of semen (sperm and fluid). One cause of aspermia is retrograde ejaculation (sperm flows backward into the urinary bladder) as a result of prostate surgery. teratoma _______________________________________ This tumor occurs in the testes or ovaries and is composed of different types of tissue, such as bone, hair, cartilage, and skin cells. Teratomas in the testes are malignant. testicular _______________________________________ The term testis originates from a Latin term meaning witness. In ancient times men would take an oath with one hand on their testes, swearing by their manhood to tell the truth.


COMBINING MEANING FORM varic/o varicose veins


vessel, duct; vas deferens


animal life



varicocele ______________________________________ Collection of varicose (swollen, twisted) veins above the testis. See page 300. vasectomy ______________________________________ See page 306. Remember: In this term, vas/o refers to the vas deferens, and not to any other vessel or duct. azoospermia _________________________ Lack of spermatozoa in the semen. Causes include testicular dysfunction, chemotherapy, blockage of the epididymis, and vasectomy. HINT: Azoospermia is semen without sperm, while aspermia is no semen at all.

FIGURE 9-6 A, Balanitis. The glans penis (or glans) is the sensitive bulbous area at the distal end of the penis. B, Cryptorchidism.

Suffixes SUFFIX MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING formation spermatogenesis _________________________________ genesis -one hormone testosterone ____________________________________ Ster/o indicates that this is a type of steroid compound. Examples of other steroids are estrogen, cortisol, and progesterone. -pexy fixation, put orchiopexy ______________________________________ in place A surgical procedure to correct cryptorchidism. -stomy new vasovasostomy __________________________________ opening Reversal of vasectomy; a urologist rejoins the cut ends of the vas deferens.

Derivation of orchid/o

This combining form is derived from the Greek word orchis, meaning testicle. The botanical name for orchid, the flower, is also derived from the


same Greek word because of the fleshy tubers of the plant.

Azoospermia and Infertility

Male factor infertility is the cause of up to 40% of infertility issues. The most common causes of male infertility are azoospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia (low numbers and poor motility of sperm). The combining form asthen/o means lack of strength.


Pathologic Conditions; Sexually Transmitted Infections Tumors and Anatomic/Structural Disorders Testes testicular cancer (carcinoma of the testes)

Malignant tumor of the testicles. Testicular tumors are rare except in the 15- to 35-year-old age group. The most common tumor, a seminoma, arises from embryonic cells in the testes (Figure 9-7A). Other tumors are embryonal carcinoma (Figure 97B), teratoma, choriocarcinoma, and yolk sac tumor. Teratomas contain a mixture of mature tissue such as bone, hair, cartilage, and skin cells (terat/o means monster). Testicular cancers are curable with surgery (orchiectomy), followed by chemotherapy. Seminomas are treated with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Tumors produce the proteins human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Serum levels of these proteins are used as tumor markers to determine success of treatment. cryptorchidism; Undescended testicles. cryptorchism Orchiopexy is performed to bring the testes into the scrotum, if they do not descend on their own by the age of 1 or 2 years. Undescended testicles are associated with a high risk for sterility and increased risk of developing testicular cancer. hydrocele Sac of clear fluid in the scrotum. Hydroceles (Figure 9-8) may be congenital or occur as a response to infection or tumors. Often idiopathic, they can be differentiated from testicular masses by ultrasound imaging. If the hydrocele does not resolve on its own, the sac fluid is aspirated using a needle and syringe, or hydrocelectomy may be necessary. In this procedure, the sac is surgically removed through an incision in the scrotum. testicular Twisting of the spermatic cord (see Figure 9-8). torsion The rotation of the spermatic cord cuts off blood supply to the testis. Torsion occurs most frequently in childhood. Surgical correction within hours of onset of symptoms can save the testis. varicocele Enlarged, dilated veins near the testicle. Varicocele (see Figure 9-8) may be associated with oligospermia and azoospermia. Oligospermic men with varicocele and scrotal pain should have a varicocelectomy. In this procedure, the internal spermatic vein is ligated (the affected segment is cut out and the ends are tied off). This procedure may increase fertility.


FIGURE 9-7 A, Seminoma of a testis. B, Embryonal carcinoma of a testis. In contrast with the seminoma, which is a pale, homogeneous mass, the embryonal carcinoma is a hemorrhagic mass.

FIGURE 9-8 Hydrocele, testicular torsion, and varicocele.

Testicular Cancer Detection

There may be no signs or symptoms of testicular cancer. Regular testicular self-examinations, however, can help identify growths earlier, when the chance for successful treatment is highest. A man should see a doctor if he detects any mass, pain, or swelling in the scrotum.

Prostate Gland


benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

prostate cancer (carcinoma of the prostate)

Benign growth of cells within the prostate gland. BPH is a common condition in men older than 60 years of age. Urinary obstruction and inability to empty the bladder completely are symptoms. Figure 9-9 shows the prostate gland with BPH and with carcinoma. Surgical treatment by transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) relieves the obstruction, but overgrowth of cells may recur over several years. In this procedure, an endoscope (resectoscope) is inserted into the penis and through the urethra. Prostatic tissue is removed by an electrical hot loop a ached to the resectoscope (see page 305). Several drugs to relieve BPH symptoms have been approved by the FDA. Finasteride (Proscar) inhibits production of a potent testosterone that promotes enlargement of the prostate. Other drugs, alpha blockers such as tamsulosin (Flomax), act by relaxing the smooth muscle of the prostate and the neck of the bladder. Lasers also may be used to destroy prostatic tissue and relieve obstruction. A laser TURP or GreenLight PVP procedure uses a green light laser at the end of an endoscope (see page 305). Malignant tumor (adenocarcinoma) of the prostate gland. This cancer commonly occurs in men older than 50 years. Digital rectal examination (DRE) (Figure 9-10) can detect the tumor at a later stage, but early detection depends on finding a high level of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the blood. PSA is secreted into the bloodstream by tumor cells. The normal PSA level is 4.0 ng/mL or less. Diagnosis requires finding tumor in a needle biopsy of the prostate. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guides the needle biopsy taken through the rectal wall. Multiple needle biopsy specimens are taken through the rectal wall. Computed tomography (CT) detects lymph node metastases. Treatment consists of surgery (prostatectomy) or radiation therapy for localized tumor. Hormonal therapy is used for locally advanced or metastatic disease. Because prostatic cells are stimulated to grow in the presence of androgens, antiandrogen drugs slow tumor growth. One such drug is Lupron, which reduces the level of androgens in the bloodstream. Tumor cells also can be destroyed by brachytherapy (brachy = near), which means that radioactive seeds are implanted directly into the prostate gland. See the In Person: Prostate Cancer story on page 309.


FIGURE 9-9 The prostate gland with carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Carcinoma usually arises around the sides of the gland, whereas BPH occurs in the center of the gland. Because prostate cancers are located more peripherally, they can be palpated on digital rectal exam (DRE).

FIGURE 9-10 Digital rectal examination (DRE) of the prostate gland.




Peyronie disease phimosis

Congenital abnormality in which the male urethral opening is on the undersurface of the penis, instead of at its tip. Hypospadias (-spadias means the condition of tearing or cu ing) occurs in 1 in every 300 live male births and can be corrected surgically (Figure 9-11A). Abnormal curvature of the penis This condition is quite common and is caused by scar tissue in the connective tissue of the penis. Drug treatment can be effective by breaking down the buildup of fibrous tissue that causes penile curvature. Narrowing (stricture) of the opening of the prepuce over the glans penis. This abnormal condition (phim/o = muzzle) in adolescent and adult males can interfere with urination and cause secretions to accumulate under the prepuce, leading to infection. Treatment is by circumcision (cu ing around the prepuce to remove it) (Figure 9-11B).

FIGURE 9-11 A, Hypospadias. Surgical repair involves elongating the urethra by using surrounding tissue or using a graft from tissue elsewhere in the body and bringing it to the exit at the tip of the penis. B, Phimosis and circumcision to correct the condition.

Sexually Transmitted Infections Sexually transmi ed infections (STIs) are infections transmi ed by sexual or other genital contact. Also known as sexually transmi ed diseases (STDs) or venereal diseases (from Latin Venus, the goddess of love), they occur in both men and women and are some of the most prevalent communicable diseases in the world.




herpes genitalis

human papillomavirus (HPV) infection syphilis

Bacterial infection (by Chlamydia trachomatis) of the urethra and reproductive tract. Within 3 weeks after becoming infected, men may experience a burning sensation on urination and notice a white or clear discharge from the penis. Infected women may notice a yellowish vaginal discharge (from the endocervix), but often the disease is asymptomatic. Antibiotics cure the infection, but if untreated, this STI can cause salpingitis (pelvic inflammatory disease [PID]) and infertility in women. Inflammation of the genital tract mucosa, caused by infection with gonococci (berry-shaped bacteria). Other areas of the body, such as the eye, oral mucosa, rectum, and joints, may be affected as well. Signs and symptoms include dysuria and a yellow, mucopurulent (purulent means pus-filled) discharge from the male urethra (Figure 9-12A). The ancient Greeks mistakenly thought that this discharge was a leakage of semen, so they named the condition gonorrhea, meaning discharge of seed (gon/o = seed). Many women carry the disease asymptomatically, whereas others have pain, vaginal and urethral discharge, and salpingitis (PID). As a result of sexual activity, men and women can acquire anorectal and pharyngeal gonococcal infections as well. Chlamydia and gonorrhea often occur together. When treating these infections, doctors give antibiotics for both and treat both partners. Infection of skin and genital mucosa, caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). Most cases of herpes genitalis are caused by HSV type 2 (although some are caused by HSV type 1, which commonly is associated with oral infections such as cold sores or fever blisters). The usual clinical presentation is reddening of skin with formation of small, fluid-filled blisters and ulcers (Figure 9-12B). Initial episodes also may involve inguinal lymphadenopathy, fever, headache, and malaise. Remissions and relapse periods occur; no drug is known to be effective as a cure. Neonatal herpes affects infants born to women with active infection near the time of delivery. Gynecologists may deliver infants by cesarean section to prevent infection of these babies by HSV. Studies suggest that women with herpes genitalis are at a higher risk for developing vulvar and cervical cancer. Infection of the skin and mucous membranes in the anogenital region by the human papillomavirus. Some types of HPV cause genital warts (see Figure 9-13A) and lead to cancer of the cervix as well as cancer in men. A vaccine is available for young girls and boys that protects against nine types of HPV. Chronic STI caused by a spirochete (spiral-shaped bacterium). A chancre (hard ulcer or sore) usually appears on the external genitalia a few weeks after bacterial infection (Figure 9-13B). Two to six months after the chancre disappears, secondary syphilis begins. Tertiary syphilis includes damage to the brain, spinal cord, and heart, which may appear years after the earlier symptoms disappear. Syphilis (which was so often fatal in early times that it was known as the “great pox”—versus the more familiar smallpox) can be congenital in the fetus if it is transmi ed from the mother during pregnancy. Penicillin is effective for treatment in most cases.


FIGURE 9-12 A, Gonorrhea. Discharge from the penis can be seen. B, Herpes genitalis. The classic blisters (vesicles) are evident.

FIGURE 9-13 A, Genital warts. B, Primary syphilis with chancre on penis.


Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures Laboratory Tests PSA test semen analysis

Measurement of levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the blood. PSA is produced by cells within the prostate gland. Elevated levels of PSA are associated with enlargement of the prostate gland and may be a sign of prostate cancer. Microscopic examination of ejaculated fluid. Sperm cells are counted and examined for motility and shape. The test is part of fertility studies and is required to establish the effectiveness of vasectomy. Men with sperm counts of less than 20 million/mL of semen usually are sterile (not fertile). Sterility can result in an adult male who becomes ill with mumps, an infectious disease affecting the testes (inflammation leads to deterioration of spermatozoa).

Clinical Procedures castration

circumcision digital rectal examination (DRE) photoselective vaporization of the prostate (GreenLight PVP) transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) vasectomy

Surgical excision of testicles or ovaries. Castration may be performed to reduce production and secretion of hormones that stimulate growth of malignant cells (in breast cancer and prostate cancer). When a boy is castrated before puberty, he becomes a eunuch (Greek, eune, couch; echein, to guard). Male secondary sex characteristics fail to develop. Surgical procedure to remove the prepuce (foreskin) of the penis. See Figure 9-11B, page 303. Finger palpation through the anal canal and rectum to examine the prostate gland. See Figure 9-10, page 301. Removal of tissue to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) using a green light laser (“laser TURP”). This minimally invasive procedure in selected cases replaces TURP for treatment of BPH. Removal of portions of prostate gland through the urethra. This procedure treats benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). An electrical hot loop cuts the prostatic tissue; the bits of tissue (chips) are removed through the resectoscope (Figure 9-14). Bilateral surgical removal of a part of the vas deferens. A urologist cuts the vas deferens, removes a piece, and performs a ligation (tying and binding off) of the free ends with sutures (Figure 9-15); this is repeated on the opposite side. The procedure is performed using local anesthesia and through an incision in the scrotal sac. Because spermatozoa cannot leave the body, the vasectomized man is sterile, but not castrated. Normal hormone secretion, sex drive, and potency (ability to have an erection) are intact. The body reabsorbs unexpelled sperm. In some cases, a vasovasostomy can successfully reverse vasectomy.


FIGURE 9-14 Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). A, The resectoscope contains a light, valves for controlling irrigating fluid, and an electrical loop that cuts tissue and seals blood vessels. B, The urologist uses a wire loop through the resectoscope to remove obstructing tissue one piece at a time. The pieces are carried by the fluid into the bladder and flushed out at the end of the operation.

FIGURE 9-15 Vasectomy.




benign prostatic hyperplasia digital rectal examination erectile dysfunction genitourinary human papillomavirus herpes simplex virus nonspecific urethritis (not due to gonorrhea or chlamydia) pelvic inflammatory disease prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia; a precursor of prostate cancer prostate-specific antigen photoselective vaporization of the prostate; GreenLight PVP robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy rapid plasma reagin [test]; a test for syphilis sexually transmi ed disease sexually transmi ed infection transrectal ultrasound [examination]; test to assess the prostate and guide precise placement of a biopsy needle TUIP transurethral incision of the prostate; successful in less enlarged prostates and less invasive than TURP TUMT transurethral microwave thermotherapy TUNA transurethral needle ablation; radiofrequency energy destroys prostate tissue TURP transurethral resection of the prostate

Practical Applications

Reproduced here from actual medical records is a case report on a patient with post-TURP complaints. Background data and explanations of more difficult terms are added in brackets. Answers to the questions are on page 317. Also presented for your review is an actual surgical pathology report for a man diagnosed with prostate cancer, as well as a summary of current knowledge on anabolic steroids.

Case Report: A Man with Post-Turp Complaints The patient is a 70-year-old man who underwent a TURP for BPH 5 years ago and now has severe obstructive urinary symptoms with a large postvoid residual. On DRE, his prostate was found to be large, bulky, and nodular, with palpable extension to the left seminal vesicle. His PSA level was 15 ng/mL [normal is 0 to 4 ng/mL] and a bone scan was negative. A CT scan revealed bilateral external iliac adenopathy with lymph nodes measuring 1.5 cm on average [normal lymph node size is less than 1 cm]. A prostatic biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. This patient most likely has at least stage T3 N+ disease [extension into seminal vesicles and nodal metastases]. Recommendation is antitestosterone hormonal drug treatment. Questions about the Case Report


1. Five years previously, the patient had which type of surgery? a. Removal of testicles b. Perineal prostatectomy c. Partial prostatectomy (transurethral) 2. What was the reason for the surgery then? a. Cryptorchidism b. Benign overgrowth of the prostate gland c. Testicular cancer 3. What symptom does he have now? a. Burning pain on urination b. Urinary retention c. Premature ejaculation 4. What examination allowed the physician to feel the tumor? a. Palpation by a finger inserted into the rectum b. CT scan c. Prostate-specific antigen test 5. Where had the tumor spread? a. Testes b. Pelvic lymph nodes and left seminal vesicle c. Pelvic bone 6. What is likely to stimulate prostatic adenocarcinoma growth? a. Hormonal drug treatment b. Prostatic biopsy c. Testosterone secretion 7. Stage T3 N+ means that the tumor a. Is localized to the hip area b. Is confined to the prostate gland c. Has spread locally and beyond lymph nodes 8. Why is staging of tumors important? a. To classify the extent of spread of the tumor and to plan treatment b. To make the initial diagnosis c. To make an adequate biopsy of the tumor

Surgical Pathology Report: Prostate Cancer/Hyperplasia Patient name: Bill Sco DOB: 9/14/1942 (Age 78) Gender: M Clinical Data: ?Nodule, right side of prostate; PSA 7.1 Specimen(s): A. Right side prostate biopsy B. Left side prostate biopsy FINAL PATHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS


A. Needle biopsy of right side prostate gland (six cores) ADENOCARCINOMA, MODERATELY TO POORLY DIFFERENTIATED Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7 Estimated tumor load, 10% of prostatic tissue Represented in both specimens A and B B. Needle biopsy of left side prostate gland BENIGN HYPERPLASIA

About Anabolic Steroids Anabolic steroids are male hormones (androgens) that increase body weight and muscle size and may be used by doctors to increase growth in boys who do not mature physically as expected for their age. Steroids also may be used by athletes in an effort to increase strength and enhance performance; however, significant detrimental side effects of these drugs have been recognized: • High levels of anabolic steroids cause acne, hepatic tumors, and sterility (testicular atrophy and oligospermia). • In women, the androgenic effect of anabolic steroids leads to male hair distribution, deepening of the voice, amenorrhea, and clitoral enlargement. • Anabolic steroid use also causes hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, jaundice (liver abnormalities), and salt and water retention (edema).

Gleason Score

The Gleason score (named after Dr. Donald Gleason, a pathologist who developed it in the 1960s) is based on the microscopic appearance of the prostate biopsy specimen. Cancers with a higher Gleason score are more aggressive and carry a worse prognosis. The pathologist assigns a grade (number) to the most common tumor cells and another to the next most common tumor cells. Adding these numbers together gives the Gleason score. The score is based on a scale from 1 to 5. More well-differentiated (closer to normal) cells are given a lower grade, and poorly differentiated (malignant) cells are given a higher grade.

In Person Prostate Cancer


This is a first-person narrative of a man diagnosed with prostate cancer. As with many men in their late 50s, the PSA prostate-related lab test was the first item I would always look at when having my annual physical. Over a few years, the PSA had been going up gradually, but nothing that seemed to indicate anything unusual. So it was a bit of a surprise when my primary care doctor suggested that it might be time to have a further medical review of the slowly increasing results. The PSA was 4.37 ng/mL (4.0 or less is considered normal). Being in good overall health, I expected the follow-up prostate exam and biopsy to be of a routine nature. It was with great surprise that the prostate biopsy showed that 3 of 12 samples were positive for cancerous cells. My Gleason score was 6 (3 + 3). This situation was described to me as favorable, an early-stage cancer. Nevertheless, I had no idea of the treatment options available. I decided that the best way to reach a decision for a treatment plan was to get together with the doctors at the Mass General Cancer Center genitourinary clinic, where my situation would be reviewed, and to learn more about my options. I realized that the possibilities ranged widely, including watchful waiting, external radiation, internal radiation, and prostate surgery (prostatectomy). In the end, the decision becomes your own in early-stage prostate cancer, and that, in itself, can leave you second-guessing the choice. After careful thought and review of the information with my physicians and family, I decided to pursue the internal radiation option, or brachytherapy, often referred to as implantation of radiation seeds. Even up to the time of the procedure, the question remained with me as to whether I was making the right choice. Should I wait a while and just see how things go? Would there be any of the side effects that are noted for this procedure, such as bowel or bladder irritation? I had the internal radiation done at MGH. The entire medical team there made the process from start to completion as easy an event as one could hope for. The best news was that after the procedure, as tumor disappeared, my PSA began to drop.


Now a year has passed, and I am happy to see that the PSA has continued downward. The long-term side effects of the brachytherapy procedure were related to urination and erectile dysfunction. While urination post-procedure was painful, discomfort dissipated within a week or so. Long term, managing the control of urination was an issue, but after a year it has definitely improved. Erectile dysfunction after any type of prostate procedure is an issue. I found it to be a major effect early on, but less as time progressed. There is still the required PSA testing to see that the tumor has not returned. But taking warning signs seriously, educating yourself, and making an informed decision with the help of the best medical team possible will make you feel good about your choices. Kevin Mahoney is a U.S. veteran, now working as a program manager. He enjoys spending time with his family, including his wife, children, and grandchildren.


Exercises Remember to check your answers carefully with those given in the Answers to Exercises, page 316.

A Using the terms below, fill in the flow chart showing the passage of sperm. epididymis ejaculatory duct penis seminiferous tubules urethra vas deferens

B Select from the list of terms to match the descriptions that follow. bulbourethral glands epididymis prepuce


prostate gland scrotum seminal vesicles seminiferous tubules spermatozoon testis vas deferens 1. one of a pair of long, tightly coiled tubes above each testis; carries and stores sperm ________ 2. exocrine gland at the base of the male urinary bladder _______________________ 3. narrow coiled tubules that produce sperm in the testes ______________________________ 4. sperm cell _______________________________________________ __________________ 5. foreskin _______________________________________________ __________________________ 6. male gonad; produces testosterone and sperm cells _____________________________________ 7. paired sac-like exocrine glands that secrete fluid into the vas deferens _____________________ 8. external sac that contains the testes _______________________________________________ ___ 9. narrow tube carrying sperm from the epididymis toward the urethra ______________________ 10. pair of exocrine glands near the male urethra; Cowper glands _______________________


C Select from the list of terms to match the descriptions that follow. ejaculation ejaculatory duct erectile dysfunction flagellum fraternal twins glans penis identical twins interstitial cells parenchymal tissue perineum 1. hair-like projection on a sperm cell that makes it motile _________________________________ 2. sensitive tip of the penis _______________________________________________ ____________ 3. tube through which semen enters the urethra _________________________________________ 4. two infants resulting from division of one fertilized egg into separate embryos ______________ 5. external region between the anus and scrotum _________________________________________ 6. essential distinctive cells of an organ _______________________________________________ __ 7. two infants resulting from fertilization of two ova by two sperm cells ______________________ 8. inability of an adult male to achieve erection; impotence ________________________________


9. specialized cells that lie adjacent to the seminiferous tubules _____________________________ 10. ejection of sperm and fluid from the urethra __________________________________________ D Match the listed terms with the descriptions that follow. aspermia azoospermia impotence oligospermia penis semen sterilization stromal tissue testicle testosterone 1. male external organ of reproduction ___________________________________________ 2. sperm cells and seminal fluid _______________________________________________ __ 3. hormone secreted by interstitial cells of the testes _________________________________ 4. supportive connective tissue of an organ ________________________________________ 5. lack of semen _______________________________________________ ______________ 6. lack of sperm cells in semen _______________________________________________


___ 7. procedure that removes a person's ability to produce or release reproductive cells ________ 8. semen with a low concentration of sperm _______________________________________ 9. male gonad _______________________________________________ ________________ 10. inability of a male to sustain or achieve an erection _______________________________ E Build medical terms for the following definitions. Parts of the words are given. 1. inflammation of the testes: __________________________itis 2. inflammation of the tube that carries the spermatozoa to the vas deferens: ______________________________itis 3. resection of the prostate gland: __________________________ectomy 4. inflammation of the prostate gland: __________________________itis 5. process of producing (the formation of) sperm cells: ______________________genesis 6. fixation of undescended testicle: orchio___________________________ 7. inflammation of the glans penis: __________________________itis 8. condition of scanty sperm: __________________________spermia 9. lack of semen: a___________________________


10. pertaining to a testicle: __________________________ar F Answer true or false: 1. ___________ Cryogenic surgery uses cold temperatures to destroy tissue. 2. ___________ Estrogen is an example of an androgen. 3. ___________ Castration (orchiectomy or oophorectomy) is an example of sterilization. 4. ___________ A teratoma is a benign tumor of the prostate gland. 5. ___________ Spermolytic means formation of sperm. 6. ___________ Balanitis is inflammation of a testicle. 7. ___________ Azoospermia causes infertility. 8. ___________ Aspermia can result from retrograde ejaculation. 9. ___________ Seminiferous tubules are the interstitial cells of the testes. 10. ___________ Testosterone is produced by the parenchymal tissue of the testes. 11. ___________ Vasectomy produces impotence. 12. ___________ Vasovasostomy is an anastomosis that can restore fertility (ability to reproduce offspring). G Match the term in Column I with its meaning in Column II. Write the correct le er in the space provided.


COLUMN I 1. castration 2. semen analysis 3. ejaculation 4. purulent 5. vasectomy 6. circumcision 7. ligation 8. cryosurgery 9. seminoma 10. phimosis

_______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

COLUMN II A. To tie off or bind B. Removal of a piece of the vas deferens C. Orchiectomy D. Removal of the prepuce E. Destruction of tissue by freezing F. Pus-filled G. Test of fertility (reproductive ability) H. Ejection of sperm and fluid from the urethra I. Narrowing (stricture) of the opening of the prepuce over the glans penis J. Malignant tumor of the testis

H Select from the listed terms to fit the descriptions that follow. adenocarcinoma of the prostate benign prostatic hyperplasia cryptorchidism gonorrhea herpes genitalis HPV infection hydrocele hypospadias syphilis varicocele 1. prostatic enlargement, nonmalignant _______________________________________________ _ 2. opening of the urethra on the undersurface of the penis _________________________________ 3. infection of skin and genital mucosa with HSV _________________________________________ 4. malignant tumor of the prostate gland _______________________________________________ 5. enlarged, swollen veins near the testes _______________________________________________


6. sexually transmi ed disease with primary stage marked by formation of a chancre ___________ 7. infection of the skin and mucous membranes in the anogenital region by human papillomavirus __________________________________________ 8. STI caused by berry-shaped bacteria and marked by inflammation of genital mucosa and mucopurulent discharge ____________________________ 9. undescended testicles _______________________________________________ _____________ 10. sac of clear fluid in the scrotum _______________________________________________ ______ I Spell out the abbreviations in Column I. Then match each abbreviation with its correct meaning from Column II.



_______ 1. PSA ______________________________________________________________________

_______ 2. BPH ______________________________________________________________________

_______ 3. TURP ______________________________________________________________________

_______ 4. TRUS ______________________________________________________________________

_______ 5. DRE ______________________________________________________________________

_______ 6. HSV ______________________________________________________________________

_______ 7. STI ______________________________________________________________________

_______ 8. RALP ______________________________________________________________________

COLUMN II A. Manual diagnostic procedure to examine the prostate gland B. Removal of portions of prostate gland through the urethra C. Etiologic agent of a sexually transmi ed disease characterized by blister formation D. Noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland E. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis are examples of this general category of infections F. Helpful procedure in guiding a prostatic biopsy needle G. High serum levels of this protein indicate prostatic carcinoma H. Assisted laparoscopic surgery to remove the prostate gland

J Give the meanings of the following word parts. 1. -one _____________________________ 2. -stomy ___________________________ 3. semin/i ___________________________ 4. -cele _____________________________ 5. -pexy _____________________________ 6. -genesis __________________________


7. -plasia ____________________________ 8. prostat/o __________________________ 9. orch/o ____________________________ 10. terat/o ____________________________ 11. gon/o ____________________________ 12. hydr/o ____________________________ 13. pen/o _____________________________ 14. balan/o ___________________________ 15. varic/o ____________________________ 16. vas/o _____________________________ 17. test/o _____________________________ 18. zo/o ______________________________ 19. crypt/o ___________________________ 20. andr/o ____________________________ K Match the listed surgical procedures with the following reasons for performing them. circumcision hydrocelectomy orchiectomy orchiopexy photoselective vaporization of the prostate radical (complete) prostatectomy varicocelectomy vasectomy vasovasostomy 1. prostate cancer _________________________ 2. cryptorchidism _________________________


3. sterilization (hormones remain and potency is not impaired) ______________________________ 4. benign prostatic hyperplasia _________________________ 5. abnormal collection of fluid in a scrotal sac _________________________ 6. reversal of sterilization procedure _________________________ 7. embryonal carcinoma of the testes _________________________ 8. phimosis _________________________ 9. ligation of swollen, twisted veins above the testes _________________________ L Use the given definitions to complete the terms. Check your answers carefully. 1. gland at the base of the urinary bladder in males: pro _________________________ gland 2. coiled tube on top of each testis: epi _________________________ 3. essential tissue of an organ: par _________________________ tissue 4. foreskin: pre _________________________ 5. bacterial infection that invades the urethra and reproductive tract of men and women and is the major cause of nonspecific urethritis in males and cervicitis in females: ch _________________________ 6. ulcer that forms on genital organs after infection with syphilis: ch ________________________ 7. androgen produced by the interstitial cells of the testis: test _________________________


8. fluid secreted by male reproductive glands and ejaculated with sperm: se ___________________ 9. malignant tumor of the testis: sem _________________________ 10. pertaining to the penis: pen _________________________ M Circle the correct term(s) to complete the following sentences. 1. When Fred was a newborn infant, his doctors could feel only one testicle within the scrotum and suggested close monitoring of his condition of (gonorrhea, cryptorchidism, benign prostatic hyperplasia). 2. Bob had many sexual partners, one of whom had been diagnosed with (testosterone, phimosis, chlamydia), a highly communicable STI. 3. At age 65, Mike had some difficulty with urgency and discomfort when urinating. His doctor did a digital rectal examination to examine his (prostate gland, urinary bladder, vas deferens). 4. Just after Nick's birth, his parents had a difficult time deciding whether to have their infant son undergo (TURP, castration, circumcision). 5. Ted noticed a hard ulcer on his penis and made an appointment with his doctor, a (gastroenterologist, gynecologist, urologist). The doctor viewed a specimen of the ulcer under the microscope and did a blood test, which revealed that Ted had contracted (gonorrhea, herpes genitalis, syphilis), so the ulcer was a (blister, chancre, seminoma). 6. After his fifth child was born, Art decided to have a (vasovasostomy, hydrocelectomy, vasectomy) to


prevent conception of another child. A/an (nephrologist, urologist, abdominal surgeon) performed the procedure to cut and ligate the (urethra, epididymis, vas deferens). 7. Twenty-six-year-old Lance noticed a hard testicular mass. His physician prescribed a brief trial with (antibodies, antibiotics, pain killers) to rule out (epididymitis, testicular cancer, varicocele). The mass remained and Lance underwent (epididymectomy, orchiectomy, prostatectomy). The mass was a (seminoma, prostate cancer, hydrocele). 8. Sarah and Steve had been trying to conceive a child for 7 years. Steve had a (digital rectal examination, TURP, semen analysis), which revealed 25% normal sperm count with 10% motility. He was told he had (phimosis, azoospermia, oligospermia). 9. To boost his sperm count, Steve was given (estrogen, testosterone, progesterone). As a side effect, this (androgen, progestin, enzyme) gave him a case of acne lasting several months. 10. Sarah eventually became pregnant. An ultrasound examination showed two embryos with two separate placentas and in separate (peritoneal, scrotal, amniotic) sacs. Sarah gave birth to two healthy (identical, fraternal, perineal) twin girls.


Answers to Exercises A 1. seminiferous tubules 2. epididymis 3. vas deferens 4. ejaculatory duct 5. urethra 6. penis B 1. epididymis 2. prostate gland 3. seminiferous tubules 4. spermatozoon 5. prepuce 6. testis 7. seminal vesicles 8. scrotum 9. vas deferens 10. bulbourethral (Cowper) glands C 1. flagellum 2. glans penis 3. ejaculatory duct


4. identical twins 5. perineum 6. parenchymal tissue 7. fraternal twins 8. erectile dysfunction 9. interstitial cells 10. ejaculation D 1. penis 2. semen 3. testosterone 4. stromal tissue 5. aspermia 6. azoospermia 7. sterilization 8. oligospermia 9. testicle 10. impotence E 1. orchitis 2. epididymitis 3. prostatectomy 4. prostatitis 5. spermatogenesis


p g 6. orchiopexy 7. balanitis 8. oligospermia 9. aspermia 10. testicular F 1. True. 2. False. Estrogen is a female hormone. Androgens are male hormones. Testosterone is an androgen. 3. True. 4. False. Teratoma is a malignant tumor in the testis. 5. False. Spermolytic is destruction of sperm. Spermatogenesis is formation of sperm. 6. False. Balanitis is inflammation of the glans penis. Orchitis is inflammation of a testicle. 7. True. 8. True. Semen is discharged backward into the urinary bladder and not ejaculated. 9. False. Seminiferous tubules are the parenchymal tissue of the testes. The interstitial cells of the testis are the Leydig cells that secrete testosterone. 10. False. Testosterone is produced by the interstitial cells of the testis. 11. False. Vasectomy results in the inability of sperm to leave the body in semen. It does not affect erectile dysfunction and does not produce impotence. 12. True.


G 1. C 2. G 3. H 4. F 5. B 6. D 7. A 8. E 9. J 10. I H 1. benign prostatic hyperplasia 2. hypospadias 3. herpes genitalis 4. adenocarcinoma of the prostate (prostate cancer) 5. varicocele 6. syphilis 7. HPV infection 8. gonorrhea 9. cryptorchidism 10. hydrocele I 1. prostate-specific antigen: G


p p g 2. benign prostatic hyperplasia: D 3. transurethral resection of the prostate: B 4. transrectal ultrasound: F 5. digital rectal examination: A 6. herpes simplex virus: C 7. sexually transmi ed infection: E 8. robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy: H J 1. hormone 2. opening 3. semen, seed 4. hernia, swelling 5. fixation 6. formation 7. formation 8. prostate gland 9. testis 10. monster 11. seed 12. water 13. penis 14. glans penis 15. varicose veins 16. vessel, duct, vas deferens


17. testis, testicle 18. animal life 19. hidden 20. male K 1. radical (complete) prostatectomy 2. orchiopexy 3. vasectomy 4. photoselective vaporization of the prostate 5. hydrocelectomy 6. vasovasostomy 7. orchiectomy 8. circumcision 9. varicocelectomy L 1. prostate 2. epididymis 3. parenchymal 4. prepuce 5. chlamydia 6. chancre 7. testosterone 8. semen or seminal fluid 9. seminoma


10. penile M 1. cryptorchidism 2. chlamydia 3. prostate gland 4. circumcision 5. urologist; syphilis; chancre 6. vasectomy; urologist; vas deferens 7. antibiotics; epididymitis; orchiectomy; seminoma 8. semen analysis; oligospermia 9. testosterone; androgen 10. amniotic; fraternal Answers to Practical Applications Case Report: A Man with Post-TURP Complaints

1. c 2. b 3. b 4. a 5. b 6. c 7. c 8. a


Pronunciation of Terms

The terms you have learned in this chapter are presented here with their pronunciations. The meanings for all the terms are in the Mini-Dictionary beginning on page 897. You can also hear each term pronounced on the Evolve website (h p://


TERM androgen aspermia azoospermia balanitis benign prostatic hyperplasia bulbourethral glands castration chancre chlamydia circumcision cryogenic surgery cryptorchidism digital rectal exam ejaculation ejaculatory duct embryonal carcinoma epididymis epididymitis erectile dysfunction flagellum fraternal twins glans penis gonorrhea herpes genitalis human papillomavirus hydrocele hypospadias identical twins impotence infertility interstitial cells of the testes ligation oligospermia orchiectomy orchiopexy orchitis parenchymal tissue penile penis penoscrotal perineum Peyronie disease phimosis photoselective vaporization of the prostate prepuce prostate cancer prostate gland prostatectomy prostatitis purulent scrotum semen

PRONUNCIATION AN-dro-jen a-SPER-me-ah a-zo-o-SPER-me-ah bal-ah-NI-tis be-NINE pros-TAH-tik hi-per-PLA-ze-ah bul-bo-u-RE-thral glandz kah-STRA-shun SHANK-er klah-MID-e-ah sir-kum-SIZH-un kri-o-GEN-ik SUR-jer-e kript-OR-kid-izm DIH-jeh-tal REK-tal ek-ZAM eh-jak-u-LA-shun eh-JAK-u-lah-tor-e dukt em-bre-ON-al kar-sih-NO-mah ep-ih-did-ih-mis ep-ih-did-ih-MI-tis e-REK-tile dis-FUNK-shun fla-JEL-um frah-TER-nal twinz glanz PE-nis gon-o-RE-ah HER-peez jen-ih-TAL-is HU-man pap-ih-LO-mah-vi-rus HI-dro-seel hi-po-SPA-de-as i-DEN-tih-kal twinz IM-po-tents in-fer-TIL-ih-te in-ter-STIH-shul selz of the TES-tis li-GA-shun ol-ih-go-SPER-me-ah or-ke-EK-to-me or-ke-o-PEK-se or-KI-tis pah-RENK-ih-mal TIH-shu PE-nile PE-nis pe-no-SKRO-tal peh-rih-NE-um pah-RO-ne dih-zeez fih-MO-sis fo-to-seh-LEK-tiv va-por-ih-ZA-shun of the PROStayt PRE-pus PROS-tayt KAN-ser PROS-tayt gland pros-tah-TEK-to-me pros-tah-TI-tis PU-ru-lent SKRO-tum SE-men


TERM semen analysis seminal vesicles seminiferous tubules seminoma spermatogenesis spermatozoa spermatozoon spermolytic sterilization stromal tissue syphilis teratoma testicular testicular cancer testicular torsion testis testosterone transurethral resection of the prostate varicocele vas deferens vasectomy vasovasostomy

PRONUNCIATION SE-men ah-NAH-lih-sis SEH-mih-nal VES-ih-kils seh-mih-NIF-er-us TOOB-ules seh-mih-NO-mah sper-mah-to-JEN-eh-sis sper-mah-to-ZO-ah sper-mah-to-ZO-en sper-mo-LIH-rik ster-ih-lih-ZA-shun STRO-mal TIH-shu SIF-ih-lis ter-ah-TO-mah tes-TIH-ku-lar tes-TIH-ku-lar KAN-ser tes-TIH-ku-lar TOR-shun TES-tis tes-TOS-teh-rone tranz-u-RE-thral re-SEK-shun of the PROS-tayt VAR-ih-ko-seel vas DEF-er-enz vas-EK-to-me vas-o-vas-OS-to-me

Review Sheet

Write the meanings of the word parts in the spaces provided. Check your answers with the information in the chapter or in the Glossary (Medical Word Parts—English) at the end of the book.

Combining Forms


COMBINING FORM andr/o balan/o cry/o crypt/o epididym/o gon/o hydr/o orch/o orchi/o orchid/o pen/o prostat/o semin/i sperm/o spermat/o terat/o test/o varic/o vas/o zo/o

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Suffixes SUFFIX -cele -ectomy -gen -genesis -genic -lysis -lytic -one -pexy -plasia -rrhea -stomy -tomy -trophy

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________




Nervous System CHAPTER SECTIONS: Introduction 322 General Structure of the Nervous System 322 Neurons, Nerves, and Glial Cells 326 The Brain 328 The Spinal Cord and Meninges 331 Vocabulary 333 Terminology 335 Pathology 340 Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures 349 Abbreviations 352 Practical Applications 352 In Person: Sciatica 356 Exercises 357 Answers to Exercises 364 Pronunciation of Terms 367 Review Sheet 370

CHAPTER GOALS • Name, locate, and describe the major organs of the nervous system and their functions. • Learn nervous system combining forms and use them with suffixes and prefixes. • Define pathologic conditions affecting the nervous system.


• Describe nervous system–related laboratory tests, clinical procedures, and abbreviations. • Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical terms in their proper contexts, such as medical reports and records.


Introduction The nervous system is one of the most complex of all human body systems. More than 100 billion nerve cells operate constantly all over the body to coordinate the activities we do consciously and voluntarily, as well as those that occur unconsciously or involuntarily. We speak, move muscles, hear, taste, see, and think. Our glands secrete hormones, and we respond to danger, pain, temperature, and touch. All of these functions comprise only a small number of the many activities controlled by the nervous system. Fibers exiting from microscopic nerve cells (neurons) are collected into macroscopic bundles called nerves, which carry electrical messages all over the body. External stimuli, as well as internal chemicals such as acetylcholine, activate the cell membranes of nerve cells, which results in electrical discharges of these cells. These electrical discharges, nervous impulses, may then traverse the length of the associated nerves. External receptors (sense organs) as well as internal receptors in muscles and blood vessels receive these impulses and may in turn transmit impulses to the complex network of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. Within this central part of the nervous system, impulses are recognized, interpreted, and finally relayed to other nerve cells that extend out to all parts of the body, such as muscles, glands, and internal organs.


General Structure of the Nervous System The nervous system is classified into two major divisions: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system consists of cranial nerves and spinal nerves, plexuses, and peripheral nerves throughout the body (Figure 10-1). Cranial nerves carry impulses between the brain and the head and neck. The one exception is the tenth cranial nerve, called the vagus nerve. It carries messages to and from the neck, chest, and abdomen. Figure 10-2 shows cranial nerves, their functions, and the parts of the body that they carry messages to and from. Spinal nerves carry messages between the spinal cord and the chest, abdomen, and extremities.


FIGURE 10-1 The brain and the spinal cord, spinal nerves, and spinal plexuses. The femoral nerve is a lumbar nerve leading to and from the thigh region (the femur is the thigh bone). The sciatic nerve is a nerve beginning in a region of the hip. The cauda equina (Latin for “horse's tail”) is a bundle of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord.


FIGURE 10-2 Cranial nerves (I to XII) leading from the base of the brain and showing the parts of the body they affect. Sensory or afferent nerves are colored blue and carry messages toward the brain. Motor or efferent nerves are colored red and carry messages from the brain to muscles and organs. Some nerves (mixed) carry both sensory and motor fibers. Don't try to memorize this figure! Just get the big picture: Cranial nerves carry messages to and from the brain to all parts of head and neck and also (in the case of the vagus nerve) to other parts of the body.

A plexus is a large network of nerves in the peripheral nervous system. The cervical, brachial (brachi/o means arm), and lumbosacral plexuses are examples that include cervical, lumbar, and sacral nerves.


Figure 10-1 illustrates the relationship of the brain and spinal cord to the spinal nerves and plexuses.


There are other plexuses in the body—networks of intersecting blood vessels (vascular) and lymphatic vessels. • Lymphatic plexus is an interconnecting network of lymph vessels. • Rectal plexus is a plexus of veins in the rectal region. • Vertebral plexus is a plexus of veins related to the backbone. The spinal and cranial nerves are composed of nerves that help the body respond to changes in the outside world. They include sense receptors for sight (eye), hearing and balance (ear), smell (olfactory), and touch (skin sensation) and sensory (afferent) nerves that carry messages related to changes in the environment toward the spinal cord and brain. In addition, motor (efferent) nerves travel from the spinal cord and brain to muscles of the body, telling them how to respond. For example, when you touch a hot stove, temperature and pain receptors in the skin stimulate afferent nerves, which carry messages toward the spinal cord and brain. Instantaneously, the message is conveyed to efferent nerve cells in the spinal cord, which then activate voluntary muscles to pull your hand away from the stove. In addition to the spinal and cranial nerves (whose functions are mainly voluntary and involved with sensations of smell, taste, sight, hearing, and muscle movements), the peripheral nervous system also contains a large group of nerves that function involuntarily or automatically, without conscious control. These peripheral nerves belong to the autonomic nervous system. This system of nerve fibers carries impulses to glands, heart, blood vessels, involuntary muscles found in the walls of tubes like the intestines, and hollow organs like the stomach and urinary bladder. Some autonomic nerves are sympathetic nerves and others are parasympathetic nerves. The sympathetic nerves stimulate the body in times of stress and crisis. They increase heart rate and forcefulness, dilate (relax) airways so more oxygen can enter, and increase blood pressure. In addition, sympathetic neurons stimulate the adrenal glands to secrete epinephrine (adrenaline), while also inhibiting intestinal contractions to slow digestion. The parasympathetic nerves normally act as a balance for the sympathetic nerves. Parasympathetic nerves slow down heart rate, lower blood pressure, and stimulate intestinal


contractions to clear the rectum. Figure 10-3 shows the differences in actions between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves.

FIGURE 10-3 Actions of parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves.

Figure 10-4 summarizes the divisions of the central and peripheral nervous systems.


FIGURE 10-4 Divisions of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). The autonomic nervous system is a part of the peripheral nervous system.


Neurons, Nerves, and Glial Cells A neuron is an individual nerve cell, a microscopic structure. Impulses pass along the parts of a nerve cell in a definite manner and direction. The parts of a neuron are pictured in Figure 10-5; label it as you study the following.

FIGURE 10-5 Parts of a neuron and the pathway of a nervous impulse. Neurons are the parenchymal (essential) cells of the nervous system. The boxed drawing shows what happens in a synapse: Vesicles store neurotransmitters in the terminal end fibers of axons. Receptors on the dendrites pick up the neurotransmitters. Inactivators end the activity of neurotransmitters when they have finished their job.

A stimulus begins an impulse in the branching fibers of the neuron, which are called dendrites [1]. A change in the electrical charge of the


dendrite membranes is thus begun, and the nervous impulse moves along the dendrites like the movement of falling dominoes. The impulse, traveling in only one direction, next reaches the cell body [2], which contains the cell nucleus [3]. Small collections of nerve cell bodies outside the brain and spinal cord are called ganglia (singular: ganglion). Extending from the cell body is the axon [4], which carries the impulse away from the cell body. Axons can be covered with a fa y tissue called myelin. The purpose of this myelin sheath [5] is to insulate the axon and speed transmission of the electrical impulse. Demyelination is loss of the myelin insulating the nerve fiber and is characteristic of multiple sclerosis, an acquired illness affecting the CNS. The myelin sheath gives a white appearance to the nerve fiber—hence the term white ma er, as in parts of the spinal cord and the white ma er of the brain and most peripheral nerves. The gray ma er of the brain and spinal cord is composed of the cell bodies of neurons that appear gray because they are not covered by a myelin sheath. The nervous impulse passes through the axon to leave the cell via the terminal end fibers [6] of the neuron. The space where the nervous impulse jumps from one neuron to another is called the synapse [7]. The transfer of the impulse across the synapse depends on the release of a chemical substance, called a neurotransmi er, by the neuron that brings the impulse to the synapse. See the boxed diagram in Figure 10-5. Tiny sacs (vesicles) containing the neurotransmi er are located at the ends of neurons, and they release the neurotransmi er into the synapse. Acetylcholine, norepinephrine, epinephrine (adrenaline), dopamine, serotonin, and endorphins are examples of neurotransmi ers. Whereas a neuron is a microscopic structure within the nervous system, a nerve is macroscopic, able to be seen with the naked eye. A nerve consists of many axons that travel together like strands of rope. Peripheral nerves that carry impulses to the brain and spinal cord from stimulus receptors like the skin, eye, ear, and nose are afferent or sensory nerves; those that carry impulses from the CNS to organs that produce responses, such as muscles and glands, are efferent or motor nerves. Neurons and nerves are the parenchyma of the nervous system. Parenchyma is the essential distinguishing tissue of an organ. In the brain and spinal cord, neurons, which conduct electrical impulses, are the parenchymal tissue. Stroma of an organ is the connective and supportive tissue of an organ. The stromal tissue of the central nervous system consists of the glial (neuroglial) cells, which make up its supportive framework and help it ward off infection. Glial cells do not transmit impulses. They are far more numerous than neurons and can reproduce.


There are four types of supporting or glial cells (see Figure 10-6). Astrocytes (astroglial cells) are star-like in appearance (astr/o means star) and transport water and salts between capillaries and neurons. Microglial cells are small cells with many branching processes (dendrites). As phagocytes, they protect neurons in response to inflammation. Oligodendroglial cells (oligodendrocytes) have few (olig/o means few or scanty) dendrites. These cells form the myelin sheath in the CNS. By contrast, ependymal cells (Greek ependyma means upper garment) line membranes within the brain and spinal cord where CSF is produced and circulates.

FIGURE 10-6 Glial cells (neuroglial cells). These are the supportive, protective, and connective tissue cells of the CNS. Glial cells are stromal (framework) tissue, whereas neurons carry nervous impulses.

Glial cells, particularly the astrocytes, are associated with blood vessels and regulate the passage of potentially harmful substances from the blood into the nerve cells of the brain. This protective barrier between the blood and brain cells is called the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This barrier consists of special lining (endothelial) cells, which along with astrocytes separate capillaries from nerve cells. Delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to treat brain tumors is thus difficult, because the BBB blocks drug access to brain tissues. Figure 10-6 illustrates glial cells.


The Brain The brain controls body activities. In the human adult, it weighs about 3 pounds and has many different parts, all of which control different aspects of body functions. The largest part of the brain is the “thinking” area, or cerebrum. On the surface of the cerebrum, nerve cells lie in sheets, which make up the cerebral cortex. These sheets, arranged in folds called gyri, are separated from each other by grooves known as sulci. The brain is divided in half, a right side and a left side, which are called cerebral hemispheres. Each hemisphere is subdivided into four major lobes named for the cranial (skull) bones that overlie them. Figure 10-7 shows these lobes—frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal—as well as gyri and sulci.

FIGURE 10-7 Left cerebral hemisphere (lateral view). Gyri (convolutions) and sulci (fissures) are indicated. Notice the lobes of the cerebrum and the functional centers that control speech, vision, movement, hearing, thinking, and other processes. Neurologists believe that the two hemispheres have different abilities. The left brain is more concerned with language, mathematical functioning, reasoning, and analytical thinking. The right brain is more active in spatial relationships, art, music, emotions, and intuition.


The cerebrum has many functions. It is responsible for thought, judgment, memory, association, and discrimination. In addition, sensory impulses are received through afferent cranial nerves, and when registered in the cortex, they are the basis for perception. Nerve impulses from the cerebrum extend to muscles and glands producing movement as well as internal changes in the body. Figure 10-7 shows the location of some of the centers in the cerebral cortex that control speech, vision, smell, movement, hearing, and thought processes. In the middle of the cerebrum are spaces, or canals, called ventricles (pictured in Figure 10-8). They contain a watery fluid that flows throughout the brain and around the spinal cord. This fluid is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and it protects the brain and spinal cord from shock by acting like a cushion. CSF usually is clear and colorless and contains lymphocytes, sugar, and proteins. Spinal fluid can be withdrawn for diagnosis or relief of pressure on the brain; this is called a lumbar puncture (LP). For this procedure, a hollow needle is inserted into the lumbar region of the spinal column below the region where the nervous tissue of the spinal cord ends, and CSF is withdrawn.

FIGURE 10-8 Circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain (ventricles) and around the spinal cord. CSF is formed within the ventricles and circulates between the membranes around the brain and within the spinal cord. CSF empties into the bloodstream through the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.


Two other important parts of the brain are the thalamus and the hypothalamus (Figure 10-9). The thalamus acts like a triage center. It decides what is important and what is not, selectively processing and relaying sensory information to the cerebral cortex. The thalamus also plays a major role in maintaining levels of awareness and consciousness. The hypothalamus (below the thalamus) contains neurons that control body temperature, sleep, appetite, sexual desire, and emotions such as fear and pleasure. The hypothalamus also regulates the release of hormones from the pituitary gland at the base of the brain and integrates the activities of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

FIGURE 10-9 Parts of the brain: cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. Note the location of the pituitary gland below the hypothalamus. The basal ganglia (a group of cells) regulate intentional movements of the body. The corpus callosum lies in the center of the brain and connects the two hemispheres (halves).

The following structures within the brain lie in the back and below the cerebrum and connect the cerebrum with the spinal cord: cerebellum, midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The midbrain, pons and medulla are part of the brainstem. See Figure 10-9. The cerebellum functions to coordinate voluntary movements and to maintain balance and posture.


The midbrain is the uppermost portion of the brainstem. It contains pathways connecting the cerebrum with lower portions of the brain and structures involved with seeing and hearing. The pons is a part of the brainstem that literally means bridge. It contains nerve fiber tracts that connect the cerebellum and cerebrum with the rest of the brain. Nerves affecting the face and eye movement are located here. The medulla oblongata, also in the brainstem, connects the spinal cord with the rest of the brain. Nerve tracts cross from right to left and left to right in the medulla oblongata. For example, nerve cells that control movement of the left side of the body are found in the right half of the cerebrum. These cells send out axons that cross over (decussate) to the opposite side of the brain in the medulla oblongata and then travel down the spinal cord. In addition, the medulla oblongata contains three important vital centers that regulate internal activities of the body: 1. Respiratory center—controls muscles of respiration in response to chemicals or other stimuli 2. Cardiac center—slows the heart rate when the heart is beating too rapidly 3. Vasomotor center—affects (constricts or dilates) the muscles in the walls of blood vessels, thus influencing blood pressure Figure 10-9 shows the locations of the thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata. Table 10-1 reviews the functions of these parts of the brain. TABLE 10-1 FUNCTIONS OF THE PARTS OF THE BRAIN Structure Cerebrum Thalamus

Function(s) Thinking, personality, sensations, movements, memory Relay station (“triage center”) for sensory impulses; control of awareness and consciousness Hypothalamus Body temperature, sleep, appetite, emotions; control of the pituitary gland Cerebellum Coordination of voluntary movements and balance Pons and Connection of nerve and nerve fiber pathways, including those to the Midbrain eyes and face Medulla Nerve fibers cross over, left to right and right to left; contains centers to oblongata regulate heart, blood vessels, and respiratory system


The Spinal Cord and Meninges Spinal Cord The spinal cord is a column of nervous tissue extending from the medulla oblongata to the second lumbar vertebra within the vertebral column. Below the end of the spinal cord is the cauda equina (Latin for “horse's tail”), a fan of nerve fibers (see Figure 10-1, page 323). The spinal cord carries all the nerves to and from the limbs and lower part of the body, and it is the pathway for impulses going to and from the brain. A cross-sectional view of the spinal cord (Figure 10-10) reveals an inner region of gray ma er (containing cell bodies and dendrites) and an outer region of white ma er (containing the nerve fiber tracts with myelin sheaths) conducting impulses to and from the brain.

FIGURE 10-10 The spinal cord, showing gray and white matter (transverse view). Afferent neurons bring impulses from a sensory receptor (such as the skin) into the spinal cord. Efferent neurons carry impulses from the spinal cord to effector organs (such as skeletal muscle). The central canal is the space through which CSF travels.

Meninges The meninges are three layers of connective tissue membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. Label Figure 10-11 as you study the following description of the meninges.


FIGURE 10-11 The meninges, posterior view.

The outermost membrane of the meninges is the dura mater [1]. This thick, tough membrane contains channels (dural sinuses) that contain blood. The subdural space [2] is below the dural membrane. The second layer surrounding the brain and spinal cord is the arachnoid membrane [3]. The arachnoid (spider-like) membrane is loosely a ached to the other meninges by web-like fibers, so there is a space for fluid between the fibers and the third membrane. This is the subarachnoid space [4], containing CSF. The third layer of the meninges, closest to the brain and spinal cord, is the pia mater [5]. It contains delicate (Latin pia) connective tissue with a rich supply of blood vessels. Most physicians refer to the pia and arachnoid membranes together as the pia-arachnoid.


This list reviews the new terms introduced in the text. Short definitions reinforce your understanding of the terms. Refer to the Pronunciation of Terms section for help with unfamiliar or more difficult words.


acetylcholine afferent nerve arachnoid membrane astrocyte autonomic nervous system axon blood-brain barrier brainstem cauda equina cell body central nervous system (CNS) cerebellum cerebral cortex cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cerebrum

Neurotransmi er chemical released at the ends of nerve cells. Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerve). Afferent comes from af- (a form of ad-, meaning toward) and -ferent (meaning carrying). Middle layer of the three membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord. The Greek arachne means spider. Type of glial (neuroglial) cell that transports water and salts from capillaries in the nervous system. Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs. Microscopic fiber that is part of a neuron and carries nervous impulse along a nerve cell. Protective separation between the blood and brain cells. This makes it difficult for substances (such as anticancer drugs) to penetrate capillary walls and enter the brain. Posterior portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord; includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord. Part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus. Brain and spinal cord. Posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance. Outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray ma er of the brain. Circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord.

Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory. cranial nerves Nerves carry messages to and from the brain to all parts of head and neck and also (in the case of the vagus nerve) to other parts of the body. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves. dendrite Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell (neuron) that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse. dura mater Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord. Latin for “hard mother.” efferent nerve Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve. Efferent comes from ef- (meaning away from) and -ferent (meaning to carry). ependymal cell Glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid. ganglion (plural: Collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system. ganglia) glial cell Supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous (neuroglial cell) impulses. Examples are astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes. Glial cells can reproduce themselves, as opposed to neurons. gyrus (plural: Sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded ridge on the surface of the gyri) cerebral cortex; convolution. hypothalamus Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland. medulla Part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, oblongata and the size of blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here. meninges Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.


microglial cell midbrain motor nerve myelin sheath nerve neuron neurotransmi er

oligodendroglial cell parasympathetic nerves parenchyma

peripheral nervous system pia mater plexus (plural: plexuses) pons receptor sciatic nerve sensory nerve spinal nerves stimulus (plural: stimuli) stroma sulcus (plural: sulci) sympathetic nerves synapse thalamus

Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system. Uppermost portion of the brainstem. Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerve. Covering of white fa y tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. Myelin speeds impulse conduction along axons. Macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons) that carry electrical impulses. Nerve cell that is necessary for impulses to be carried throughout the nervous system; parenchyma of the nervous system. Chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell. It stimulates or inhibits another cell, which can be a nerve cell, muscle cell, or gland cell. Examples of neurotransmi ers are acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons. Also called oligodendrocyte. Involuntary autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract. Essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system. The parenchyma of the nervous system includes the neurons and nerves that carry nervous impulses. Parenchymal cells of the liver are hepatocytes, and parenchymal tissue of the kidney includes the nephrons, where urine is formed. Note the pronunciation: păr-ĔN-kĭ-mă. Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord: cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves. Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges. Large, interlacing network of nerves. Examples are lumbosacral, cervical, and brachial (brachi/o means arm) plexuses. The term originated from the Indo-European plek, meaning to weave together. Part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain. It is a bridge connecting various parts of the brain. In Latin, pons means bridge. Organ that receives and transmits a stimulus to sensory nerves. The skin, ears, eyes, and taste buds are receptors. Nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot. Sciatica is pain or inflammation along the course of the nerve. Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerve. Pairs of nerves, arising one on each side of the spinal column. They transmit messages to and from the spinal cord. Agent of change in the internal or external environment that evokes a response. It may be light, sound, touch, pressure, or pain. Connective and supporting tissue of an organ. Glial cells make up the stromal tissue of the brain. Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure. Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress. Space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells. From the Greek synapsis, a point of contact. Main relay center of the brain. It conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed through


the thalamus to appropriate centers in the cerebrum. Latin thalamus means room. The Romans, who named this structure, thought this part of the brain was hollow, like a li le room. vagus nerve Tenth cranial nerve (cranial nerve X). Its branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach. Latin vagus means wandering. Unlike the other cranial nerves, the vagus leaves the head and “wanders” into the abdominal and thoracic cavities. ventricles of the Canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid. Ventricles are also brain found in the heart—they are the two lower chambers of the heart.


This section is divided into terms that describe organs and structures of the nervous system and those that relate to neurologic signs and symptoms. Write the meanings of the medical terms in the spaces provided.

Organs and Structures


COMBINING MEANING FORM cerebell/o cerebellum cerebr/o cerebrum



gli/o lept/o

mening/o, meningi/o

my/o myel/o

neur/o pont/o



cerebellar ______________________________________ cerebrospinal fluid ______________________________________ cerebral cortex ______________________________________ Cortical means pertaining to the cortex or outer area of an organ. dura mater subdural hematoma ______________________________________ Remember: Hematomas are not tumors of blood, but are collections of blood. epidural hematoma ______________________________________ Figure 10-12 shows subdural, epidural, and intracerebral hematomas. brain encephalitis ______________________________________ encephalopathy ______________________________________ Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disease associated with repetitive brain trauma (concussion). anencephaly ______________________________________ A congenital brain malformation; not compatible with life and may be detected with amniocentesis or ultrasonography of the fetus. glial cells glioblastoma ______________________________________ This is a highly malignant tumor (-blast means immature). Gliomas are tumors of glial (neuroglial) cells. thin, slender leptomeningeal ______________________________________ The pia and arachnoid membranes are known as the leptomeninges because of their thin, delicate structure. membranes, meningeal ______________________________________ meninges meningioma ______________________________________ Slowly growing, benign tumor. myelomeningocele ______________________________________ Neural tube defect caused by failure of the neural tube to close during embryonic development. This abnormality occurs in infants born with spina bifida. See page 341. muscle myoneural ______________________________________ spinal cord myelopathy ______________________________________ (means bone poliomyelitis ______________________________________ marrow in Polio- means gray ma er. This viral disease affects the gray other ma er of the spinal cord, leading to paralysis of muscles that contexts) rely on the damaged neurons. Effective vaccines developed in the 20th century have made “polio” relatively uncommon. nerve neuropathy ____________ polyneuritis ____________________________________ pons cerebellopontine ____________________________________ The suffix -ine means pertaining to.


COMBINING MEANING FORM radicul/o nerve root (of spinal nerves)

thalam/o thec/o




radiculopathy ____________________________________ Sciatica is a radiculopathy affecting the sciatic nerve root in the back. A herniated disk is a common cause leading to pain, weakness, or numbness down the leg. See In Person: Sciatica story on page 356. radiculitis ____________________________________ This condition often results in pain and loss of function. thalamus thalamic ____________________________________ sheath intrathecal injection (refers to the ____________________________________ meninges) Chemicals, such as chemotherapeutic drugs, can be delivered into the subarachnoid space. vagus nerve vagal ____________________________________ (10th cranial This cranial nerve has branches to the head and neck, as well nerve) as to the chest.

FIGURE 10-12 Hematomas. A subdural hematoma results from the tearing of veins between the dura and arachnoid membranes. It often is the result of blunt trauma, such as from blows to the head in boxers or in elderly patients who have fallen out of bed. An epidural hematoma occurs between the skull and the dura as the result of a ruptured meningeal artery, usually after a fracture of the skull. An intracerebral hematoma is caused by bleeding directly into brain tissue, such as can occur in the case of uncontrolled hypertension (high blood pressure).

Signs and Symptoms


COMBINING FORM OR MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING SUFFIX alges/o, sensitivity to analgesia ______________________________________ algesia pain hypalgesia ______________________________________ Diminished sensation to pain. (Notice that the o in hypo- is dropped.) Hyperalgesia is increased sensitivity to pain. -algia pain (see neuralgia ______________________________________ page 355 for Trigeminal neuralgia involves flashes of pain radiating along information the course of the trigeminal nerve (fifth cranial nerve). on pain cephalgia ______________________________________ medications) Headaches may result from tension in neck and scalp muscles. caus/o burning causalgia ______________________________________ Intense burning pain following injury to a sensory nerve. comat/o deep sleep comatose ______________________________________ (coma) A coma is a state of unconsciousness from which the patient cannot be aroused. Semicomatose refers to a stupor (unresponsiveness) from which a patient can be aroused. In an irreversible coma (brain death), there is complete unresponsitivity to stimuli, no spontaneous breathing or movement, and a flat electroencephalogram (EEG) tracing. esthesi/o, feeling, anesthesia ______________________________________ esthesia nervous Lack of normal sensation (e.g., absence of sense of touch or sensation pain). Two common types of regional anesthesia are spinal and epidural (caudal) blocks (Figure 10-13). An anesthesiologist is a physician who administers anesthesia. Anesthetics are agents that reduce or eliminate sensation. General and local anesthetics are listed in Table 21-2, page 829. hyperesthesia ______________________________________ Abnormally intense sensation to a particular stimulus, such as a light touch with a pin. Diminished sensitivity to pain is called hypesthesia. paresthesia ______________________________________ Par- (from para-) means abnormal. Paresthesias include tingling, burning, and “pins and needles” sensations. kines/o, movement bradykinesia ______________________________________ kinesi/o hyperkinesis ______________________________________ kinesia, Amphetamines (CNS stimulants) are used to treat kinesis, hyperkinesia in children, but the mechanism of their action is kinetic not understood. dyskinesia ______________________________________ Condition marked by involuntary, spasmodic movements. Tardive (occurring late) dyskinesia may develop in people who receive certain antipsychotic drugs for extended periods. akinetic ______________________________________ -lepsy seizure epilepsy ______________________________________ See page 343. narcolepsy ______________________________________ Sudden, uncontrollable compulsion to sleep (narc/o = stupor, sleep). Amphetamines and stimulant drugs are prescribed to prevent a acks.


COMBINING FORM OR MEANING SUFFIX lex/o word, phrase -paresis





paralysis (loss or impairment of the ability to move parts of the body)






to cut off, cut short


order, coordination



dyslexia ______________________________________ This is a developmental reading disorder occurring when the brain does not properly recognize, process, and interpret language. hemiparesis ______________________________________ Affects either right or left side (half) of the body. Paresis also is used by itself to mean partial paralysis or weakness of muscles. aphasia ______________________________________ Difficulty with speech. Motor (also called Broca or expressive) aphasia is present when the patient knows what he or she wants to say but cannot say it. The patient with sensory aphasia has difficulty understanding language and may pronounce (articulate) words easily but use them inappropriately. hemiplegia ______________________________________ Affects the right or left half of the body and results from a stroke or other brain injury. The hemiplegia is contralateral to the brain lesion because motor nerve fibers from the right half of the brain cross to the left side of the body (in the medulla oblongata). paraplegia ______________________________________ Originally, the term paraplegia meant a stroke (paralysis) on one side (para-). Now, however, the term means paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body caused by injury or disease of the spinal cord or cauda equina. quadriplegia ______________________________________ Quadri- means four. All four extremities are affected. Injury is at the cervical level of the spinal cord. apraxia ______________________________________ Movements and behavior are not purposeful. A patient with motor apraxia cannot use an object or perform a task. Motor weakness is not the cause. neurasthenia ______________________________________ Nervous exhaustion and fatigue, often following depression. syncopal ______________________________________ Syncope (SIN-ko-pe) means fainting; sudden and temporary loss of consciousness caused by inadequate flow of blood to the brain. The term comes from a Greek word meaning cu ing into pieces—thus, a fainting spell meant one's strength was “cut off.” HINT: Syncopal means pertaining to fainting and is an adjective. A patient can experience a syncopal episode. ataxia ______________________________________ Condition of decreased coordination. Persistent unsteadiness on the feet can be caused by a disorder involving the cerebellum.


FIGURE 10-13 A, Positioning of a patient for spinal anesthesia. B, Cross-sectional view of the spinal cord showing injection sites for epidural and spinal blocks (anesthesia). Epidural (caudal) anesthesia is achieved by injecting an agent into the epidural space and is commonly used in obstetrics. Spinal anesthesia is achieved by injecting a local anesthetic into the subarachnoid space. Patients may experience loss of sensation and paralysis of feet, legs, and abdomen.

myel/o and my/o

Don't confuse these combining forms. Myel/o means spinal cord or bone marrow, while my/o means muscle. Another pair to watch out for is pyel/o (renal pelvis of the kidney) and py/o (pus).


Neuropathies are diseases of peripheral nerves. They can affect motor, sensory, and autonomic functions. Polyneuropathies affect many nerves, while mononeuropathies affect individual nerves.


Pathology The bones of the skull, the vertebral column, and the meninges, containing CSF, provide a hard box with an interior cushion around the brain and spinal cord. In addition, glial cells surrounding neurons form a blood-brain barrier that prevents many potentially harmful substances in the bloodstream from gaining access to neurons. However, these protective factors are counterbalanced by the extreme sensitivity of nerve cells to oxygen deficiency (brain cells die in a few minutes when deprived of oxygen). Neurologic disorders may be classified in the following categories:

• Congenital • Degenerative, movement, and seizure • Infectious (meningitis and encephalitis) • Neoplastic (tumors) • Traumatic • Vascular (stroke) Congenital Disorders hydrocephalus

spina bifida

Abnormal accumulation of fluid (CSF) in the brain. If circulation of CSF in the brain or spinal cord is impaired, fluid accumulates under pressure in the ventricles of the brain. To relieve pressure on the brain, a catheter (shunt) can be placed from the ventricle of the brain into the peritoneal space (ventriculoperitoneal shunt) or right atrium of the heart so that the CSF is continuously drained from the brain. Hydrocephalus also can occur in adults as a result of tumors and infections. Congenital defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts (neural tube defect). In spina bifida occulta, the vertebral defect is covered over with skin and evident only on x-ray or other imaging examination. Spina bifida cystica is a more severe form, with cyst-like protrusions. In meningocele, the meninges protrude to the outside of the body, and in myelomeningocele (or meningomyelocele), both the spinal cord and meninges protrude (Figure 10-14A and B). The etiology of neural tube defects is unknown. Defects originate in the early weeks of pregnancy as the spinal cord and vertebrae develop. Prenatal diagnosis is helped by imaging methods and testing maternal blood samples for alpha-fetoprotein.


FIGURE 10-14 A, Spina bifida (neural tube defects). B, Spina bifida cystica with myelomeningocele.

Degenerative, Movement, and Seizure Disorders


Alzheimer disease (AD) (Alzheimer's)

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)



Brain disorder marked by gradual and progressive mental deterioration (dementia), personality changes, and impairment of daily functioning. Characteristics of AD include confusion, memory failure, disorientation, restlessness, and speech disturbances. Anxiety, depression, and emotional disturbances can occur as well. The disease sometimes begins in middle life with slight defects in memory and behavior, but can worsen after the age of 70. On autopsy there is frequently atrophy of the cerebral cortex and widening of the cerebral sulci, especially in the frontal and temporal regions (Figure 10-15A and B). Microscopic examination shows senile plaques resulting from degeneration of neurons and neurofibrillary tangles (bundles of fibrils in the cytoplasm of a neuron) in the cerebral cortex. Deposits of amyloid (a protein) occur in neurofibrillary tangles, senile plaques, and blood vessels. The cause of AD remains unknown, although genetic factors may play a role. A mutation on chromosome 14 has been linked to familial cases. There is as yet no effective treatment. Degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem. ALS manifests in adulthood. Signs and symptoms are weakness and atrophy of muscles in the hands, forearms, and legs; difficulty in swallowing and talking and dyspnea develop as the throat and respiratory muscles become affected. Etiology (cause) and cure for ALS both are unknown. A famous baseball player, Lou Gehrig, became a victim of this disease in the mid-1900s, so the condition became known as Lou Gehrig disease. Chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizure activity. Seizures are abnormal, sudden discharges of electrical activity within the brain. Seizures often are symptoms of underlying brain pathologic conditions, such as brain tumors, meningitis, vascular disease, or scar tissue from a head injury. Tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal or ictal events) are characterized by a sudden loss of consciousness, falling down, and then tonic contractions (stiffening of muscles) followed by clonic contractions (twitching and jerking movements of the limbs). These convulsions often are preceded by an aura, which is a peculiar sensation experienced by the affected person before onset of a seizure. Dizziness, numbness, and visual or olfactory (sense of smell) disturbances are examples of an aura. Absence seizures are a form of seizure consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness of the person's surroundings. These include petit mal seizures in children. Drug therapy (anticonvulsants) is used for control of epileptic seizures. After seizures, there may be neurologic symptoms such as weakness called postictal events. In temporal lobe epilepsy, seizures begin in the temporal lobe (on each side of the brain near the ears) of the brain. The most common type of seizure is a complex partial seizure. Complex means impaired consciousness and partial indicates not generalized. Commonly these patients have seizures that cause them to pause in whatever they are doing, become confused, and have memory problems. The term epilepsy comes from the Greek epilepsis, meaning a laying hold of. The Greeks thought a victim of a seizure was laid hold of by some mysterious force. The word ictal originates from the Latin ictus, meaning a blow or a stroke. Hereditary disorder marked by degenerative changes in the


disease (Huntington's)

multiple sclerosis (MS)

myasthenia gravis (MG)


Parkinson disease (Parkinson's)

cerebrum leading to abrupt involuntary movements and mental deterioration. In this genetic condition, symptoms typically begin in adulthood and include personality changes, along with choreic (meaning dance-like) movements (uncontrollable, irregular jerking movements of the arms and legs and facial grimacing). It is also known as Huntington chorea. The genetic defect in patients with Huntington disease is located on chromosome 4. Patients can be tested for the gene; however, no cure exists, and management is symptomatic. Destruction of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS and its replacement by plaques of sclerotic (hard) tissue. One of the leading causes of neurologic disability in persons 20 to 40 years of age, MS is a chronic disease often marked by long periods of stability (remission) and worsening (relapse). Demyelination (loss of myelin insulation) prevents the conduction of nerve impulses through the axon. See Figure 10-16A. Demyelination causes paresthesias, muscle weakness, unsteady gait (manner of walking), and paralysis. There may be visual (blurred and double vision) and speech disturbances as well. Areas of scarred myelin (plaques) can be seen on MRI scans of the brain (Figure 10-16B). Etiology is unknown but probably involves an autoimmune disease of lymphocytes reacting against myelin. There are now many helpful disease-modifying drugs for treating MS. These drugs affect either the inflammation or the immunological abnormalities in the CNS associated with this illness. Autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles. MG is a chronic autoimmune disorder. Antibodies block the ability of acetylcholine (neurotransmi er) to transmit the nervous impulse from nerve to muscle cell. Onset of symptoms usually is gradual. Brainstem signs are prominent and include ptosis of the upper eyelid, double vision (diplopia), and facial weakness. Respiratory paralysis is the main clinical concern. Therapy to reverse symptoms includes anticholinesterase drugs, which inhibit the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine. Immunosuppressive therapy is used, including medications such as corticosteroids (prednisone) and other immunosuppressive drugs. Thymectomy is also a method of treatment and is beneficial to many patients. Paralysis (partial or complete loss of motor function). Cerebral palsy is partial paralysis and lack of muscular coordination caused by loss of oxygen (hypoxia) or blood flow to the cerebrum during pregnancy or in the perinatal period. Bell palsy (or Bell's palsy) (Figure 10-17) is paralysis on one side of the face. The likely cause is a viral infection, and therapy is directed against the virus (antiviral drugs) and nerve swelling (corticosteriods). Degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia, occurring in later life and leading to tremors, weakness of muscles, and slowness of movement. This slowly progressive condition is caused by a deficiency of dopamine, a neurotransmi er made by cells in the basal ganglia (see Figure 10-9). Motor disturbances include stooped posture, shuffling gait, and muscle stiffness (rigidity). Other signs are a typical “pillrolling” tremor of hands and a characteristic mask-like lack of facial expression. See Figure 10-18. Therapy with drugs such as levodopa plus carbidopa (Sinemet) to increase dopamine levels in the brain is palliative (relieving symptoms


Toure e syndrome (Toure e's)

but not curative). Many patients may have clinical features of Parkinson's (parkinsonism) and yet not have the disease itself. They would not benefit from antiparkinsonian medication. Some patients with Parkinson's may benefit from stimulation by electrodes placed surgically in the brain. Implantation of fetal brain tissue containing dopamine-producing cells is an experimental treatment but has produced uncertain results. Involuntary spasmodic, twitching movements; uncontrollable vocal sounds; and inappropriate words. These involuntary movements, usually beginning with twitching of the eyelid and muscles of the face accompanied by verbal outbursts, are called tics. Although the cause of Toure e syndrome is not known, it is associated with either an excess of dopamine or a hypersensitivity to dopamine. Psychological problems do not cause Toure e syndrome, but physicians have had some success in treating it with the antipsychotic drug haloperidol (Haldol), antidepressants, and mood stabilizers.

FIGURE 10-15 A, Alzheimer disease. Generalized loss of brain parenchyma (neuronal tissue) results in narrowing of the cerebral gyri and widening of the sulci. B, Cross-sectional comparison of a normal brain and a brain from a person with Alzheimer disease.


FIGURE 10-16 Multiple sclerosis. A, Demyelination of a nerve cell. B, This MRI scan shows multiple abnormal white areas that correspond to MS plaques (arrows). The plaques are scar tissue that forms when myelin sheaths are destroyed.

FIGURE 10-17 A, Bell palsy. Notice the paralysis on the left side of this man's face: The eyelid does not close properly, the forehead is not wrinkled as would be expected, and there is clear paralysis of the lower face. B, The palsy spontaneously resolved after 6 months.


FIGURE 10-18 Primary symptoms of Parkinson disease are tremors in hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face; rigidity or stiffness of limbs and trunk; bradykinesia (shuffling gait), stooped posture, and masklike facies.

Epilepsy and Seizures

Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which at least two or more seizures appear spontaneously and recurrently. Having a single seizure does not mean that the affected person has epilepsy.

Infectious Disorders


herpes zoster (shingles)


human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy

Viral infection affecting peripheral nerves. Blisters and pain spread along peripheral nerves (see Figure 1019A) and are caused by inflammation due to a herpesvirus (herpes zoster), the same virus that causes chickenpox (varicella). Reactivation of the chickenpox virus (herpes varicella-zoster), which remains in the body after the person had chickenpox, occurs. Painful blisters follow the underlying route of cranial or spinal nerves Shingrix is a vaccine to prevent shingles. It is recommended for people 50 years of age and older. Inflammation of the meninges; leptomeningitis. This condition can be caused by bacteria (pyogenic meningitis) or viruses (aseptic or viral meningitis). Signs and symptoms are fever and signs of meningeal irritation, such as headache, photophobia (sensitivity to light), and a stiff neck. Lumbar punctures are performed to examine CSF. Physicians use antibiotics to treat the more serious pyogenic form, and antivirals for the viral form. Brain disease and dementia occurring with AIDS. Many patients with AIDS develop neurologic dysfunction. In addition to encephalitis and dementia (loss of mental functioning), some patients develop brain tumors and other infections.

FIGURE 10-19 A, Herpes zoster (shingles) in a typical location around the trunk of the body. Zoster in ancient Greek means belt or girdle. B, Glioblastoma as seen on MRI.

Neoplastic Disorders


brain tumor

Abnormal growth of brain tissue and meninges. Most primary brain tumors arise from glial cells (gliomas) or the meninges (meningiomas). Types of gliomas include astrocytoma (Figure 10-19B), oligodendroglioma, and ependymoma. The most malignant form of astrocytoma is glioblastoma multiforme (-blast means immature) (see Figure 10-19B). Tumors can cause swelling (cerebral edema) and hydrocephalus. If CSF pressure is increased, swelling also may occur near the optic nerve (at the back of the eye). Other symptoms include severe headache and new seizures. Gliomas at times can be removed surgically. Brain tumors are also treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Steroids are used to reduce cerebral edema. Meningiomas usually are benign and surrounded by a capsule, but they may cause compression and distortion of the brain. Tumors in the brain also may be single or multiple metastatic growths. Most arise from the lung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney, and gastrointestinal tract and spread to the brain.

Traumatic Disorders cerebral concussion

cerebral contusion

Type of traumatic brain injury caused by a blow to the head. There is usually no evidence of structural damage to brain tissue, and loss of consciousness may not occur. Rest is very important after a concussion because it allows the brain to heal. Doctors commonly recommend avoiding demanding mental and physical activities until symptoms have fully resolved. Bruising of brain tissue resulting from direct trauma to the head. A cerebral contusion may be associated with edema and an increase in intracranial pressure. A skull fracture may be present. Subdural and epidural hematomas occur (see Figure 10-12), leading to permanent brain injury with abnormalities such as altered memory or speech as well as development of epilepsy.

Vascular Disorders


cerebrovascular accident (CVA)


Disruption in the normal blood supply to the brain; stroke. This condition, also known as a cerebral infarction, is the result of impaired oxygen supply to the brain. There are three types of strokes (Figure 10-20): 1. Thrombotic—blood clot (thrombus) in the arteries leading to the brain, resulting in occlusion (blocking) of the vessel. Atherosclerosis leads to this common type of stroke as blood vessels become blocked over time. Before total occlusion occurs, a patient may experience symptoms that point to the gradual occlusion of blood vessels. These short episodes of neurologic dysfunction are known as transient ischemic a acks (TIAs). 2. Embolic—an embolus (a dislodged thrombus) travels to cerebral arteries and occludes a vessel. This type of stroke occurs very suddenly. 3. Hemorrhagic—a cerebral artery breaks and bleeding occurs. This type of stroke can be fatal and results from advancing age, atherosclerosis, or high blood pressure, all of which result in degeneration of cerebral blood vessels. With small hemorrhages, the body reabsorbs the blood and the patient makes good recovery with only slight disability. In a younger patient, cerebral hemorrhage usually is caused by mechanical injury associated with skull fracture or rupture of an arterial aneurysm (weakened area in the vessel wall that balloons and may eventually burst). See Figure 10-21. The major risk factors for stroke are hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and heart disease. Other risk factors include obesity, substance abuse (cocaine), and elevated cholesterol levels. Thrombotic strokes are treated with antiplatelet or anticoagulant (clot-dissolving) therapy. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) may be started shortly after the onset of a stroke. Surgical intervention with carotid endarterectomy (removal of the atherosclerotic plaque along with the inner lining of the affected carotid artery) also is possible. Severe, recurring, unilateral, vascular headache. A migraine may be associated with an aura (peculiar sensations that precede the onset of illness). Symptoms of aura are temporary visual and sensory disturbances, including flashes of light and zigzag lines. Sensitivity to sound (phonophobia) and light (photophobia) are associated with the migraine itself. The etiology of pain in migraines is not fully established, but there are clearly changes in cerebral blood vessels. Treatment to prevent a migraine a ack includes medications such as sumatriptan succinate (Imitrex) that target serotonin receptors on blood vessels and nerves. Drugs of this type reduce inflammation and restrict dilation of blood vessels.


FIGURE 10-20 Three types of strokes: embolic, hemorrhagic, and thrombotic.

FIGURE 10-21 Cerebral aneurysm.


Study Section

The following list reviews the new terms used in the Pathology section. Practice spelling each term and know its meaning. absence seizure aneurysm

Form of seizure consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness of surroundings. Enlarged, weakened area in an arterial wall, which may rupture, leading to hemorrhage and CVA (stroke). astrocytoma Malignant brain tumor of astrocytes (glial brain cells). aura Peculiar symptom or sensation occurring before the onset (prodromal) of an a ack of migraine or an epileptic seizure. dementia Mental decline and deterioration. demyelination Destruction of myelin on axons of neurons (as in multiple sclerosis). dopamine CNS neurotransmi er, deficient in patient with Parkinson disease. embolus Clot of material that travels through the bloodstream and suddenly blocks a vessel. gait Manner of walking. ictal event Pertaining to a sudden, acute onset, as with the convulsions of an epileptic seizure. occlusion Blockage. palliative Relieving symptoms but not curing them. thymectomy Removal of the thymus gland (a lymphocyte-producing gland in the chest); used as treatment for myasthenia gravis. TIA Transient ischemic a ack. TIAs can occur with all three types of strokes: thrombolytic, embolic, and even hemorrhagic (if minor.) They are characterized by a limited time course of neurologic deficits. tic Involuntary movement of a small group of muscles, as of the face; characteristic of Toure e syndrome. tonic-clonic Major (grand mal) convulsive seizure marked by sudden loss of seizure consciousness, stiffening of muscles, and twitching and jerking movements.


Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures Laboratory Tests cerebrospinal fluid analysis

Samples of CSF are examined. CSF analysis measures protein, glucose, and red (RBC) and white (WBC) blood cells as well as other chemical contents of the CSF. CSF analysis also can detect tumor cells (by cytology), bacteria, and viruses. These studies are used to diagnose infection, tumors, or multiple sclerosis.

Clinical Procedures X-Ray Tests cerebral angiography

computed tomography (CT) of the brain

X-ray imaging of the arterial blood vessels in the brain after injection of contrast material. Contrast is injected into the femoral artery (in the thigh), and x-ray motion pictures are taken. These images diagnose vascular disease (aneurysm, occlusion, hemorrhage) in the brain. Computerized x-ray technique that generates multiple images of the brain and spinal cord. Contrast material may be injected intravenously to highlight abnormalities. The contrast leaks through the blood-brain barrier from blood vessels into the brain tissue and shows tumors, aneurysms, bleeding, brain injury, skull fractures, and blood clots. Operations are performed using the CT scan as a local road map. CT scans also are particularly useful for visualizing blood and bone.

Magnetic Resonance Techniques magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Magnetic field and pulses of radiowave energy create images of the brain and spinal cord. MRI is be er than CT at evaluation of brain parenchyma. It is excellent for viewing brain damage related to infection, inflammation or tumors. It also is used to look for causes of headaches, to help diagnose a stroke, and to detect bleeding problems and head injury. Contrast material may be used to enhance images. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) produces images of blood vessels using magnetic resonance techniques.

Radionuclide Studies


positron emission tomography (PET) scan

Radioactive glucose is injected and then detected in the brain to image the metabolic activity of cells. PET scans provide valuable information about the function of brain tissue in patients, to detect malignancy and to evaluate brain abnormalities in Alzheimer disease, stroke, schizophrenia, and epilepsy (Figure 10-22). Combined PET-CT scanners provide images that pinpoint the location of abnormal metabolic activity within the brain.

FIGURE 10-22 PET scans. A, Normal brain. B, Brain affected by Alzheimer disease. Red and yellow areas indicate high neural activity. Blue and purple indicate low neural activity.

Ultrasound Examination Doppler ultrasound studies

(Video) How to Study 1 Day Before Exam

Sound waves detect blood flow in the carotid and intracranial arteries. The carotid artery carries blood to the brain. These studies detect occlusion in blood vessels.

Other Procedures


electroencephalography (EEG) lumbar puncture (LP)

stereotactic radiosurgery

Recording of the electrical activity of the brain. EEG demonstrates seizure activity resulting from brain tumors, other diseases, and injury to the brain. It can also help define diffuse cortical dysfunction (encephalopathies). CSF is withdrawn from between two lumbar vertebrae for analysis (Figure 10-23). A device to measure the pressure of CSF may be a ached to the end of the needle after it has been inserted. Injection of intrathecal medicines may be administered as well. Some patients experience headache after LP. An informal name for this procedure is “spinal tap.” Use of a specialized instrument to locate and treat targets in the brain. The stereotactic instrument is fixed onto the skull and guides the insertion of a needle by three-dimensional measurement. A Gamma Knife (high-energy radiation beam) is used to treat deep and often inaccessible intracranial brain tumors and abnormal blood vessel masses (arteriovenous malformations) without surgical incision. Proton stereotactic radiosurgery (PSRS) delivers a uniform dose of proton radiation to a target and spares surrounding normal tissue (Figure 10-24 A and B).

FIGURE 10-23 Lumbar puncture. The patient lies laterally, with the knees drawn up to the abdomen and the chin brought down to the chest. This position increases the spaces between the vertebrae. The lumbar puncture needle is inserted between the third and fourth (or the fourth and fifth) lumbar vertebrae and then is advanced to enter the subarachnoid space.


FIGURE 10-24 A, Patient in position on stereotactic proton unit, ready to take an alignment x-ray. B, Stereotactic frame holds the patient's head in place for treatment with proton beam radiosurgery. (Courtesy Department of Radiation Therapy, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.)




Alzheimer disease alpha-fetoprotein; elevated levels in amniotic fluid and maternal blood are associated with congenital malformations of the nervous system, such as anencephaly and spina bifida ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis—Lou Gehrig disease AVM arteriovenous malformation; congenital tangle of arteries and veins in the cerebrum BBB blood-brain barrier CNS central nervous system CSF cerebrospinal fluid CTE chronic traumatic encephalopathy CVA cerebrovascular accident EEG electroencephalography GABA gamma-aminobutyric acid (neurotransmi er) ICP intracranial pressure (normal pressure is 5 to 15 mm Hg) LP lumbar puncture MAC monitored anesthetic care MG myasthenia gravis MRA magnetic resonance angiography MRI magnetic resonance imaging MS multiple sclerosis hemiparesis P PCA patient-controlled analgesia PET positron emission tomography PNS peripheral nervous system PSRS proton stereotactic radiosurgery Sz seizure TBI traumatic brain injury TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation; technique using a ba ery-powered device to relieve acute and chronic pain TIA transient ischemic a ack; temporary interference with the blood supply to the brain TLE temporal lobe epilepsy tPA tissue plasminogen activator; a clot-dissolving drug used as therapy for stroke

Practical Applications Case Study: A Patient's Account of Ulnar Nerve Neuropathy I am definitely not one of those ambidextrous people. I am a true righty, so the “experiment” of making me a lefty out of necessity didn't go so well. Over the past decade, I had slowly lost sensation in my right pinky and a fair amount of function in my right hand. You might think that I should have taken care of treating it when it initially presented itself with an electric shock down my arm from hi ing my “funny bone” over and over. The “funny bone,” of course, is not a bone at all. It is the ulnar nerve, which runs across the medial and posterior aspect of


the elbow as it travels to the hand. See Figure 10-25. After multiple injuries to my elbow, my pinky just became useless and numb.

FIGURE 10-25 Pathway of ulnar nerve running behind the elbow joint (median epicondyle of the humerus) and toward the hand.

As a physician, I realized that my ulnar nerve had become entrapped and scarred from repeated injury. Over the years, I tolerated this situation because other nerves had remained unaffected, providing sensation and function to my hand. It was only when I saw myself in a video (my hand looked like a claw) that I recognized how compromised the function of the hand had become. During an exam by an orthopedic elbow specialist, testing revealed poor sensation and atrophy of my right hand muscles. My grip strength was also affected and was now actually stronger on my left rather than my right. Surgery was scheduled immediately with hopes of halting atrophy and clawing of my hand and regaining sensation in my pinky. My surgeon performed an Eaton procedure. He moved the scarred ulnar nerve from its vulnerable path and placed sutures to hold the ulnar nerve in its new place under the fascia (connective tissue) of my elbow. He created a li le “curtain” with the fascia to keep the nerve from moving again. This ultimately allowed the nerve to take a “shortcut” on the way to my hand while taking tension off the injured nerve and keeping it away from the bony prominence of the elbow.


When I awoke from the anesthesia, I could immediately tell that something was different about my hand. I had tingling in my previously numb fingers and soon had a warm sensation and even sweating in my palm. These findings demonstrated the return of the autonomic function of the nerve, something that had also been affected by the long-standing injury. My arm was in a sling until my post-op appointment. Figure 10-26 shows my arm and scar just after the 2-week postoperative check. A compression sleeve prevented swelling and reminded me not to use my arm too much.

FIGURE 10-26 Post-operative scar from ulnar nerve surgery.

At 3 months postsurgery I was back to my usual routine of typing, writing, and using my hand. Sensation gradually returned to my pinky, and the function in my hand improved as well but very slowly. Injured nerves can regenerate as long as they are not cut or completely crushed. The nerve heals from proximal to distal (starting at the elbow and working toward the tip of the finger). Doctors quote the statistic of a millimeter a day for nerve regeneration, or roughly an inch per month. The feeling in my pinky is still not normal, but it is improving, and it's encouraging to notice the progress. The muscles in my hand are also ge ing stronger. The true test will be to check my grip strength when I return for my 6-month follow-up appointment.


I am grateful for the brisk action and skilled surgery that was possible before my ulnar nerve was permanently damaged. I am also thankful that the body can heal itself when provided the appropriate help. I had become so used to the numb feeling that I had no idea of what I had been missing! Answers to the following case report and case study questions are on page 366.

Case Report: Cerebral Infarction This patient was admi ed on January 14 with a history of progressive right hemiparesis for the previous 1 to 2 months; fluctuating numbness of the right arm, thorax, and bu ocks; jerking of the right leg; periods of speech arrest; diminished comprehension in reading; and recent development of a hemiplegic gait. Given the gradually progressive development of neurological difficulties, he was suspected of having a left parietal tumor. [The parietal lobes of the cerebrum are on either side under the roof of the skull.] Examinations done before hospitalization included skull films, EEG, and CSF analysis, which were all normal. After admission, an MRI was abnormal in the left parietal region, as was the EEG. An MRA study to assess cerebral blood vessels was a empted, but the patient became progressively more restless and agitated after sedation, so the procedure was stopped. During the recovery phase from the sedation, the patient was alternately somnolent [sleepy] and violent, but it was later apparent that he had developed almost a complete aphasia and right hemiplegia. In the next few days, he became more alert, although he remained dysarthric [from the Greek arthroun, to u er distinctly] and hemiplegic. MRI and MRA with the patient under general anesthesia on January 19 showed complete occlusion of the left internal carotid artery with cross-filling of the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries from the right internal carotid circulation. Final diagnosis: Left CVA caused by left internal carotid artery occlusion. [Figure 10-27 shows the common carotid arteries and their branches within the head and brain.]


FIGURE 10-27 Common carotid arteries and their branches.

Questions about the Case Report 1. The patient was admi ed with a history of: a. Right-sided paralysis caused by a previous stroke b. Paralysis on the left side of his body c. Increasing paresis on the right side of his body 2. The patient also had experienced periods of: a. Aphasia and dyslexia b. Dysplastic gait c. Apraxia and aphasia 3. After his admission to the hospital, where did the MRI show an abnormality? a. Right posterior region of the brain b. Left and right sides of the brain c. Left side of the brain 4. What test determined the final diagnosis? a. EEG for both sides of the brain b. CSF analysis and cerebral angiography c. MRI and MRA 5. What was the final diagnosis? a. Stroke; ischemic injury to tissue in the left cerebrum caused by blockage of an artery b. Cross-filling of blood vessels from the left to the right side of the brain c. Cerebral palsy on the left side of the brain with cross-filling of two cerebral arteries

Pain Medications


Pain is a major symptom in many medical conditions. Both the area of injury and how the brain deals with it affect the sensations of pain. Medications to relieve pain (analgesics) act in different ways: • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) relieve pain by stopping inflammation. Examples are nonprescription drugs such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, Excedrin), aspirin (Anacin, Ascriptin, Bufferin), and naproxen (Aleve). Other NSAIDs that require a prescription are Toradol (ketorolac) and Feldene (piroxicam). • Acetaminophen (Tylenol) relieves fever and mild pain but is not an anti-inflammatory drug. It is not clear how acetaminophen works. • Opioids (narcotics) relieve pain by affecting receptors in the brain to control the perception of pain. Examples are morphine, codeine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone. Combinations of narcotics and acetaminophen are Vicodin (acetaminophen with hydrocodone) and Percocet (acetaminophen with oxycodone). Given the addicting potential for this class of drugs, opioids are, in general, prescribed only in limited quantities and used sparingly.

Neuropathic Pain with a Case Study Neuropathic pain is a unique type of pain that accompanies illnesses and trauma. Patients may describe this pain as: • radiating or spreading • an electric shock–like sensation • hot or burning • shooting, piercing, darting, or stabbing (lancinating) • abnormal skin sensations (paresthesias): numbness, tingling, “pins and needles” • pain to light touch • extreme sensitivity to ordinary, innocuous stimuli • often independent of movement Case Study: A 68-year-old man awoke one morning with severe pain in his right shoulder. On turning his head or lifting his shoulder, he experienced extreme discomfort and lancinating pain. The pain was a sharp, burning pain that moved across his shoulder and down into his right arm. Finding a comfortable position lying down was difficult. A cervical MRI study showed no bone abnormalities, whereas a


neurologic examination provided evidence of damage to multiple peripheral nerves. He developed weakness of his shoulder muscles and was unable to lift his right arm. Final diagnosis was brachial plexus neuritis [also known as Parsonage-Turner syndrome]. The cause of the condition is unknown, but it may be related to a flu vaccination he received 2 weeks previously. Treatment consisted of pain medication and physical therapy to rehabilitate weakened muscles in his arm and shoulder. Questions about the Case Study 1. The cervical MRI study showed: a. Damage to the vertebrae in the neck b. Nerve entrapment in the upper spine c. Damage to multiple peripheral nerves d. Normal vertebrae in the neck 2. Lancinating pain is: a. Pain to light touch b. Characterized by paresthesia c. Stabbing, piercing, shooting d. Characterized by numbness and tingling 3. The patient's diagnosis is best described as: a. Inflammation of cervical nerve roots affecting his shoulder and arm b. Inflammation of a network of nerves in his shoulder that control muscles in his arm c. First stages of a heart a ack, marked by radiating arm pain d. Autoimmune disorder affecting voluntary muscles in his shoulder and arm

In Person Sciatica This is a first-person account of a woman in her mid-forties living with sciatica.Twelve years ago, I wouldn't have believed that reaching into a laundry basket could change my life. But in January 2009, it did. I had go en my first-ever backache a few days earlier, after a long car trip. A Google search instructed me to apply ice for the first 48 hours and then heat if the pain persisted. My husband took over the kids' school-day routine while I recuperated. That third morning, I could hear my younger son rifling around for his favorite sweatshirt; I knew it was at the foot of my bed, waiting to be sorted. In the instant it took


y g to reach into the laundry basket for that sweatshirt, my back went from dull ache to a crippling pain that radiated all the way down my left leg to the tip of my left foot. An MRI scan confirmed the diagnosis: spinal disc herniation, protruding onto the nerve roots affecting the sciatic nerve and causing my leg pain. With surgery presented as a last resort, I embarked on a crash course of physical therapy, NSAIDs, oral steroids, muscle relaxants, epidural steroid injections, and lots and lots of patience. I saw gradual improvement for about three months, to the point that I was able to resume a modified daily routine. Then, the improvement stopped. Conventional treatment had run its course. I was at the “last resort” stage. So I “cried uncle” and requested a surgical consult. The surgeon ordered a follow-up MRI, which showed good news: There had been much improvement to the herniation. To my surprise, the MRI also revealed that nerve roots supplying the sciatic nerve were now free and clear of impingement. If the nerve was back to normal, why was I still in such pain? Because, it turns out, the nerve was injured by its ordeal. Not uncommon, I was reassured. This development took the surgical option off the table. After all, the goal of the surgery would have been to relieve the affected nerve from compression by the protruding disc. In my case, even the relieved nerve was causing problems, and that meant not surgery, but more patience. The wait began: to see whether the nerve would repair itself—I was told that could take years—or worse, whether I was facing permanent nerve damage. Three years later the verdict seems clear: my sciatic nerve sustained what appears to be permanent damage. To this day, I have not regained full use of my left leg. Along with chronic, dull pain, there are also paresthesias—simultaneous burning and numbness along the path of the sciatic nerve accompanied by constant involuntary muscle spasms. I've lost my Achilles jerk reflex, and so unresponsive is my left foot that I can't feel it hit the ground when I'm walking. In those critical first months, I thought my options were either resolving the herniation with surgery or resolving it without surgery. It never once occurred to me that, four years later, the injury would remain unresolved. There's always a new treatment, specialist, or drug that shows promise or that really worked for a friend of a friend. Until recently, it felt like I was giving up hope if I didn't pursue each lead. Now I'm focusing more on adapting to my new circumstances than on finding a “cure.” I don't want my whole life to revolve around sciatica. I found a medication that reduces the chronic pain to more of an annoyance than a crisis (with occasional flare-ups).


I missed my old life and wanted it back. At the risk of sounding like a late-night pharmaceutical ad, I'm not giving up; I'm going on. AUTHOR'S NOTE Everyone's experience with sciatica is unique. I have also experienced the condition myself, resulting from an L4-L5 disk herniation. After 7 months of pain radiating down my right leg, I had microdiskectomy surgery, which fortunately alleviated my pain and sciatica.


Exercises Remember to check your answers carefully with the Answers to Exercises, page 364.

A Match the listed neurologic structures with the descriptions/definitions that follow. astrocyte axon cauda equina cerebral cortex dendrite meninges myelin sheath neuron oligodendroglial cell plexus 1. microscopic fiber leading from the cell body that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell _________________________ 2. large, interlacing network of nerves _________________________ 3. three protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord _________________________ 4. microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse _________________________ 5. outer region of the largest part of the brain; composed of gray ma er _______________________


6. glial cell that transports water and salts between capillaries and nerve cells ___________________ 7. glial cell that produces myelin _________________________ 8. a nerve cell that transmits a nerve impulse _________________________ 9. collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord at the level of the second lumbar vertebra _________________________ 10. fa y tissue that surrounds the axon of a nerve cell _________________________ B Give the meanings of the following terms. 1. dura mater _________________________ 2. central nervous system _________________________ 3. peripheral nervous system _________________________ 4. arachnoid membrane _________________________ 5. hypothalamus _________________________ 6. synapse _________________________ 7. sympathetic nerves _________________________ 8. medulla oblongata ________________________ 9. pons _________________________ 10. cerebellum _________________________ 11. thalamus _________________________ 12. ventricles of the brain _________________________ 13. brainstem _________________________ 14. cerebrum _________________________ 15. ganglion _________________________


C Match the following terms with the meanings or associated terms below. glial cells gyri motor nerves neurotransmi er parenchymal cell pia mater sensory nerves subarachnoid space sulci 1. innermost meningeal membrane _____________________________ 2. carry messages away from (efferent) the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands _____________________________ 3. carry messages toward (afferent) the brain and spinal cord from receptors ______________________ 4. grooves in the cerebral cortex _____________________________ 5. contains cerebrospinal fluid _____________________________ 6. elevations in the cerebral cortex _____________________________ 7. chemical that is released at the end of a nerve cell and stimulates or inhibits another cell (example: acetylcholine) _____________________________ 8. essential cell of the nervous system; a neuron _____________________________


9. connective and supportive (stromal) tissue _____________________________ D Circle the correct boldface term for the given definition. 1. disease of the brain (encephalopathy, myelopathy) 2. part of the brain that controls muscular coordination and balance (cerebrum, cerebellum) 3. collection of blood above the dura mater (subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma) 4. inflammation of the pia and arachnoid membranes (leptomeningitis, causalgia) 5. condition of absence of a brain (hypalgesia, anencephaly) 6. inflammation of the gray ma er of the spinal cord (poliomyelitis, polyneuritis) 7. pertaining to the membranes around the brain and spinal cord (cerebellopontine, meningeal) 8. disease of nerve roots (of spinal nerves) (neuropathy, radiculopathy) 9. hernia of the spinal cord and meninges (myelomeningocele, meningioma) 10. pertaining to the tenth cranial nerve (thalamic, vagal) E Give the meanings of the following terms. 1. cerebral cortex _____________________________________________ ________________________ 2. intrathecal _____________________________________________ ________________________


3. polyneuritis _____________________________________________ ________________________ 4. thalamic _____________________________________________ ________________________ 5. myelopathy _____________________________________________ ________________________ 6. meningioma _____________________________________________ ________________________ 7. glioma _____________________________________________ _______________________ 8. subdural hematoma _____________________________________________ ____________________ F Match the listed neurologic symptoms with the definitions/descriptions that follow. aphasia ataxia bradykinesia causalgia dyslexia hemiparesis hyperesthesia motor apraxia narcolepsy neurasthenia


paraplegia syncope 1. reading disorder _______________________________ 2. condition of decreased coordination _______________________________ 3. condition of slow movement _______________________________ 4. condition of increased sensation _______________________________ 5. seizure of sleep; uncontrollable compulsion to sleep _______________________________ 6. difficulty with speech _______________________________ 7. inability to perform a task _______________________________ 8. weakness in the right or left half of the body _______________________________ 9. severe burning pain due to nerve injury _______________________________ 10. paralysis in the lower part of the body _______________________________ 11. fainting _______________________________ 12. nervous exhaustion (lack of strength) and fatigue _______________________________ G Give the meanings of the following terms. 1. analgesia _____________________________________________ ___________________________


2. motor aphasia _____________________________________________ _______________________ 3. paresis _____________________________________________ ____________________________ 4. quadriplegia _____________________________________________ _________________________ 5. asthenia _____________________________________________ _____________________________ 6. comatose _____________________________________________ __________________________ 7. paresthesia _____________________________________________ __________________________ 8. hyperkinesis _____________________________________________ _________________________ 9. anesthesia _____________________________________________ __________________________ 10. causalgia _____________________________________________ ___________________________ 11. akinetic _____________________________________________ _____________________________


12. hypalgesia _____________________________________________ ___________________________ 13. dyskinesia _____________________________________________ ___________________________ 14. migraine _____________________________________________ ___________________________ H Match the listed neurologic pathology terms with the descriptions that follow. The terms in boldface are clues! Alzheimer disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Bell palsy epilepsy Huntington disease hydrocephalus multiple sclerosis myasthenia gravis Parkinson disease myelomeningocele 1. Destruction of myelin sheath (demyelination) and its replacement by hard plaques: _______________________________ 2. Sudden, transient disturbances of brain function cause seizures: ___________________________ 3. The spinal column is imperfectly joined (a split in a vertebra occurs), and part of the meninges and


spinal cord can herniate out of the spinal cavity: _______________________________ 4. Atrophy of muscles and paralysis caused by damage to motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem: _______________________________ 5. Patient displays bizarre, abrupt, involuntary, dance-like movements, as well as decline in mental functions: _______________________________ 6. Cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the head (in the ventricles of the brain): _________________ 7. Loss of muscle strength due to the inability of a neurotransmi er (acetylcholine) to transmit impulses from nerve cells to muscle cells: _______________________________ 8. Degeneration of nerves in the basal ganglia occurring in later life, leading to tremors, shuffling gait, and muscle stiffness; dopamine (neurotransmi er) is deficient in the brain: _______________________________ 9. Deterioration of mental capacity (dementia); autopsy shows cerebral cortex atrophy, widening of cerebral sulci, and microscopic neurofibrillary tangles: _______________________________ 10. Unilateral facial paralysis: _______________________________ I Give the meanings of the following terms for abnormal conditions. 1. astrocytoma _____________________________________________ ________________________


2. pyogenic meningitis _____________________________________________ _________________ 3. Toure e syndrome _____________________________________________ ___________________ 4. cerebral contusion _____________________________________________ ___________________ 5. cerebrovascular accident _____________________________________________ ______________ 6. cerebral concussion _____________________________________________ _________________ 7. herpes zoster _____________________________________________ ________________________ 8. cerebral embolus _____________________________________________ ___________________ 9. cerebral thrombosis _____________________________________________ __________________ 10. cerebral hemorrhage _____________________________________________ _________________ 11. cerebral aneurysm _____________________________________________ ___________________


12. HIV encephalopathy _____________________________________________ __________________ J Match the term in Column I with the le er of its description or meaning in Column II. COLUMN I 1. ataxia 2. aura 3. transient ischemic a ack 4. tonic-clonic seizure 5. herpes zoster 6. palliative 7. dopamine 8. occlusion 9. absence seizure 10. glioblastoma multiforme

_______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

COLUMN II A. relieving, but not curing B. virus that causes chickenpox and shingles C. uncoordinated gait D. neurotransmi er E. peculiar sensation experienced by patient before onset of seizure F. malignant brain tumor of immature glial cells G. major epileptic seizure; ictal event H. blood flow to the brain stops for a brief period of time I. minor epileptic seizure J. blockage

K Describe what happens in the following two procedures. 1. MRI of the brain: _____________________________________________ ______________________ 2. stereotactic radiosurgery with Gamma Knife: ____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________ L Match these easily confused terms for neurologic pathology with the meanings/descriptions that follow. analgesia anesthesia aphasia apraxia ataxia


dyskinesia dyslexia hyperkinesia neurasthenia paresis paresthesia 1. lack of nerve strength _________________________ 2. inability to speak _________________________ 3. inability to perform purposeful actions _________________________ 4. condition of insensitivity to pain _________________________ 5. condition of loss of sensation _________________________ 6. sensations of tingling, numbness, or “pins and needles” _________________________ 7. lack of coordination _________________________ 8. excessive movement _________________________ 9. abnormal, involuntary, spasmodic movements _________________________ 10. developmental reading disorder _________________________ 11. partial paralysis _________________________ M Spell out the abbreviations in Column I, and then select the le er of the best association from Column II for each.


COLUMN I 1. EEG _______________ 2. PET ________________ 3. AFP ________________ 4. MS ________________ 5. MRI ________________ 6. LP _________________ 7. CVA ________________ 8. AD _________________ 9. TIA _________________ 10. CSF ________________

_______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

COLUMN II A. Gradually progressive dementia. B. Stroke; embolus, hemorrhage, and thrombosis are etiologic factors. C. Intrathecal medications can be administered through this procedure. D. This fluid is analyzed for abnormal blood cells, chemicals, and protein. E. Procedure to diagnose abnormal electrical activity in the brain. F. Neurologic symptoms and/or signs due to temporary interference of blood supply to the brain. G. High levels in amniotic fluid and maternal blood are associated with spina bifida. H. Diagnostic procedure that allows excellent visualization of soft tissue in the brain. I. Radioactive materials, such as glucose, are taken up by the brain, and images recorded. J. Destruction of the myelin sheath in the CNS occurs with plaques of hard scar tissue.


N Circle the boldface terms that complete the meanings of the sentences. 1. Maria had such severe headaches that she could find relief only with strong analgesics. Her condition of (spina bifida, migraine, epilepsy) was debilitating. 2. Paul was in a coma after his high-speed car accident. His physicians were concerned that he had suffered a (palsy, myelomeningocele, contusion and subdural hematoma) as a result of the accident. 3. Dick went to the emergency department complaining of dizziness, nausea, and headache. The physician, suspecting increased ICP, prescribed corticosteroids, and Dick's symptoms disappeared. They returned, however, when the steroids were discontinued. A/an (MRI study of the brain, electroencephalogram, CSF analysis) revealed a large brain lesion. It was removed


surgically and determined to be a/an (embolus, glioblastoma multiforme, migraine). 4. Dorothy felt weakness in her hand and numbness in her arm, and noticed blurred vision, all signs of (herpes zoster, meningitis, TIA). Her physician requested (myelography, MRA, lumbar puncture) to assess any damage to cerebral blood vessels and possible stroke. 5. When Bill noticed ptosis and muscle weakness in his face, he reported these symptoms to his doctor. The doctor diagnosed his condition as (Toure e syndrome, Huntington disease, myasthenia gravis) and prescribed (dopamine, anticonvulsants, anticholinesterase drugs), which relieved his symptoms. 6. To rule out bacterial (epilepsy, encephalomalacia, meningitis), Dr. Phillips, a pediatrician, requested that a/an (EEG, PET scan, LP) be performed on the febrile (feverish) child. 7. Eight-year-old Barry reversed his le ers and had difficulty learning to read and write words. His family physician diagnosed his problem as (aphasia, dyslexia, ataxia). 8. After his head hit the steering wheel during a recent automobile accident, Clark noticed (hemiparesis, paraplegia, hyperesthesia) on the left side of his body. A head CT scan revealed (narcolepsy, neurasthenia, subdural hematoma). 9. For her 35th birthday, Elizabeth's husband threw her a surprise party. She was so startled by the crowd that she experienced a weakness of muscles and loss of consciousness. Friends placed her on


her back in a horizontal position with her head low to improve blood flow to her brain. She soon recovered from her (myoneural, syncopal, hyperkinetic) episode. 10. Near his 65th birthday, Edward began having difficulty remembering recent events. Over the next 5 years, he developed (dyslexia, dementia, seizures) and was diagnosed with (multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, Alzheimer disease). 11. Elderly Mrs. Smith had been taking an antipsychotic drug for 5 years when she began exhibiting lip smacking and darting movements of her tongue. Her doctor described her condition as (radiculitis, tardive dyskinesia, hemiparesis) and discontinued her drug. The condition, acquired after use of the drug, would be considered (iatrogenic, congenital, ictal). O Complete the spelling of the following terms based on their meanings. 1. part of the brain that controls sleep, appetite, temperature, and secretions of the pituitary gland: hypo _____________________________________________ ___ 2. pertaining to fainting: syn _____________________________________________ ___ 3. abnormal tingling sensations: par __________________________________________ 4. slight paralysis: par _____________________________________________


________ 5. inflammation of a spinal nerve root: _____________________________________________ __ itis 6. inability to speak correctly: a _____________________________________________ _ 7. movements and behavior that are not purposeful: a ______________________________________ 8. lack of muscular coordination: a _____________________________________________ _________ 9. developmental reading disorder: dys _____________________________________________ ______ 10. excessive movement: hyper _____________________________________________ _____________ 11. paralysis in one half (right or left) of the body: __________________________________ plegia 12. paralysis in the lower half of the body: ________________________________________ plegia 13. paralysis in all four limbs: _____________________________________________ _____ plegia 14. nervous exhaustion and fatigue: neur __________________________________________


Answers to Exercises A 1. axon 2. plexus 3. meninges 4. dendrite 5. cerebral cortex 6. astrocyte 7. oligodendroglial cell 8. neuron 9. cauda equina 10. myelin sheath B 1. outermost meningeal layer surrounding the brain and spinal cord 2. brain and the spinal cord 3. nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves 4. middle meningeal membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord 5. part of the brain below the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland


6. space through which a nervous impulse is transmi ed from a nerve cell to another nerve cell or to a muscle or gland cell 7. autonomic nerves that influence body functions involuntarily in times of stress 8. part of the brain just above the spinal cord that controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels 9. part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the upper parts of the brain; connects these parts of the brain 10. posterior part of the brain that coordinates voluntary muscle movements 11. part of the brain below the cerebrum; relay center that conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum 12. canals in the interior of the brain that are filled with CSF 13. lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord (includes the pons and the medulla) 14. largest part of the brain; controls voluntary muscle movement, vision, speech, hearing, thought, memory 15. collection of nerve cell bodies outside the brain and spinal cord C 1. pia mater 2. motor nerves


3. sensory nerves 4. sulci 5. subarachnoid space 6. gyri 7. neurotransmi er 8. parenchymal cell 9. glial cells D 1. encephalopathy 2. cerebellum 3. epidural hematoma 4. leptomeningitis 5. anencephaly 6. poliomyelitis 7. meningeal 8. radiculopathy 9. myelomeningocele 10. vagal E 1. outer region of the cerebrum (contains gray ma er) 2. pertaining to within a sheath through the meninges and into the subarachnoid space 3. inflammation of many nerves


4. pertaining to the thalamus 5. disease of the spinal cord 6. tumor of the meninges 7. tumor of neuroglial cells (a brain tumor) 8. mass of blood below the dura mater (outermost meningeal membrane) F 1. dyslexia 2. ataxia 3. bradykinesia 4. hyperesthesia 5. narcolepsy 6. aphasia 7. motor apraxia 8. hemiparesis 9. causalgia 10. paraplegia 11. syncope 12. neurasthenia G 1. lack of sensitivity to pain 2. difficulty in speaking (patient cannot articulate words but can understand speech and knows what she or he wants to say)


3. weakness and partial loss of movement 4. paralysis in all four extremities (damage is to the cervical part of the spinal cord) 5. no strength (weakness) 6. pertaining to coma (loss of consciousness from which the patient cannot be aroused) 7. condition of abnormal sensations (prickling, tingling, burning) 8. excessive movement 9. condition of no sensation or nervous feeling 10. severe burning pain from injury to peripheral nerves 11. pertaining to without movement 12. diminished sensation to pain 13. impairment of the ability to perform voluntary movements 14. recurrent vascular headache with severe pain of unilateral onset and photophobia (sensitivity to light) H 1. multiple sclerosis 2. epilepsy 3. myelomeningocele 4. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 5. Huntington disease 6. hydrocephalus 7. myasthenia gravis


8. Parkinson disease 9. Alzheimer disease 10. Bell palsy I 1. tumor of neuroglial brain cells (astrocytes) 2. inflammation of the meninges (bacterial infection with pus formation) 3. involuntary spasmodic, twitching movements (tics), uncontrollable vocal sounds, and inappropriate words 4. bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head 5. disruption of the normal blood supply to the brain; stroke or cerebral infarction 6. traumatic brain injury caused by a blow to the head 7. neurologic condition caused by infection with herpes zoster virus; blisters form along the course of peripheral nerves 8. blockage of a blood vessel in the cerebrum caused by material from another part of the body that suddenly occludes the vessel 9. blockage of a blood vessel in the cerebrum caused by the formation of a clot within the vessel 10. collection of blood in the brain (can cause a stroke) 11. widening of a blood vessel (artery) in the cerebrum; the aneurysm can burst and lead to a CVA


12. brain disease (dementia and encephalitis) caused by infection with AIDS virus J 1. C 2. E 3. H 4. G 5. B 6. A 7. D 8. J 9. I 10. F K 1. use of magnetic waves to create an image (in frontal, transverse, or sagi al plane) of the brain 2. an instrument (stereotactic) is fixed onto the skull and locates a target by three-dimensional measurement; gamma radiation or proton beams are used to treat deep brain lesions L 1. neurasthenia 2. aphasia 3. apraxia


4. analgesia 5. anesthesia 6. paresthesia 7. ataxia 8. hyperkinesia 9. dyskinesia 10. dyslexia 11. paresis M 1. electroencephalography: E 2. positron emission tomography: I 3. alpha-fetoprotein: G 4. multiple sclerosis: J 5. magnetic resonance imaging: H 6. lumbar puncture: C 7. cerebrovascular accident: B 8. Alzheimer disease: A 9. transient ischemic a ack: F 10. cerebrospinal fluid: D N 1. migraine 2. contusion and subdural hematoma 3. MRI of the brain; glioblastoma multiforme


4. TIA; MRA 5. myasthenia gravis; anticholinesterase drugs 6. meningitis; LP 7. dyslexia 8. hemiparesis; subdural hematoma 9. syncopal 10. dementia; Alzheimer disease 11. tardive dyskinesia; iatrogenic O 1. hypothalamus 2. syncopal 3. paresthesias 4. paresis 5. radiculitis 6. aphasia 7. apraxia 8. ataxia 9. dyslexia 10. hyperkinesis 11. hemiplegia 12. paraplegia 13. quadriplegia 14. neurasthenia


Answers to Practical Applications Case Report: Cerebral Infarction

1. c 2. a 3. c 4. c 5. a Neuropathic Pain and Case Study

1. d 2. c 3. b Pronunciation of Terms

The terms you have learned in this chapter are presented here with their pronunciations. The meanings for all the terms are in the MiniDictionary beginning on page 897. You can also hear each term pronounced on the Evolve website (h p://

Vocabulary and Combining Forms and Terminology


TERM acetylcholine afferent nerves akinetic analgesia anencephaly anesthesia aphasia apraxia arachnoid membrane astrocyte ataxia autonomic nervous system axon blood-brain barrier bradykinesia brainstem cauda equina causalgia cell body central nervous system cephalgia cerebellar cerebellopontine cerebellum cerebral cortex cerebrospinal fluid cerebrum coma comatose cranial nerves dendrite dura mater dyskinesia dyslexia efferent nerves encephalitis encephalopathy ependymal cell epidural hematoma ganglion; pl. ganglia glial cell glioblastoma gyrus; pl. gyri hemiparesis hemiplegia hypalgesia hyperesthesia hyperkinesis hypothalamus intrathecal injection leptomeningitis medulla oblongata

PRONUNCIATION a-seh-til-KO-leen AH-fer-ent nervz a-kih-NET-ik ah-nal-JE-ze-ah an-en-SEH-fah-le an-es-THE-ze-ah ah-FA-ze-ah a-PRAK-se-ah ah-RAK-noyd MEM-brayn AS-tro-site a-TAK-se-ah aw-to-NOM-ik NER-vus SIS-tem AKS-on blud-BRAYN BAH-re-er bra-de-kih-NE-se-ah BRAYN-stem KAW-dah eh-KWI-nah kaw-ZAL-jah sel BOD-e SEN-tral NER-vus SIS-tem seh-FAL-jah seh-reh-BEL-ar seh-reh-bel-o-PON-teen seh-reh-BEL-um seh-RE-bral KOR-teks seh-re-bro-SPI-nal FLU-id seh-RE-brum KO-mah KO-mah-tohs KRA-ne-al nervz DEN-drite DUR-ah MAH-ter dis-kih-NE-ze-ah dis-LEK-se-ah EH-fer-ent nervz en-seh-fah-LI-tis en-seh-fah-LOP-ah-the eh-PEN-dih-mal sel ep-eh-DU-ral he-mah-TO-mah GANG-le-on; GANG-le-ah GLE-al sel gli-o-blah-STO-mah JI-rus; JI-re hem-e-pah-RE-sis hem-e-PLE-jah hi-pal-GE-ze-ah hi-per-es-THE-ze-ah hi-per-kih-NE-sis hi-po-THAL-ah-mus in-trah-THE-kal in-JEK-shun lep-to-men-in-JE-al meh-DUL-ah ob-lon-GAH-tah


TERM meningeal meninges meningioma microglial cell midbrain motor nerve myelin sheath myelomeningocele myelopathy myoneural narcolepsy nerve neuralgia neurasthenia neuroglial cells neuron neuropathy neurotransmi er oligodendroglial cell paraplegia parasympathetic nerves parenchyma paresis paresthesia peripheral nervous system pia mater plexus poliomyelitis polyneuritis pons quadriplegia radiculitis radiculopathy receptor sciatic nerve sciatica sensory nerve spinal nerves stimulus stroma subdural hematoma sulcus; pl. sulci sympathetic nerves synapse syncopal syncope thalamic thalamus trigeminal neuralgia vagal vagus nerve ventricles of the brain

PRONUNCIATION meh-NIN-je-al meh-NIN-jeez meh-nin-je-O-mah mi-kro-GLE-al sel MID-brayn MO-ter nerv MI-eh-lin sheeth mi-eh-lo-meh-NIN-jo-seel mi-el-OP-ah-the mi-o-NUR-al NAR-ko-lep-se nerv nu-RAL-jah nu-ras-THE-ne-ah nu-ro-GLE-al selz NU-ron nu-ROP-ah-the nu-ro-TRANZ-mit-er ol-ih-go-den-dro-GLE-al sel par-ah-PLE-jah par-ah-sim-pah-THET-ik nervz pah-REN-kih-mah pah-RE-sis pah-res-THE-ze-ah peh-RIF-er-al NER-vus SIS-tem PE-ah MAH-ter PLEK-sus po-le-o-mi-eh-LI-tis pol-e-nu-RI-tis ponz kwod-rih-PLE-jah rah-dik-u-LI-tis rah-dik-u-LOP-ah-the re-SEPT-or si-AH-tik nerv si-AH-tih-kah SEN-sor-e nerv SPI-nal nervz STIM-u-lus STRO-mah sub-DU-ral he-mah-TO-mah SUL-kus; SUL-si sim-pah-THET-ik nervz SIN-aps SIN-ko-pal SIN-ko-pe THAL-ah-mik THAL-ah-mus tri-JEM-in-al nu-RAL-jah VA-gal VA-gus nerv VEN-trih-kulz of the brayn


Pathology, Laboratory Tests, and Clinical Procedures


TERM absence seizure Alzheimer disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis aneurysm astrocytoma aura Bell palsy brain tumor cerebral angiography cerebral concussion cerebral contusion cerebral hemorrhage cerebral palsy cerebrospinal fluid analysis cerebrovascular accident computed tomography dementia demyelination dopamine doppler/ultrasound studies electroencephalography embolus epilepsy gait glioblastoma herpes zoster HIV encephalopathy Huntington disease hydrocephalus ictal event lumbar puncture magnetic resonance imaging meningitis meningocele migraine multiple sclerosis myasthenia gravis occlusion palliative palsy Parkinson disease positron emission tomography shingles spina bifida stereotactic radiosurgery thrombus tic tonic-clonic seizure Toure e syndrome transient ischemic a ack

PRONUNCIATION AB-sens SE-zhur ALZ-hi-mer dih-ZEEZ a-mi-o-TRO-fik LAH-ter-al skleh-RO-sis AN-ur-ih-zim as-tro-si-TO-mah AW-rah bel PAWL-ze BRAYN TU-mor seh-RE-bral an-je-OG-rah-fe seh-RE-bral kon-KUH-shun seh-RE-bral kon-TU-shun seh-RE-bral HEM-or-ij seh-RE-bral PAWL-ze seh-re-bro-SPI-nal FLU-id ah-NAH-lih-sis seh-re-bro-VAS-cu-lar AK-sih-dent kom-PU-ted to-MOG-rah-fe de-MEN-she-ah de-mi-eh-lih-NA-shun DO-pah-meen DOP-ler / UL-trah-sound STUD-eez eh-lek-tro-en-sef-al-OG-rah-fe EM-bo-lus EP-ih-lep-se gate gle-o-blah-STO-mah HER-peez ZOS-ter HIV en-seh-fal-OP-ah-the HUN-ting-ton dih-ZEEZ hi-dro-SEH-fah-lus IK-tal e-VENT LUM-bar PUNK-shur mag-NET-ik REH-zo-nants IM-aj-ing meh-nin-JI-tis meh-NIN-jo-seel MI-grane MUL-tih-pel skleh-RO-sis mi-as-THE-ne-ah GRAV-is o-KLU-zhun PAH-le-ah-tiv PAWL-ze PAR-kin-sun dih-ZEEZ POS-ih-tron e-MIH-shun to-MOG-rah-fe SHING-ulz SPI-na BIF-ih-dah steh-re-o-TAK-tik ra-de-o-SUR-jer-e THROM-bus TIK TON-ik-KLON-ik SE-zhur tur-ET SIN-drohm TRAN-ze-ent ih-SKE-mik ah-TAK


Review Sheet

Write the meanings of the word parts in the spaces provided. Check your answers with the information in the chapter or in the Glossary (Medical Word Parts—English) at the end of the book.

Combining Forms COMBINING FORM alges/o angi/o caus/o cephal/o cerebell/o cerebr/o comat/o crani/o cry/o dur/o encephal/o esthesi/o gli/o hydr/o kines/o, kinesi/o lept/o lex/o mening/o, meningi/o my/o myel/o narc/o neur/o olig/o pont/o radicul/o spin/o syncop/o tax/o thalam/o thec/o troph/o vag/o

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________



PREFIX a-, andysepihemihyperhypointramicroparapoliopolyquadrisub-

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Suffixes SUFFIX -algesia -algia -blast -cele -esthesia -gram -graphy -ine -itis -kinesia, -kinesis -kinetic -lepsy -oma -ose -paresis -pathy -phagia -phasia -plegia -praxia -ptosis -sclerosis -sthenia -tomy -trophy

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Match the neurologic pathology terms and abbreviations in Column I with the descriptions/definitions in Column II.


COLUMN I 1. Alzheimer's 2. ALS 3. epilepsy 4. MS 5. Parkinson's 6. herpes zoster 7. glioblastoma multiforme

______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

8. CVA


COLUMN II A. destruction of myelin sheath on neurons in CNS B. stroke; disruption in normal blood supply to the brain C. shingles; viral infection affecting peripheral nerves D. progressive dementia; memory failure; senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles E. brain tumor; malignant astrocytoma F. degeneration of neurons in basal ganglia; tremors, bradykinesia, and shuffling gait G. recurrent seizure disorder; tonic-clonic and absence types H. degeneration of motor neurons in spinal cord and brain stem; weakness and muscle atrophy

Books with Neurologic Topics The following list of books may be of interest to you. They deal with fictional characters or actual individuals who are coping with neurologic illnesses. Oliver Sacks, M.D., the late professor of neurology at the NYU School of Medicine, has wri en extensively about neurological case histories, including The Man Who Mistook his Wife for a Hat. Please contact me with your comments and other suggestions of good reads!


Alzheimer Disease Still Alice by Lisa Genova (story of a woman and her family understanding and coping with early-onset Alzheimer's; also made into a film). Elegy for Iris by John Bayley (story of novelist Iris Murdoch; wri en by her husband, who becomes her caretaker). Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis I Choose to Live: A Journey Through Life with ALS by William Sinton (a story of coping with this disease). Tuesdays with Morrie by Mitch Albom (wri en by a student who spends time with his former teacher and learns valuable life lessons). Cerebral Palsy My Left Foot by Christy Brown (Brown was born in Dublin with cerebral palsy, and this is his autobiography, which was later made into a film). Epilepsy The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down by Anne Fadiman (story of the Hmong people and how they deal with epilepsy after coming to the United States). The Spiral Staircase: My Climb out of Darkness by Karen Armstrong (how author Karen Armstrong deals with temporal lobe epilepsy). The Idiot by Fyodor Dostoevsky (Russian novel whose main character, Prince Myshkin, like Dostoevsky himself, suffers from epilepsy). Huntington Disease Saturday by Ian McEwan (a novel whose primary character suffers from this disease). Parkinson Disease Life in the Balance by Thomas Graboys with Peter Zheutlin (memoir of Graboys, a prominent Boston cardiologist dealing with this disease). Stroke My Stroke of Insight by Jill Brotle Taylor, PhD (a brain scientist, who had a stroke at age 37, writes about it). The Diving Bell and the Bu erfly, by Jean-Dominque Bauby, is a memoir by a 44-year-old man who struggles with the consequences of a rare type of stroke that leaves him quadriplegic. His mind is unimpaired (also made into a film).


C H A P T E R 11


Cardiovascular System CHAPTER SECTIONS: Introduction 374 Blood Vessels and the Circulation of Blood 374 Anatomy of the Heart 378 Physiology of the Heart 381 Blood Pressure 382 Vocabulary 384 Terminology 385 Pathology: The Heart and Blood Vessels 388 Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures 401 Abbreviations 408 Practical Applications 410 In Person: Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery 412 Exercises 413 Answers to Exercises 422 Pronunciation of Terms425 Review Sheet 429

CHAPTER GOALS • Name the parts of the heart and associated blood vessels and their functions in the circulation of blood. • Trace the pathway of blood through the heart. • Identify and describe major pathologic conditions affecting the heart and blood vessels. • Define combining forms that relate to the cardiovascular system.


• Describe important laboratory tests and clinical procedures pertaining to the cardiovascular system, and recognize relevant abbreviations. • Apply your new knowledge to understand medical terms in their proper context, such as in medical reports and records.


Introduction Body cells are dependent on a constant supply of nutrients and oxygen. When the supplies are delivered and then chemically combined, they release the energy necessary to do the work of each cell. How does the body ensure that oxygen and food will be delivered to all of its cells? The cardiovascular system, consisting of the heart (a powerful muscular pump) and blood vessels (fuel line and transportation network), performs this important work. This chapter explores terminology related to the heart and blood vessels.


Blood Vessels and the Circulation of Blood Blood Vessels There are three types of blood vessels in the body: arteries, veins, and capillaries. Arteries are large blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. Their walls are lined with connective tissue, muscle tissue, and elastic fibers, with an innermost layer of epithelial cells called endothelium. Endothelial cells, found in all blood vessels, secrete factors that affect the size of blood vessels, reduce blood clo ing, and promote the growth of blood vessels. Because arteries carry blood away from the heart, they must be strong enough to withstand the high pressure of the pumping action of the heart. Their elastic walls allow them to expand as the heartbeat forces blood into the arterial system throughout the body. Smaller branches of arteries are arterioles. Arterioles are thinner than arteries and carry the blood to the tiniest of blood vessels, the capillaries. Capillaries have walls that are only one endothelial cell in thickness. These delicate, microscopic vessels carry nutrient-rich, oxygenated blood from the arteries and arterioles to the body cells. Their thin walls allow passage of oxygen and nutrients out of the bloodstream and into cells. There, the nutrients are burned in the presence of oxygen (catabolism) to release energy. At the same time, waste products such as carbon dioxide and water pass out of cells and into the thin-walled capillaries. Waste-filled blood then flows back to the heart in small venules, which combine to form larger vessels called veins. Veins have thinner walls compared with arteries. They conduct blood (that has given up most of its oxygen) toward the heart from the tissues. Veins have li le elastic tissue and less connective tissue than that typical of arteries, and blood pressure in veins is extremely low compared with pressure in arteries. In order to keep blood moving back toward the heart, veins have valves that prevent the backflow of blood and keep the blood moving in one direction. Muscular action also helps the movement of blood in veins. Figure 11-1 illustrates the differences in blood vessels. Figure 11-2 reviews their characteristics and relationship to one another.


FIGURE 11-1 Blood vessels. Observe the differences in thickness of walls among an artery, a vein, and a capillary. All three vessels are lined with endothelium. Endothelial cells actively secrete substances that prevent clotting and regulate the tone of blood vessels. Examples of endothelial secretions are endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) and endothelin (a vasoconstrictor).


FIGURE 11-2 Relationship and characteristics of blood vessels.

Blood Vessels and Blood

What color is blood? Blood is bright red in arteries (contains oxygen) and dark red (maroon) in veins (contains carbon dioxide). From the outside of the body, blood in veins appears blue because the color reflects off the skin. How much blood is in the body? The average adult has about 5 quarts (4.7 liters) of blood in his or her body. What is the length of all the blood vessels? The total length of all the blood vessels in the body is 60,000 miles!

Circulation of Blood Arteries, arterioles, veins, venules, and capillaries, together with the heart, form a circulatory system for the flow of blood. Figure 11-3 is a more detailed representation of the entire circulatory system. Refer to it as you read the following paragraphs. (Note that the bracketed numbers in the following paragraphs correspond with those in Figure 11-3.)


FIGURE 11-3 Schematic diagram of the pulmonary circulation (blood flow from the heart to lung capillaries and back to the heart) and systemic circulation (blood flow from the heart to tissue capillaries and back to the heart).

Blood that is deficient in oxygen flows through two large veins, the venae cavae [1], on its way from the tissue capillaries to the heart. The blood became oxygen-poor at the tissue capillaries when oxygen left the blood and entered the body cells. Oxygen-poor blood enters the right side of the heart [2] and travels through that side and into the pulmonary artery [3], a vessel that divides in two: one branch leading to the left lung, the other to the right lung. The arteries continue dividing and subdividing within the lungs, forming smaller and smaller vessels (arterioles) and finally reaching the lung capillaries [4]. The pulmonary artery is unusual in that it is the only artery in the body that carries blood deficient in oxygen. While passing through the lung (pulmonary) capillaries, blood absorbs the oxygen that entered the body during inhalation. The newly oxygenated blood next returns immediately to the heart through


yg y g pulmonary veins [5]. The pulmonary veins are unusual in that they are the only veins in the body that carry oxygen-rich (oxygenated) blood. The circulation of blood through the vessels from the heart to the lungs and then back to the heart again is the pulmonary circulation. Oxygen-rich blood enters the left side of the heart [6] from the pulmonary veins. The muscles in the left side of the heart pump the blood out of the heart through the largest single artery in the body, the aorta [7]. The aorta moves up at first (ascending aorta) but then arches over dorsally and runs downward (descending aorta) just in front of the vertebral column. The aorta divides into numerous branches called arteries [8] that carry the oxygenated blood to all parts of the body. The names of some of these arterial branches will be familiar to you. The carotid arteries supply blood to the head and neck. Axillary, brachial (brachi/o means arm), splenic and renal arteries are examples of branching arteries from the aorta. The relatively large arterial vessels branch further to form smaller arterioles [9]. The arterioles, still containing oxygenated blood, branch into smaller tissue capillaries [10], which are near the body cells. Oxygen leaves the blood and passes through the thin capillary walls to enter the body cells. There, food is broken down, in the presence of oxygen, and energy is released. This chemical process also releases carbon dioxide (CO2) as a waste product. Carbon dioxide passes out from the cell into the tissue capillaries at the same time that oxygen enters. Thus the blood returning to the heart from tissue capillaries through venules [11] and veins [12] is filled with carbon dioxide but is depleted of oxygen. As this oxygen-poor blood enters the heart from the venae cavae, the circuit is complete. The pathway of blood from the heart to the tissue capillaries and back to the heart is the systemic circulation. Figure 11-4 shows the aorta, selected arteries, and pulse points. The pulse is the beat of the heart as felt through the walls of arteries.


FIGURE 11-4 The aorta and arteries. Solid gold dots indicate pulse points in arteries. These are areas in which the pulse expansion and contraction of a superficial artery can be felt.


Anatomy of the Heart The human heart weighs less than a pound (300-450 grams), is roughly the size of an adult fist, and lies in the thoracic cavity, just behind the breastbone in the mediastinum (between the lungs). The heart is a pump consisting of four chambers: two upper chambers called atria (singular: atrium) and two lower chambers called ventricles. It is actually a double pump, bound into one organ and synchronized very carefully. Blood passes through each pump in a definite pa ern. Pump station number one, on the right side of the heart, sends oxygendeficient blood to the lungs, where the blood picks up oxygen and releases its carbon dioxide. The newly oxygenated blood returns to the left side of the heart to pump station number two and does not mix with the oxygen-poor blood in pump station number one. Pump station number two then forces the oxygenated blood out to all parts of the body. At the body tissues, the blood loses its oxygen, and on returning to the heart, to pump station number one, blood poor in oxygen (rich in carbon dioxide) is sent out to the lungs to begin the cycle anew. Label Figure 11-5 as you learn the names of the parts of the heart and the vessels that carry blood to and from it.


FIGURE 11-5 Structure of the heart. Blue arrows indicate oxygen-poor blood flow. Red arrows show oxygenated blood flow.

Oxygen-poor blood enters the heart through the two largest veins in the body, the venae cavae. The superior vena cava [1] drains blood from the upper portion of the body, and the inferior vena cava [2] carries blood from the lower part of the body. The venae cavae bring oxygen-poor blood that has passed through all of the body to the right atrium [3], the thin-walled upper right chamber of the heart. The right atrium contracts to force blood through the tricuspid valve [4] (cusps are the flaps of the valves) into the right ventricle [5], the lower right chamber of the heart. The cusps of the tricuspid valve form a one-way passage designed to keep the blood flowing in only one direction. As the right ventricle contracts to pump


oxygen-poor blood through the pulmonary valve [6] into the pulmonary artery [7], the tricuspid valve stays shut, thus preventing blood from pushing back into the right atrium. The pulmonary artery then branches to carry oxygen-deficient blood to each lung. The blood that enters the lung capillaries from the pulmonary artery soon loses its large quantity of carbon dioxide into the lung tissue, and the carbon dioxide is expelled. At the same time, oxygen enters the capillaries of the lungs and is brought back to the heart via the pulmonary veins [8]. The newly oxygenated blood enters the left atrium [9] of the heart from the pulmonary veins. The walls of the left atrium contract to force blood through the mitral valve [10] into the left ventricle [11]. The left ventricle has the thickest walls of all four heart chambers (three times the thickness of the right ventricular wall). It must pump blood with great force so that the blood travels through arteries to all parts of the body. The left ventricle propels the blood through the aortic valve [12] into the aorta [13], which branches to carry blood all over the body. The aortic valve closes to prevent return of aortic blood to the left ventricle. In Figure 11-6, notice that the four chambers of the heart are separated by partitions called septa (singular: septum). (Label Figure 116 as you read these paragraphs.) The interatrial septum [1] separates the two upper chambers (atria), and the interventricular septum [2], a muscular wall, lies between the two lower chambers (ventricles).


FIGURE 11-6 The septa (walls of the heart) and the 3 layers of the heart. Note that the apex of the heart is the conical (shaped like a cone) lower tip of the heart.

Figure 11-6 also shows the three layers of the heart. The endocardium [3], a smooth layer of endothelial cells, lines the interior of the heart and heart valves. The myocardium [4], the middle, muscular layer of the heart wall, is its thickest layer. The pericardium [5], a fibrous and membranous sac, surrounds the heart. It is composed of two layers, the visceral pericardium, adhering to the heart, and the parietal (parietal means wall) pericardium, lining the outer fibrous coat. The pericardial cavity (between the visceral and the parietal pericardial layers) normally contains 10 to 15 mL of pericardial fluid, which lubricates the membranes as the heart beats. Figure 11-7 reviews the pathway of blood through the heart.


FIGURE 11-7 Pathway of blood through the heart.


Physiology of the Heart Heartbeat and Heart Sounds There are two phases of the heartbeat: diastole (relaxation) and systole (contraction). Diastole occurs when the ventricle walls relax and blood flows into the heart from the venae cavae and the pulmonary veins. The tricuspid and mitral valves open in diastole, as blood passes from the right and left atria into the ventricles. The pulmonary and aortic valves close at beginning of diastole. (Figure 11-8).

FIGURE 11-8 Phases of the heartbeat: diastole and systole. During diastole, the tricuspid and mitral valves are open as blood enters the ventricles. During systole, the pulmonary and aortic valves are open as blood is pumped to the pulmonary artery and aorta. LA, left atrium; LV, left ventricle; RA, right atrium; RV, right ventricle.

Systole occurs next, as the walls of the right and left ventricles contract to pump blood into the pulmonary artery and the aorta. Both the tricuspid and the mitral valves are closed during systole, thus preventing the flow of blood back into the atria (see Figure 11-8). This diastole-systole cardiac cycle occurs between 70 and 80 times per minute (100,000 times a day). The heart pumps about 3 ounces of blood with each contraction. This means that about 5 quarts of blood are pumped by the heart in 1 minute (75 gallons an hour and about 2000 gallons a day). Closure of the heart valves is associated with audible sounds, such as “lubb-dubb,” which can be heard on listening to a normal heart with a


stethoscope. The “lubb” is associated with closure of the tricuspid and mitral valves at the beginning of systole, and the “dubb” with the closure of the aortic and pulmonary valves at the end of systole. The “lubb” sound is called the first heart sound (S1) and the “dubb” is the second heart sound (S2), because the normal cycle of the heartbeat starts with the beginning of systole. Sometimes the flow of blood through the valves can produce an abnormal swishing sound known as a murmur.

Conduction System of the Heart What keeps the heart at its perfect rhythm? Although the heart has nerves that affect its rate, they are not primarily responsible for its beat. The heart starts beating in the embryo before it is supplied with nerves, and continues to beat in experimental animals even when the nerve supply is cut. Label Figure 11-9 as you read the following. Primary responsibility for initiating the heartbeat rests with a small region of specialized muscle tissue in the posterior portion of the right atrium, where an electrical impulse originates. This is the sinoatrial node (SA node), or pacemaker [1] of the heart. The current of electricity generated by the pacemaker causes the walls of the atria to contract and force blood into the ventricles.

FIGURE 11-9 Conduction system of the heart.


Almost like ripples in a pond of water when a stone is thrown, the wave of electricity passes from the pacemaker to another region of the myocardium. This region is within the interatrial septum and is the atrioventricular node (AV node) [2]. The AV node immediately sends the excitation wave to a bundle of specialized muscle fibers called the atrioventricular bundle, or bundle of His [3]. Within the interventricular septum, the bundle of His divides into the left bundle branch [4] and the right bundle branch [5], which form the conduction myofibers that extend through the ventricle walls and contract on stimulation. Thus systole occurs and blood is pumped away from the heart. A short rest period follows, and then the pacemaker begins the wave of excitation across the heart again. The record used to detect these electrical changes in heart muscle as the heart beats is an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). The normal ECG tracing shows five waves, or deflections, that represent the electrical changes as a wave of excitation spreads through the heart. The deflections are called P, QRS, and T waves. Figure 11-10 illustrates P, QRS, and T waves on a normal ECG tracing.

FIGURE 11-10 Electrocardiogram. P wave = spread of excitation wave over the atria just before contraction; QRS wave = spread of excitation wave over the ventricles as the ventricles contract; T wave = electrical recovery and relaxation of ventricles. A heart attack or myocardial infarction (MI) can be recognized by an elevation in the ST segment of the electrocardiographic tracing. Thus, one type of MI is an ST elevation MI (STEMI).

Heart rhythm (originating in the SA node and traveling through the heart) is called normal sinus rhythm (NSR). Sympathetic nerves speed


up the heart rate during conditions of emotional stress or vigorous exercise. Parasympathetic nerves slow the heart rate when there is no need for extra pumping.


Blood Pressure Blood pressure is the force that the blood exerts on the arterial walls. This pressure is measured with a sphygmomanometer (Figure 11-11).

FIGURE 11-11 Measurement of blood pressure with a sphygmomanometer and stethoscope.

The sphygmomanometer consists of a rubber bag inside a cloth cuff that is wrapped around the upper arm, just above the elbow. The rubber bag is inflated with air using a handbulb pump. As the bag is pumped up, the pressure within it increases and is measured on a recording device a ached to the cuff. The brachial artery in the upper arm is compressed by the air pressure in the bag. When there is sufficient air pressure in the bag to stop the flow of blood, the pulse in the lower arm (where the observer is listening with a stethoscope) drops. Air is then allowed to escape from the bag and the pressure is lowered slowly, allowing the blood to begin to make its way through the gradually opening artery. At the point when the person listening with the stethoscope first hears the sounds of the pulse beats, the reading on the device a ached to the cuff shows the higher, systolic blood pressure (pressure in the artery when the left ventricle is contracting to force the blood into the aorta and other arteries). As air continues to escape, the sounds become progressively louder. Finally, when a change in sound from loud to soft occurs, the observer makes note of the pressure on the recording device. This is the diastolic


pressure (pressure in the artery when the ventricles relax and the heart fills, receiving blood from the venae cavae and pulmonary veins). Blood pressure is expressed as a fraction—for example, 120/80 mm Hg, in which the upper number (120) is the systolic pressure and the lower number (80) is the diastolic pressure. A new guideline lowers the target for hypertension (high blood pressure) treatment to 130/80. Both the systolic and diastolic components of hypertension are associated with increased risk of heart a ack and stroke.


This list reviews new terms introduced in the text. Short definitions reinforce your understanding of the terms. See page 425 of this chapter for pronunciation of terms.


aorta apex of the heart arteriole artery

Largest artery in the body. Lower tip of the heart. Small artery. Largest type of blood vessel; carries blood away from the heart to all parts of the body. Notice that artery and away begin with an “a.” atrioventricular Specialized muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles and bundle (bundle of transmi ing electrical impulses between them. His is pronounced His) “hiss.” atrioventricular Specialized tissue in the wall between the atria. Electrical impulses node (AV node) pass from the pacemaker (SA node) through the AV node and the atrioventricular bundle or bundle of His toward the ventricles. atrium (plural: atria) One of two upper chambers of the heart. capillary Smallest type of blood vessel. Materials pass to and from the bloodstream through the thin capillary walls. carbon dioxide Gas (waste) released by body cells, transported via veins to the heart, (CO2) and then to the lungs for exhalation. carotid arteries Two common carotid arteries located on each side of the neck branch from the aorta and provide blood to head, neck and brain. The word carotid comes from a Greek word meaning stupor because pressure on these arteries produced unconsciousness. coronary arteries Blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. deoxygenated blood Blood that is oxygen-poor. diastole Relaxation phase of the heartbeat. (From Greek diastole, dilation.) electrocardiogram Record of the electrical activity of the heart. The electricity is represented by waves or deflections called P, QRS, or T. endocardium Inner lining of the heart. endothelium Innermost lining of blood vessels. mitral valve Valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; bicuspid valve. murmur Abnormal swishing sound caused by improper closure of the heart valves. myocardium Muscular middle layer of the heart. normal sinus Heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node with a rate in rhythm patients at rest of 60 to 100 beats per minute. oxygen Gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells. pacemaker Specialized nervous tissue in the right atrium that begins the (sinoatrial node) heartbeat. An artificial cardiac pacemaker is an electronic apparatus implanted in the chest to stimulate heart muscle that is weak and not functioning. pericardium Double-layered membrane surrounding the heart. pulmonary artery Artery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs. pulmonary Flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart. circulation pulmonary valve Valve positioned between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. pulmonary vein One of two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. pulse Beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries. septum (plural: Partition or wall dividing a cavity; such as between the right and left septa) atria (interatrial septum) and right and left ventricles (interventricular septum). sinoatrial node (SA Pacemaker of the heart. node)


sphygmomanometer Instrument to measure blood pressure. systemic circulation Flow of blood from body tissue to the heart and then from the heart back to body tissues. systole Contraction phase of the heartbeat. (From Greek systole, contraction.) tricuspid valve Located between the right atrium and the right ventricle; it has three (tri-) leaflets, or cusps. valve Structure in veins or in the heart that temporarily closes an opening so that blood flows in only one direction. vein Thin-walled vessel that carries blood from body tissues and lungs back to the heart. Veins contain valves to prevent backflow of blood. vena cava (plural: Largest vein in the body. The superior and inferior venae cavae venae cavae) return blood to the right atrium of the heart. ventricle One of two lower chambers of the heart. venule Small vein.


Write the meaning of the medical term in the space provided.


COMBINING MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING FORM angi/o vessel angiogram _____________________________________ angioplasty ____________________________________ aort/o aorta aortic stenosis __________________________________ arter/o, artery arteriosclerosis _________________________________ arteri/o arterial anastomosis _____________________________ From the Greek anastomoien, providing a mouth. arteriography ___________________________________ endarterectomy __________________________________ See page 407. ather/o yellowish atheroma _______________________________________ plaque, fa y The suffix -oma means mass or collection. Atheromas are substance collections of plaque that protrude into the lumen (opening) of (Greek an artery, weakening the muscle lining. athere means atherosclerosis ___________________________________ porridge) The major form of arteriosclerosis in which deposits of yellow plaque (atheromas) containing cholesterol and lipids are found within the lining of the artery (Figure 11-12). atherectomy _____________________________________ atri/o atrium, atrial _________________________________________ upper heart atrioventricular chamber _________________________________________ brachi/o arm brachial artery _________________________________________ cardi/o heart cardiomegaly ___________________________________ cardiomyopathy _________________________________ One type of cardiomyopathy is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy—abnormal thickening of heart muscle, usually in the left ventricle. The ventricle has to work harder to pump blood. The condition may be inherited or develop over time because of high blood pressure or aging. Often the cause is unknown (idiopathic). bradycardia _____________________________________ Slower than 60 beats per minute. Normal pulse is about 60100 beats per minute. Brady- means slow. tachycardia _____________________________________ Faster than 100 beats per minute. Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) involves rapid beats coming from the atria (above the ventricles) and causing palpitation (abnormal sensations in the chest). Tachy- means fast. cardiogenic shock ________________________________ Results from failure of the heart in its pumping action. Shock is circulatory failure associated with inadequate delivery of oxygen and nutrients to body tissues. cholesterol/o cholesterol hypercholesterolemia _____________________________ (a lipid Statins are drugs that work by blocking a key enzyme in the substance) production of cholesterol by the liver. coron/o heart coronary arteries _________________________________ These arteries come down over the top of the heart like a crown (corona); see Figure 11-23A, page 402. cyan/o blue cyanosis _______________________________________ This bluish discoloration of the skin indicates diminished oxygen content of the blood.


COMBINING MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING FORM myx/o mucus myxoma _______________________________________ A benign tumor derived from connective tissue, with cells embedded in soft mucoid stromal tissue. These rare tumors occur most frequently in the left atrium. ox/o oxygen hypoxia ________________________________________ Inadequate oxygen in tissues. Anoxia is an extreme form of hypoxia. pericardi/o pericardium pericardiocentesis ________________________________ Removal of excess fluid from the pericardial space. phleb/o vein phlebotomy _____________________________________ A phlebotomist is trained in opening veins for phlebotomy. thrombophlebitis ________________________________ Often shortened to phlebitis. If the affected vein is deep within a muscle, the condition is deep vein thrombosis (DVT). rrhythm/o rhythm arrhythmia _____________________________________ Dysrhythmia is also used to describe an abnormal heart rhythm. Notice that one “r” is dropped. sphygm/o pulse sphygmomanometer ______________________________ A sphygmomanometer measures pressure. steth/o chest stethoscope _____________________________________ A misnomer because the examination is by ear, not by eye. Auscultation means listening to sounds within the body, typically using a stethoscope. thromb/o clot thrombolysis ____________________________________ valvul/o, valve valvuloplasty ____________________________________ valv/o A balloon-tipped catheter dilates a cardiac valve. mitral valvulitis __________________________________ Commonly associated with rheumatic fever, an inflammatory disease caused by inadequate treatment of a streptococcal infection. An autoimmune reaction occurs, leading to inflammation and damage to heart valves. (See Figure 11-19, page 396.) valvotomy ______________________________________ vas/o vessel vasoconstriction _________________________________ Constriction means to tighten or narrow. vasodilation _____________________________________ vascul/o vessel vascular ________________________________________ ven/o, ven/i vein venous _________________________________________ A venous cutdown is a small surgical incision to permit access to a collapsed vein. An intravenous infusion is delivery of fluids into a vein. venipuncture ___________________________________ This procedure is performed for phlebotomy or to start an intravenous infusion. ventricul/o ventricle, interventricular septum ____________________________ lower heart chamber


FIGURE 11-12 Atherosclerosis. Arrow points to accumulated plaque in lumen of an artery. (Courtesy Sid Murphree, MD, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas.)

ather/o, arteri/o, arthr/o

These three combining forms are easily confused. ather/o = yellowish plaque arteri/o = artery arthr/o = joint


Pathology: the Heart and Blood Vessels Heart



Abnormal heart rhythms (dysrhythmias). Arrhythmias are problems with the conduction or electrical system of the heart. More than 4 million Americans have recurrent cardiac arrhythmias. Examples of cardiac arrhythmias are: 1. bradycardia and Failure of proper conduction of impulses from the SA node heart block through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of (atrioventricular His). block) Damage to the SA node may cause its impulses to be too weak to activate the AV node and impulses fail to reach the ventricles. The heart beats slowly and bradycardia results. If the failure occurs only occasionally, the heart misses a beat in a rhythm at regular intervals (partial heart block). If no impulses reach the AV node from the SA node, the ventricles contract slower than the atria and are not coordinated. This is complete heart block. Right and left bundle branch block (RBBB and LBBB) are common types of heart block. They involve delay or failure of impulses traveling through the right and left bundle branches to the ventricles. Implantation of an artificial cardiac pacemaker overcomes arrhythmias and keeps the heart beating at the proper rate. The pacemaker power source is a generator that contains a computer and lithium ba ery. It is implanted under the skin just below the collarbone, with leads (wires) to both chambers or one chamber, on the right side of the heart. A newer type of pacemaker, called a biventricular pacemaker, treats delays and abnormalities in ventricular contractions (dysynergy) and also can relieve symptoms and improve quality of life in patients with congestive heart failure. It reduces exacerbations of heart failure that require hospital admission (Figure 11-13C). 2. flu er Rapid but regular contractions, usually of the atria. Heart rate may reach up to 300 beats per minute. Atrial flu er often is symptomatic of heart disease and frequently requires treatment such as medication, electrical cardioversion, or catheter ablation (see below under fibrillation). 3. fibrillation Very rapid, random, inefficient, and irregular contractions of the heart (350 beats or more per minute). Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia, affecting 5% to 10% of 70- to 80-year-old people and greater than 15% of individuals in their 80s. Electrical impulses move randomly throughout the atria, causing the atria to quiver instead of contracting in a coordinated rhythm. Common symptoms are palpitations (uncomfortable sensations in the chest from missed heartbeats), fatigue, and shortness of breath. Patients with paroxysmal AF (irregular heartbeats occur periodically and episodically) and permanent or persistent AF (irregular heartbeats continue indefinitely) are at a much greater risk for stroke. This is because ineffective atrial contractions can lead to the formation of blood clots in the left atrial appendage (the area where clots form) that may travel to the brain. Also, sometimes AF can make the heart beat very fast for long periods of time, leading to weakening of the heart muscle. The risk for stroke with AF can be reduced by 80% with the use of anticoagulants (blood thinners such as warfarin) and anticoagulants called DOACs (direct oral anticoagulants). Examples of DOACs are apixaban (Eliquis), dabiatran (Pradaxa),


and rivaroxaban (Xarelto). Other medications are used to reset the rhythm of the heart or control its rate. In ventricular fibrillation (VF), electrical impulses move randomly throughout the ventricles. This life-threatening situation may result in sudden cardiac death or cardiac arrest (sudden stoppage of heart movement) unless help is provided immediately. If treatment is immediate, VF can be interrupted with defibrillation (application of an electrical shock). Defibrillation stops electrical activity in the heart for a brief moment so that normal rhythm takes over. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a small electrical device that is implanted inside the chest (near the collarbone) to sense arrhythmias and terminate them with an electric shock. Candidates for ICDs are people who have had or are at high risk for having ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and cardiac arrest. Automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) may be found in workplaces, airports, and other public places and are used in an emergency situation to reverse ventricular fibrillation. Catheter ablation is a minimally invasive treatment to treat cardiac arrhythmias. The technique, using radiofrequency energy delivered from the tip of a catheter inserted through a blood vessel and into the heart, destroys tissue that causes arrhythmias. Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), atrial flu er, atrial fibrillation, and ventricular tachycardia (VT) may be treated with ablation when clinically indicated. This procedure may provide a permanent cure in many clinical situations. Abnormalities in the heart at birth.

congenital heart disease The following conditions are congenital anomalies resulting from some failure in the development of the fetal heart. 1. coarctation of Narrowing (coarctation) of the aorta. the aorta (CoA) Figure 11-14A shows coarctation of the aorta. Surgical treatment consists of removal of the constricted region and end-to-end anastomosis of the aortic segments. 2. patent ductus Passageway (ductus arteriosus) between the aorta and the arteriosus pulmonary artery remains open (patent) after birth. (PDA) The ductus arteriosus normally closes after birth, but in this congenital condition it remains open (see Figure 11-14B), resulting in the flow of oxygenated blood from the aorta into the pulmonary artery. PDA occurs in premature infants, causing cyanosis, fatigue, and rapid breathing. Although the defect often closes on its own within months after birth, treatment may be necessary if patency continues. Treatments include use of a drug (indomethacin) to promote closure; surgery via catheterization (with coil embolization to “plug” the ductus); and ligation (tying off) performed through a small incision between the ribs. 3. septal defects Small holes in the wall between the atria (atrial septal defects) or the ventricles (ventricular septal defects). Figure 11-15A shows a ventricular septal defect. Although many septal defects close spontaneously, others require open heart surgery to close the hole between heart chambers, or they may be repaired through minimally invasive surgery, using a catheter inserted through a blood vessel leading to the heart. A heart-lung machine is connected to the patient's circulatory system


4. tetralogy of Fallot (fah-LO)

congestive heart failure (CHF)

during open heart surgery to relieve the heart and lungs of pumping and oxygenation functions during surgery. Congenital malformation involving four (tetra-) distinct heart defects. The condition, named for Étienne-Louis Fallot, the French physician who described it in 1888, is illustrated in Figure 11-15B. The four defects are: • Pulmonary artery stenosis. Pulmonary artery is narrow or obstructed. • Ventricular septal defect. Large hole between two ventricles lets venous blood pass from the right to the left ventricle and out to the aorta without oxygenation. • Shift of the aorta to the right. Aorta overrides the interventricular septum. Oxygen-poor blood passes from the right ventricle to the aorta. • Hypertrophy of the right ventricle. Myocardium works harder to pump blood through a narrowed pulmonary artery. An infant with this condition is described as a “blue baby” because of the extreme degree of cyanosis present at birth. Surgery for tetralogy of Fallot includes a patch closure of the ventricular septal defect and removing obstruction to the outflow at the pulmonary artery. Other congenital conditions such as transposition of the great arteries (TGA) (pulmonary artery arises from the left ventricle and the aorta from the right ventricle) cause cyanosis and hypoxia as well. Surgical correction of TGA involves an arterial switch procedure (pulmonary artery and aorta are reconnected in their proper positions). Heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood. There are two types of congestive heart failure: systolic and diastolic. In systolic CHF, there is a reduced ejection fraction (the amount of blood that leaves the left ventricle). Less blood is pumped from the heart. In diastolic CHF, fluid backs up in the lungs and other parts of the body. Symptoms of CHF include shortness of breath, exercise intolerance, and fluid retention. Pulmonary edema (fluid accumulation in the lungs) and swelling or edema in the legs, feet, and ankles are common. Treatment includes lowering dietary intake of sodium and the use of diuretics to promote fluid loss. For patients with CHF with a reduced ejection fraction and heart bundle branch block cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices may be used. These implanted devices consist of a pulse generator and thin, insulated wires and function like a normal pacemaker and defibrillation devices. If drug therapy and lifestyle changes fail to control congestive heart failure, heart transplantation may be the only treatment option. While waiting for a transplant, patients may need a device to assist the heart's pumping. A left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is a booster pump implanted in the abdomen, with a cannula (tube) inserted into the left ventricle. It pumps blood out of the heart to all parts of the body. LVAD may be used either as a “bridge to transplant” or as a “destination” therapy when heart transplantation is not possible. Because of the severe shortage of donor hearts, research efforts are directed at developing total artificial hearts.


coronary artery disease (CAD)


Disease of the arteries surrounding the heart. The coronary arteries are a pair of blood vessels that arise from the aorta and supply oxygenated blood to the heart. After blood leaves the heart via the aorta, a portion is at once led back over the surface of the heart through the coronary arteries. CAD usually is the result of atherosclerosis. This is the deposition of fa y compounds on the inner lining of the coronary arteries (any other artery can be similarly affected). The ordinarily smooth lining of the artery becomes roughened as the atherosclerotic plaque collects in the artery. The plaque first causes plugging of the coronary artery. Next, the roughened lining of the artery may rupture or cause abnormal clo ing of blood, leading to thrombotic occlusion (blocking of the coronary artery by a clot). Blood flow is decreased (ischemia) or stopped entirely, leading to death (necrosis) of a part of the myocardium. This sequence of events constitutes a myocardial infarction, or heart a ack, and the area of dead myocardial tissue is known as an infarct. The infarcted area is eventually replaced by scar tissue. Figure 11-16 shows coronary arteries branching from the aorta and illustrates coronary artery occlusion leading to ischemia and infarction of heart muscle. Figure 11-17 is a photograph of myocardium after an acute myocardial infarction. Acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) are conditions caused by myocardial ischemia. These conditions are unstable angina (chest pain at rest or chest pain of increasing frequency) and myocardial infarction (Figure 11-18). Patients with ACSs benefit from early angiography (x-ray imaging of coronary arteries) and PCI (percutaneous coronary intervention with a balloon catheter and stents) or CABG (coronary artery bypass grafting) to improve blood flow to the heart muscle (revascularization). Drugs used to treat ACSs are anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents such as aspirin and clopidogrel (Plavix), prasugrel (Effient), and ticagrelor (Brilinta). For acute a acks of angina, nitroglycerin is given sublingually (under the tongue). This drug, one of several called nitrates, is a vasodilator that increases coronary blood flow and lowers blood pressure. Nitrates also produce venodilation to reduce venous return and decrease myocardial oxygen consumption, both of which help decrease the work of the heart. Physicians advise patients to avoid risk factors such as smoking, obesity, and lack of exercise, and they prescribe effective drugs to prevent CAD and ACSs. These drugs include aspirin (to prevent clumping of platelets), beta blockers (to reduce the force and speed of the heartbeat and to lower blood pressure), ACE inhibitors (to reduce high blood pressure and the risk of future heart a ack even if the patient is not hypertensive), calcium channel blockers (to relax muscles in blood vessels), and statins (to lower cholesterol levels). Cardiac surgeons perform an open heart operation called coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) to treat CAD by replacing clogged vessels. Interventional cardiologists perform percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), in which catheterization with balloons and stents opens clogged coronary arteries. Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart.


hypertensive heart disease

mitral valve prolapse (MVP)



rheumatic heart disease

Damage to the heart valves from infection (bacterial endocarditis) produces lesions called vegetations (resembling cauliflower) that break off into the bloodstream as emboli (material that travels through the blood). The emboli can lodge in other vessels, leading to a transient ischemic a ack (TIA), or a stroke, or in small vessels of the skin, where multiple pinpoint hemorrhages known as petechiae (from the Italian petechio, a flea bite) form. Antibiotics can cure bacterial endocarditis. High blood pressure affecting the heart. This condition results from narrowing of arterioles, which leads to increased pressure in arteries. The heart is affected (left ventricular hypertrophy) because it pumps more vigorously to overcome the increased resistance in the arteries. Improper closure of the mitral valve. This condition occurs because the mitral valve enlarges and prolapses into the left atrium during systole. The physician hears a midsystolic click on auscultation (listening with a stethoscope) and occasionally mitral regurgitation (backflow of blood into the left atrium). Most people with MVP live normal lives, but severely prolapsed valves can be associated with severe mitral regurgitation and on rare occasions may become infected (endocarditis). Extra heart sound, heard between normal beats. Murmurs are heard with the aid of a stethoscope and usually are caused by a valvular defect or disease that disrupts the smooth flow of blood in the heart. They also are heard in cases of interseptal defects, in which blood flows abnormally between chambers through holes in the septa. Functional murmurs are not caused by valve or septal defects and do not seriously endanger a person's health. A bruit (BRU-e) is a murmur heard on auscultation. It is the turbulent flow of blood through a vessel. A thrill, which is a vibration felt on palpation of the chest, often accompanies a murmur. Inflammation of the membrane (pericardium) surrounding the heart. In most instances, pericarditis results from a viral illness or the etiology may be idiopathic. Bacteria and viruses cause the condition, or the etiology may be idiopathic. Malaise, fever, and chest pain occur, and auscultation often reveals a pericardial friction rub (heard as a scraping or grating sound). Compression of the heart caused by collection of fluid in the pericardial cavity is cardiac tamponade (tăm-pō-NŎD). Treatment includes antiinflammatory drugs and other agents to manage pain. If the pericarditis is infective, antibiotics or antifungals are prescribed, depending on the microorganisms detected in specimens obtained by pericardiocentesis or using blood tests. Heart disease caused by rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever is a childhood disease that follows a streptococcal infection with sore throat (pharyngitis). The heart valves can be damaged by inflammation and scarred with vegetations so that they do not open and close normally (Figure 11-19A). Repeat streptococcal infection is thought to be required to produce heart disease, so children with a history of rheumatic fever are treated with monthly penicillin injections given intramuscularly until the age of 21.


Mitral stenosis, atrial fibrillation, and congestive heart failure, caused by weakening of the myocardium, also can result from rheumatic heart disease. Treatment consists of reduced activity, drugs to control arrhythmia, surgery to repair a damaged valve, and anticoagulant therapy to prevent emboli from forming. Artificial and porcine (pig) valve implants can replace deteriorated heart valves (Figure 11-19B and C).

FIGURE 11-13 A, A dual-chamber, rate-responsive pacemaker (actual size shown) is designed to detect body movement and automatically increase or decrease paced heart rates based on levels of physical activity. B, Cardiac pacemaker with leads in the right atrium and right ventricle enable it to sense and pace in both heart chambers. C, Biventricular pacemaker with leads in the right atrium and the right and left ventricles to synchronize ventricular contractions.


FIGURE 11-14 A, Coarctation of the aorta. Localized narrowing of the aorta reduces the supply of blood to the lower part of the body. B, Patent ductus arteriosus. The ductus arteriosus fails to close after birth, and blood from the aorta flows through it into the pulmonary artery.

FIGURE 11-15 A, Ventricular septal defect. A hole in the ventricular septum causes blood to flow from the left ventricle to the right and into the lungs via the pulmonary artery. B, Tetralogy of Fallot showing the four defects. The flow of blood is indicated by the arrows.


FIGURE 11-16 A, Ischemia and infarction produced by coronary artery occlusion. B, Internal view of the heart showing an area damaged by myocardial infarction.

FIGURE 11-17 Acute myocardial infarction (MI), 5 to 7 days old. The infarct is visible as a well-demarcated, pale yellow lesion in the posterolateral region of the left ventricle. The border of the infarct is surrounded by a dark red zone of acute inflammation.


FIGURE 11-18 Acute coronary syndromes: sequence of pathologic changes leading to cardiac event. A, Atherosclerotic plaque forms from lipid collection. B, Plaque rupture, causing platelet aggregation on the plaque. C, Nonocclusive thrombus forms, causing unstable angina or NSTEMI (non–ST elevation myocardial infarction). D, Alternatively, formation of an occlusive thrombus leads to a myocardial infarction or STEMI (ST elevation myocardial infarction).


FIGURE 11-19 A, Acute rheumatic mitral valvulitis with chronic rheumatic heart disease. Small vegetations are visible along the line of closure of the mitral valve leaflet (arrows). Previous episodes of rheumatic valvulitis have caused fibrous thickening and fusion of the chordae tendineae of the valves. B, Artificial heart valve. C, Porcine xenograft valve. A xenograft valve (Greek xen/o means stranger) is tissue that is transferred from an animal of one species (pig) to one of another species (human).

How Does a Pacemaker Work?

The pacemaker leads (wires) detect the heart's own electrical activity and transmit that information to the generator (computer). The computer analyzes the heart's signals and decides when and where to pace. If the rate is slow, the generator emits a signal to stimulate contraction and increase the rate. Pacemakers with multiple leads can pace the atrium and ventricle in proper sequence. Rate-responsive pacemakers have sensors that detect body movement and breathing to then determine the best heart rate.


Don't confuse palpitation with palpation, which means to touch, feel, or examine with the hands and fingers.

Blood Vessels



deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

hypertension (HTN)

peripheral arterial disease (PAD)

Raynaud (raNO) disease (Raynaud's)


Local widening (dilation) of an arterial wall. An aneurysm (Greek aneurysma, widening) usually is caused by atherosclerosis and hypertension or a congenital weakness in the vessel wall. Aneurysms are common in the aorta but may occur in peripheral vessels as well. The danger of an aneurysm is rupture and hemorrhage. Treatment depends on the vessel involved, the site, and the health of the patient. In aneurysms of small vessels in the brain, treatment is occlusion of the vessel with small clips. For larger arteries, such as the aorta, a stent graft may be sewn within the affected vessel. Figure 1120A shows an abdominal aortic aneurysm (called “AAA”), and Figure 11-20B illustrates a stent graft in place. Note that the graft is anastomosed to the normal portion of the aorta, and the aneurysm sac is closed around the graft to prevent fistula formation from graft to bowel. Blood clot (thrombus) forms in a large vein, usually in a lower limb. This condition may result in a pulmonary embolism (clot travels to the lung) if not treated effectively. Examples of anticoagulants (bloodthinning drugs) are warfarin (Coumadin) and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). They are used to prevent DVTs and pulmonary emboli (PEs) . High blood pressure. Most high blood pressure is essential hypertension, with no identifiable cause. Categories of blood pressure readings are shown in Table 11-1. Diuretics, ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, and beta-blockers are used to treat essential hypertension. Losing weight, limiting sodium (salt) intake, stopping smoking, and reducing fat in the diet also can reduce blood pressure. In secondary hypertension, the increase in pressure is caused by another associated lesion, such as glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, or vascular disease, or disease of the adrenal glands. Blockage of arteries carrying blood to the legs, arms, kidneys, and other organs. Any artery can be affected, such as the carotid (neck), femoral (thigh), or popliteal (back of the knee). A sign of PAD in the lower extremities is intermi ent claudication (absence of pain or discomfort in a leg at rest, but pain, tension, and weakness after walking has begun). Treatment is exercise, avoidance of nicotine (which causes vessel constriction), and control of risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. Surgical treatment includes endarterectomy and bypass grafting (from the normal proximal vessel around the diseased area to a normal vessel distally). Percutaneous treatments include balloon angioplasty, atherectomy, and stenting. Embolic protection devices are parachute-like filters used to capture embolic debris during stenting. Recurrent episodes of pallor and cyanosis primarily in fingers and toes. This is a rare disorder of unknown cause that affects blood flow in arteries. Raynaud's is sometimes called a disease, phenomenon, or syndrome. It is marked by brief episodes of intense constriction and vasospasm of arterioles in young, otherwise healthy women. See Figure 11-21. Episodes can be triggered by cold temperatures, emotional stress, or cigare e smoking and caffeine. Raynaud's can be controlled by protecting the body from cold and avoiding other triggers. Medications that increase blood flow to the hands and feet may relieve symptoms. Abnormally swollen and twisted veins, usually occurring in the legs.



This condition is caused by damaged valves that fail to prevent the backflow of blood (Figure 11-22A to C). The blood then collects in the veins, which distend to many times their normal size. Because of the slow flow of blood in the varicose veins and frequent injury to the vein, thrombosis may occur as well. Hemorrhoids (piles) are varicose veins near the anus. Physicians now treat varicose veins with sclerotherapy (injections with sclerosing solution) or laser and pulsed-light treatments to seal off veins. Surgical interventions such as vein stripping and ligation are used less frequently.

FIGURE 11-20 A, Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). A dissecting aortic aneurysm is a splitting or dissection of the wall of the aorta by blood entering a tear or hemorrhage within the walls of the vessel. B, Stent graft in place. This stent graft procedure is an endovascular aneurysm repair or EVAR.


FIGURE 11-21 Raynaud disease.

FIGURE 11-22 A, Valve function in normal vein and varicose vein. B, Varicose veins. C, The slow flow in veins increases susceptibility to thrombophlebitis (clot formation), edema, and pigmented skin (blood pools in the lower parts of the leg and fluid leaks from distended small capillaries). If a thrombus becomes loosened from its place in the vein, it can travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism) and block a blood vessel there.


TABLE 11-1

Aortic Aneurysms and Marfan Syndrome

Aortic aneurysms are often associated with Marfan syndrome, a genetic disorder marked by long, thin fingers, great arm span, ocular lens dislocation, and loose joints. Abraham Lincoln is thought to have had Marfan syndrome, and the syndrome also has been diagnosed in basketball and volleyball players who have died suddenly as a result of ruptured aortic aneurysms.

Warfarin (Coumadin) and DOACs

While the oral anticoagulant warfarin is used to prevent or treat thromboembolic diseases, treatment with warfarin requires careful monitoring and is complicated by drug-drug or drug-food interactions. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) such as apixaban (Eliquis), edoxaban (Savaysa), dabigatran (Pradaxa), and rivaroxaban (Xarelto) address these limitations and have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for anticoagulation in non-valvular atrial fibrillation and for the prevention and treatment of DVTs and PEs.

Study Section

Practice spelling each term and know its meaning.


acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) angina (pectoris) angiotensinconverting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor auscultation

Unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart a ack), which are consequences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries. Chest pain resulting from myocardial ischemia. Stable angina occurs predictably with exertion; unstable angina is chest pain that occurs more often and with less exertion. Antihypertensive drug that blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, causing blood vessels to dilate. It prevents heart a acks, CHF, stroke, and death. See Table 21-7 on page 835 for names of ACE inhibitors and other cardiovascular drugs.

Listening for sounds in blood vessels or other body structures, typically using a stethoscope. beta blocker Drug used to treat angina, hypertension, and arrhythmias. It blocks the action of epinephrine (adrenaline) at receptor sites on cells, slowing the heartbeat and reducing the workload on the heart. biventricular Device enabling ventricles to beat together (in synchrony) so that more pacemaker blood is pumped out of the heart. bruit Abnormal blowing or swishing sound heard during auscultation of an artery or organ. calcium Drug used to treat angina and hypertension. It dilates blood vessels by channel blocking the influx of calcium into muscle cells lining vessels. blocker cardiac arrest Sudden, unexpected stoppage of heart action, often leading to sudden cardiac death. cardiac Pressure on the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial space. tamponade claudication Pain, tension, and weakness in a leg after walking has begun, but absence of pain at rest. digoxin Drug that treats arrhythmias and strengthens the heartbeat. embolus Clot or other substance that travels to a distant location and suddenly blocks (plural: a blood vessel. emboli) infarction Area of dead tissue. nitrates Drugs used in the treatment of angina. They dilate blood vessels, increasing blood flow and oxygen to myocardial tissue. nitroglycerin Nitrate drug used in the treatment of angina. occlusion Closure of a blood vessel due to blockage. palpitations Uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias, such as premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). patent Open. pericardial Scraping or grating noise heard on auscultation of the heart; suggestive of friction rub pericarditis. petechiae Small, pinpoint hemorrhages. statins Drugs used to lower cholesterol in the bloodstream. thrill Vibration felt over an area of turmoil in blood flow (as a blocked artery). vegetations Clumps of platelets, clo ing proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on diseased heart valves.


Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures Laboratory Tests BNP test

cardiac biomarkers

lipid tests (lipid profile)

lipoprotein electrophoresis

Measurement of BNP (brain natriuretic peptide) in blood. BNP is elevated in patients with heart failure, and it is useful in the diagnosis of CHF in patients with dyspnea who come to the emergency department. Its presence also identifies patients at risk for complications when presenting with acute coronary syndromes (e.g., myocardial infarction, unstable angina). It is secreted when the heart becomes overloaded, and it acts as a diuretic to help heart function return to normal. Cardiologists also measure NT-proBNP levels to assess the degree of heart failure. NT stands for N-terminal. The reference to brain in this term originates from the initial identification of the protein in the brain of a pig. Chemicals are measured in the blood as evidence of a heart a ack. Damaged heart muscle releases chemicals into the bloodstream. The substances tested for are troponin-I (cTnI) and troponin-T (cTnT). Troponin is a heart muscle protein released into circulation after myocardial injury. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a biomarker of inflammation. Highsensitivity CRP (Hs-CRP) is useful in predicting risk for heart a ack, stroke, or other major heart disease. Measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides (fats) in a blood sample. High levels of lipids are associated with atherosclerosis. The general guideline for total cholesterol in the blood is less than 200 mg/dL. Saturated fats (of animal origin, such as milk, bu er, and meats) increase cholesterol in the blood, whereas polyunsaturated fats (of vegetable origin, such as corn and safflower oil) decrease blood cholesterol. Treatment of hyperlipidemia includes proper diet (low-fat, high-fiber intake) and exercise. Niacin (a vitamin) also helps reduce lipids. Drug therapy includes statins, which reduce the risk of heart a ack, stroke, and cardiovascular death. Statins lower cholesterol by reducing its production in the liver. Examples are simvastatin (Zocor), atorvastatin (Lipitor), pravastatin (Pravachol), and rosuvastatin (Crestor). Lipoproteins (combinations of fat and protein) are physically separated and measured in a blood sample. Examples of lipoproteins are low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). High levels of LDL are associated with atherosclerosis. The National Guideline for LDL is less than 130 mg/dL in normal persons and less than 70 mg/dL in patients with CAD, PAD, and diabetes mellitus. High levels of HDL protect adults from atherosclerosis. Factors that increase HDL are exercise and alcohol consumption in moderation.

Clinical Procedures: Diagnostic X-Ray and Electron Beam Tests


angiography computed tomography angiography (CTA)

digital subtraction angiography (DSA) electron beam computed tomography (EBCT or EBT)

X-ray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast material. Arteriography is x-ray imaging of arteries after injection of contrast via a catheter into the aorta or an artery. Three-dimensional x-ray images of the heart and coronary arteries using computed tomography (64-slice CT scanner). This newer technique takes hundreds of images of the heart per second. Cross-sectional images are assembled by computer into a threedimensional picture. It is less invasive than angiography (contrast material is injected into a small peripheral vein with a small needle) and provides excellent views of the coronary arteries for diagnosis of coronary artery disease (Figure 11-23A). Video equipment and a computer produce x-ray images of blood vessels. After taking an initial x-ray picture and storing it in a computer, physicians inject contrast material and take a second image of that area. The computer compares the two images and subtracts digital data for the first from the second, leaving an image of vessels with contrast. Electron beams and CT identify calcium deposits in and around coronary arteries to diagnose early CAD. A coronary artery calcium score is derived to indicate future risk of heart a ack and stroke (see Figure 11-23B).

FIGURE 11-23 A, Computed tomography angiography (CTA) showing coronary arteries. B, Electron beam computed tomography showing significant calcification (white areas) in the coronary arteries, indicating advanced coronary artery disease. (A, Courtesy Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.)

Coronary Artery Calcium Score


0-99 100-399 >400

low risk intermediate risk high risk

A calcium score >400 is associated with a nearly 25% chance of a heart a ack or stroke occurring within 10 years.

Ultrasound Examination Doppler ultrasound studies

echocardiography (ECHO)

Sound waves measure blood flow within blood vessels. An instrument focuses sound waves on blood vessels, and echoes bounce off red blood cells. The examiner can hear various alterations in blood flow caused by vessel obstruction. Duplex ultrasound combines Doppler and conventional ultrasound to allow physicians to image the structure of blood vessels and measure the speed of blood flow. Carotid artery occlusion, aneurysms, varicose veins, and other vessel disorders can be diagnosed with duplex ultrasound. Echoes generated by high-frequency sound waves produce images of the heart (Figure 11-24A). ECHOs show the structure and movement of the heart. In transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), a transducer placed in the esophagus provides ultrasound and Doppler information (Figure 11-24B). This technique detects cardiac masses, prosthetic valve function, aneurysms, and pericardial fluid.

FIGURE 11-24 A, Echocardiogram. Notice that in this view, the ventricles are above the atria. B, Transesophageal echocardiography.


Nuclear Cardiology positron emission tomography (PET) scan technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scan thallium 201 scan

Images show blood flow and myocardial function following uptake of radioactive glucose. PET scanning can detect CAD, myocardial function, and differences between ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy. Technetium Tc 99m sestamibi injected intravenously is taken up in cardiac tissue, where it is detected by scanning. This scan is used in persons who have had an MI, to assess the amount of damaged heart muscle. It also is used with an exercise tolerance test (ETT-MIBI). Sestamibi is a radioactive tracer compound used to define areas of poor blood flow in heart muscle. Concentration of radioactive thallium is measured to give information about blood supply to the heart muscle. Thallium studies show the viability of heart muscle. Infarcted or scarred myocardium shows up as “cold spots.”

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) cardiac MRI

Images of the heart are produced using radiowave energy in a magnetic field. These images in multiple planes give information about left and right ventricular function, wall thickness, and fibrosis, aneurysms, cardiac output, and patency of peripheral and coronary arteries. The magnetic waves emi ed during MRI could interfere with implanted pacemakers because of their metal content and heat generation, so it is currently contraindicated for a patient with a pacemaker to undergo cardiac MRI. However, new MRI-safe pacemakers have been approved. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a type of MRI that gives highly detailed images of blood vessels. Physicians use MRA to view arteries and blockage inside arteries. Gadolinium is the most common contrast agent used for MRI procedures.

Other Diagnostic Procedures


cardiac catheterization

electrocardiography (ECG)

Holter monitoring

stress test

Thin, flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or an artery. This procedure detects pressures and pa erns of blood flow in the heart. Contrast may be injected and x-ray images taken of the heart and blood vessels (Figure 11-25). This procedure may be used in diagnosis and treatment of heart conditions (see under percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI] on page 407). At the time of catheterization, the interventional cardiologist also may perform intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to evaluate the severity of vessel narrowing. It also measures fractional flow reserve (FFR) to determine the impact of the coronary artery blockage on blood flow. Recording of electricity flowing through the heart. Continuous monitoring of a patient's heart rhythm in hospitals is performed via telemetry (electronic transmission of data—tele/o means distant). Sinus rhythm begins in the SA node, and the normal rate is between 60 to 100 beats per minute. Figure 11-26 shows ECG strips for normal sinus rhythm and several types of dysrhythmias (abnormal rhythms). An ECG device is worn during prolonged period to detect cardiac arrhythmias. Rhythm changes are correlated with symptoms recorded in a diary. Exercise tolerance test (ETT) determines the heart's response to physical exertion (stress). A common protocol uses 3-minute stages at set speeds and elevations of a treadmill. Continual monitoring of vital signs and ECG rhythms is important in the diagnosis of CAD and left ventricular function.

FIGURE 11-25 Transradial cardiac catheterization. The catheter is passed retrograde (backward) from the radial artery into the aorta and then into the left ventricle.


FIGURE 11-26 ECG rhythm strips showing normal sinus rhythm and dysrhythmias (arrhythmias).

Clinical Procedures: Treatment


catheter ablation

coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)



extracorporeal circulation

heart transplantation

percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

Brief delivery of radiofrequency energy to ablate (remove) areas of heart tissue that may be causing arrhythmias. A catheter is guided through a vein in the leg to the vena cava and into the heart. The abnormal electrical pathway is located and ablated (destroyed) using energy emi ed from the catheter. See Figure 1127A. Arteries and veins are anastomosed to coronary arteries to detour around blockages. Internal mammary (breast) and radial (arm) arteries and saphenous (leg) vein grafts are used to keep the myocardium supplied with oxygenated blood (Figure 11-27B). Cardiac surgeons perform minimally invasive CABG surgery using smaller incisions instead of the traditional sternotomy to open the chest. Vein and artery grafts are removed endoscopically through small incisions as well. Although most operations are performed with a heart-lung machine (“on pump”), an increasing number are performed “off pump” with a beating heart. See In Person: Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery, page 412. Brief discharges of electricity are applied across the chest to stop dysrhythmias (ventricular fibrillation). For patients at high risk for sudden cardiac death from ventricular dysrhythmias, an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD) is placed in the upper chest. Cardioversion is another technique using lower energy to treat atrial fibrillation, atrial flu er, and supraventricular tachycardia. Surgical removal of plaque from the inner layer of an artery. Fa y deposits (atheromas) and thromboses are removed to open clogged arteries. Carotid endarterectomy is a procedure to remove plaque buildup in the carotid artery to reduce risk of stroke. Heart-lung machine diverts blood from the heart and lungs while the heart is repaired. Blood leaves the body, enters the heart-lung machine, where it is oxygenated, and then returns to a blood vessel (artery) to circulate through the bloodstream. The machine uses the technique of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Donor heart is transferred to a recipient. While waiting for a transplant, a patient may need a left ventricular assist device (LVAD), which is a booster pump implanted in the chest or abdomen with cannulae (flexible tubes) from the left ventricle to the ascending aorta. Balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open the artery; stents are put in place. An interventional cardiologist places the catheter in the femoral or radial artery and then threads it up the aorta into the coronary artery. Stents (expandable slo ed metal tubes that serve as permanent scaffolding devices) create wide lumens and make restenosis less likely. Drug-eluting stents (DESs) are coated with polymers that elute (release) anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative drugs to prevent scar tissue formation leading to restenosis (Figure 11-28). Other devices are bioabsorbable vascular scaffolds (BVSs), made of dissolvable material, and drug-coated balloons (DCBs) that release paclitaxel. PCI techniques include percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), stent placement, laser angioplasty (a small laser


thrombolytic therapy

transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)

on the tip of a catheter vaporizes plaque), and atherectomy. Drugs to dissolve clots are injected into the bloodstream of patients with coronary thrombosis. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and streptokinase restore blood flow to the heart and limit irreversible damage to heart muscle. The drugs are given within 12 hours after the onset of a heart a ack. Thrombolytic agents reduce the mortality rate in patients with myocardial infarction by 25%. Placement of a balloon-expandable aortic heart valve into the body via a catheter. The catheter is guided into the heart through the femoral artery, and a stent valve device is inserted using the catheter. This is a newer, minimally invasive catheter-based technology used to treat aortic stenosis.

FIGURE 11-27 A, Catheter ablation. SVT, atrial flutter, AF, and VT may be treated with ablation when clinically indicated. B, Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery with anastomosis of vein and arterial grafts. (1) A section of a vein is removed from the leg and anastomosed (upside down because of its directional valves) to a coronary artery, to bypass an area of arteriosclerotic blockage. (2) An internal mammary artery is grafted to a coronary artery to bypass a blockage.


FIGURE 11-28 Placement of an intracoronary artery drugeluting stent. A, The stent is positioned at the site of the lesion. B, The balloon is inflated, expanding the stent and compressing the plaque. C, When the balloon is withdrawn, the stent supports the artery and releases a drug to reduce the risk of restenosis. Stents are stainless-steel scaffolding devices that help hold open arteries, such as the coronary, renal, and carotid arteries.




abdominal aortic aneurysm angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor

advanced cardiac life support; CPR plus drugs and defibrillation acute coronary syndrome adenosine diphosphate; ADP blockers are used to prevent cardiovascularrelated death, heart a ack, and strokes and after all stent procedures AED automatic external defibrillator AF, a-fib atrial fibrillation AICD automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator AMI acute myocardial infarction ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker ARVD arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia AS aortic stenosis ASD atrial septal defect AV, A-V atrioventricular AVR aortic valve replacement BBB bundle branch block BNP brain natriuretic peptide; elevated in congestive heart failure BP blood pressure CABG coronary artery bypass grafting CAD coronary artery disease CCTA coronary computed tomography angiography CCU coronary care unit Cath catheterization CHF congestive heart failure CK creatine kinase; enzyme released after injury to heart muscles CoA coarctation of the aorta CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation CRT cardiac resynchronization therapy; biventricular pacing and defibrillation devices CTNI or cardiac troponin-I and cardiac troponin-T; troponin is a protein released into cTnI; CTNT the bloodstream after myocardial injury or cTnT DES drug-eluting stent DOAC direct oral anticoagulant DSA digital subtraction angiography DVT deep vein thrombosis ECG; also electrocardiography seen as EKG ECHO echocardiography ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation EF ejection fraction; measure of the amount of blood that pumps out of the heart with each beat EPS electrophysiology study; electrode catheters inserted in veins and threaded into the heart to measure electrical conduction (tachycardias are provoked and analyzed) ETT exercise tolerance test ETT-MIBI exercise tolerance test combined with a radioactive tracer (sestamibi) scan EVAR endovascular aneurysm repair FFR fractional flow reserve HDL high-density lipoprotein; high blood levels mean lower incidence of coronary artery disease



high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; biomarker for inflammation in prediction of heart a ack risk HTN hypertension (high blood pressure) IABP intra-aortic balloon pump; used to support patients in cardiogenic shock ICA invasive coronary angiography ICD implantable cardioverter-defibrillator IVUS intravascular ultrasound LAD left anterior descending (coronary artery) LBBB left bundle branch block LDL low-density lipoprotein; high blood levels lead to cholesterol buildup in arteries LMWH low-molecular-weight heparin LV left ventricle LVAD left ventricular assist device LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction LVH left ventricular hypertrophy MI myocardial infarction MUGA multiple-gated acquisition scan; a radioactive test of heart function MVP mitral valve prolapse NSR normal sinus rhythm NT-proBNP N-terminal pro-peptide of BNP NSTEMI non–ST elevation MI PAC premature atrial contraction PAD peripheral arterial disease PCI percutaneous coronary intervention PDA patent ductus arteriosus PE pulmonary embolus PVC premature ventricular contraction RBBB right bundle branch block SA, S-A sinoatrial node node SCD sudden cardiac death SOB shortness of breath SPECT single photon emission computed tomography; used for myocardial imaging with sestamibi scans STEMI ST elevation myocardial infarction SVT supraventricular tachycardia; rapid heartbeats arising from the atria and causing palpitations, SOB, and dizziness TAVR transcatheter aortic valve replacement TEE transesophageal echocardiography TEVAR thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair TGA transposition of the great arteries tPA tissue-type plasminogen activator; a drug used to prevent thrombosis UA unstable angina; chest pain at rest or of increasing frequency VF ventricular fibrillation VSD ventricular septal defect VT ventricular tachycardia WPW Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome; abnormal ECG pa ern associated with paroxysmal tachycardia


Practical Applications

Answers to Practical Applications are found on page 425.

Operating Room Schedule: General Hospital Match the operative treatment in Column I with the appropriate surgical indication (diagnosis) in Column II. COLUMN I 1. coronary artery bypass grafting 2. left carotid endarterectomy 3. sclerosing injections and laser treatment 4. LV aneurysmectomy 5. atrial septal defect repair 6. left ventricular assist device 7. pericardiocentesis 8. aortic valve replacement 9. pacemaker implantation 10. femoral-popliteal bypass grafting

COLUMN II _______ A. Congestive heart failure B. Cardiac tamponade (fluid in the space _______ surrounding the heart) C. Atherosclerotic occlusion of a main artery leading _______ to the head D. Congenital hole in the wall of the upper chamber _______ of the heart _______ E. Disabling angina and extensive coronary _______ atherosclerosis despite medical therapy F. Peripheral vascular disease _______ G. Heart block _______ H. Varicose veins I. Protrusion of the wall of a lower heart chamber _______ J. Aortic stenosis _______

New and Important Cardiovascular Drugs Antiplatelet agents: These drugs are used after stent placement or after ACS (acute coronary syndromes). • clopidrogrel (Plavix) • prasugrel (Effient) • ticagrelor (Brilinta) DOACs (direct oral anticoagulant agents): These drugs are used to prevent strokes related to atrial fibrillation and clot formation. • apixaban (Eliquis) • dabidatran (Pradaxa) • edoxaban (Savaysa • rivaroxaban (Xarelto) Entresto: Exciting new combination drug to treat heart failure. It has outperformed traditional angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in a major clinical trial and has been shown to reduce mortality due to heart failure. • valsartan/sacubitril

Clinical Cases: What's Your Diagnosis?


Case 1: A 24-year-old woman with a history of palpitations [heartbeat is unusually strong, rapid, or irregular, so that patient is aware of it] and vague chest pains enters the hospital. With the patient supine, you hear a midsystolic click that is followed by a grade 3/6 [moderately loud—6/6 is loud and 1/6 is quiet] honking murmur. 1. Your diagnosis is: a. Tetralogy of Fallot b. Mitral valve prolapse c. Raynaud disease d. Congestive heart failure Case 2: Mr. Smith is brought urgently to the Emergency Room for prolonged chest pain. His ECG showed ST segment elevation in the anterior leads and he was then transferred to the cardiac cath lab. An angiogram reveals 100% blockage of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. PCI with stent is recommended. 1. What did the ECG reveal? a. NSTEMI and unstable angina b. Aortic aneurysm c. CHF d. STEMI 2. Your diagnosis for this patient is: a. Heart a ack b. Rheumatic heart disease c. Unstable angina d. Patent ductus arteriosus 3. What treatment is recommended? a. Coronary artery bypass grafting b. Catheterization with drug-eluting stent placement c. Defibrillation and cardioversion d. Thrombolytic drugs Case 3: A 42-year-old female runner recovering from an upper respiratory infection comes to the ED complaining of chest pain that is sharp and constant, worse when she is lying down and decreased with si ing up and leaning forward. Serum troponin levels rule out an acute MI. The ED physician auscultates a pericardial friction rub. 1. What's your diagnosis for this patient? a. Myocardial ischemia b. Unstable angina and NSTEMI


c. Endocarditis d. Pericarditis 2. The danger of this condition is the risk for progression to: a. Cardiac tamponade b. Aneurysm c. Pulmonary embolism d. Claudication

In Person Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

Possible heart a ack? You have to be kidding. I had none of the supposed symptoms—shortness of breath or chest pain. Instead, I had bouts of atrial fibrillation off and on for several months. I got tired easily, and I could feel my blood pressure drop. After lying down for about an hour, I was fine, so in November 2010 I decided to get it checked out. My cardiologist decided to do a stress test. He put me on a treadmill, which seemed like an eternity, and then did some ultrasound on me. I work out every day on a treadmill and a recumbent bike, so the test on


the treadmill wasn't that difficult, although I loved the words “just a couple of seconds to go.” The cardiologist at Johns Hopkins told me after the stress test that it appeared that I had a slight blockage of an artery. No problem, I thought. Angioplasty was recommended. During angioplasty, a catheter was inserted up my right arm, and although I was lightly sedated, I still felt it, particularly when the doctor hit a problem and had to make a slight correction. I was certain that they would put in a stent and I'd be home by the weekend. “No,” said my doctor. “You have three blockages and will need bypass surgery.” I thought he must be talking about someone else. That can't be me! The blockages did not require immediate surgery. After all, I was pain free and asymptomatic. Still, I asked for an early date for surgery, and it was set for January 11, 2011. (That was 1/11/11. How odd.) The triple coronary artery bypass opened me up like a beached tuna and made me an official member of the “zipper club.” The atrial fibrillation was fixed with radiofrequency ablation. After surgery I had to lie on my back, which meant minimal sleep for a week. Lasix (a diuretic) was my biggest problem, along with a dozen pills I had to take far too often. According to my surgeon, who visited me a day later, things went well, and I was up and walking the hallways of Hopkins with the help of a nurse and a walker. I went home in a week. The toughest part of the ordeal, oddly enough, was trying to get to the bathroom in time and the bumpy ride home. Those bumps made me hold that pillow [for abdominal support] as close as I could. Ouch. After I returned home, two nurses came for home care, and they were fabulous. I lost about 20 pounds before the surgery and another 17 pounds afterward. I went from 210 pounds to around 173 pounds. Nowadays, I eat no red meat, nothing with bu er, and as li le fat and salt as possible. In other words, I eat fish primarily. I work out every day (between 30 and 60 minutes), and I have regular checkups with my cardiologist. I was lucky that the atrial fibrillation alerted my physicians to a deeper problem that may have resulted in a heart a ack or even death. Secondly, I was fortunate to have some true professionals on hand to get me through the darkest days of my life. Many people who had bypass surgery told me I would have more energy after surgery due to my new plumbing. That occurred within 6-7 months after my surgery. Stan Ber was born in Maine and is a graduate of Bowdoin College. He retired from his career as a sports editor and columnist for the Columbia Flier and Howard County Times in December 2014 after 44 years. He was inducted


into the Howard County Sports Hall of Fame in 2009 and has been recognized by the Maryland State Legislature.


Exercises Remember to check your answers carefully with the Answers to Exercises, page 422.

A Match the listed structures with the descriptions that follow. aorta arteriole atrium capillary inferior vena cava mitral valve pulmonary artery pulmonary vein superior vena cava tricuspid valve ventricle venule 1. valve that lies between the right atrium and the right ventricle _______________________ 2. smallest blood vessel _______________________ 3. carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart _______________________ 4. largest artery in the body _______________________ 5. brings oxygen-poor blood into the heart from the upper parts of the body __________________ 6. upper chamber of the heart _______________________


7. carries oxygen-poor blood to the lungs from the heart _______________________ 8. small artery _______________________ 9. valve that lies between the left atrium and the left ventricle _______________________ 10. brings blood from the lower half of the body to the heart _______________________ 11. small vein _______________________ 12. lower chamber of the heart _______________________ B Trace the path of blood through the heart. Begin as the blood enters the right atrium from the venae cavae (and include the valves within the heart). 1. right atrium______________________ 2. ________________________________ 3. _______________________________ 4. _______________________________ 5. _______________________________ 6. capillaries of the lung_____________ 7. ______________________________ 8. ______________________________ 9. ___________________________ 10. ____________________________ 11. __________________________ 12. aorta_________________________ C Complete the following sentences. 1. The pacemaker of the heart is the ___________________________________________.


2. The sac-like membrane surrounding the heart is the _____________________________. 3. The wall of the heart between the right and the left atria is the _____________________. 4. The relaxation phase of the heartbeat is called __________________________________. 5. Specialized conductive tissue in the wall between the ventricles is the _______________. 6. The inner lining of the heart is the ____________________________________________. 7. The contractive phase of the heartbeat is called __________________________________. 8. A gas released as a metabolic product of catabolism is ____________________________. 9. Specialized conductive tissue at the base of the wall between the two upper heart chambers is the _____________________. 10. The inner lining of the pericardium, closely enveloping the heart, is the ____________________. 11. An abnormal heart sound due to improper closure of heart valves is a _____________________. 12. The beat of the heart as felt through the walls of arteries is called the _____________________. D Complete the following terms using the given definitions. 1. hardening of arteries: arterio _____________________ 2. disease condition of heart muscle: cardio _____________________


3. enlargement of the heart: cardio _____________________ 4. inflammation of a vein: phleb _____________________ 5. condition of rapid heartbeat: _____________________ cardia 6. condition of slow heartbeat: _____________________ cardia 7. high levels of cholesterol in the blood: hyper _____________________ 8. surgical repair of a valve: valvulo _____________________ 9. condition of deficient oxygen: hyp _____________________ 10. pertaining to an upper heart chamber: _____________________ al 11. narrowing of the mitral valve: mitral _____________________ 12. breakdown of a clot: thrombo _____________________ E Give the meanings of the following terms. 1. cyanosis _____________________________________________ ___ 2. phlebotomy _____________________________________________ ___ 3. arterial anastomosis _____________________________________________ ___


4. cardiogenic shock _____________________________________________ ___ 5. atheroma _____________________________________________ ___ 6. arrhythmia _____________________________________________ ___ 7. sphygmomanometer _____________________________________________ ___ 8. stethoscope _____________________________________________ ___ 9. mitral valvulitis _____________________________________________ ___ 10. atherosclerosis _____________________________________________ __ 11. vasoconstriction _____________________________________________ ___ 12. vasodilation _____________________________________________ ___ F Match the following pathologic conditions of the heart with their meanings below. atrial septal defect coarctation of the aorta


congestive heart failure coronary artery disease endocarditis fibrillation flu er hypertensive heart disease mitral valve prolapse patent ductus arteriosus pericarditis tetralogy of Fallot 1. inflammation of the inner lining of the heart _________________________ 2. rapid but regular atrial or ventricular contractions _________________________ 3. small hole between the upper heart chambers; congenital anomaly ________________________ 4. improper closure of the valve between the left atrium and ventricle during systole _________________________ 5. blockage of the arteries surrounding the heart leading to ischemia ________________________ 6. high blood pressure affecting the heart _________________________ 7. rapid, random, ineffectual, and irregular contractions of the heart _________________________ 8. inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart _________________________


9. inability of the heart to pump its required amount of blood _________________________ 10. congenital malformation involving four separate heart defects _________________________ 11. congenital narrowing of the large artery leading from the heart _________________________ 12. a duct between the aorta and the pulmonary artery, which normally closes soon after birth, remains open _________________________ G Give the meanings of the following terms. 1. heart block _____________________________________________ _________________________ 2. cardiac arrest _____________________________________________ _______________________ 3. palpitations _____________________________________________ ________________________ 4. artificial cardiac pacemaker _____________________________________________ ____________ 5. thrombotic occlusion _____________________________________________ ________________ 6. angina _____________________________________________ __________________________ 7. myocardial infarction _____________________________________________ _________________


8. necrosis _____________________________________________ __________________________ 9. infarction _____________________________________________ __________________________ 10. ischemia _____________________________________________ __________________________ 11. nitroglycerin _____________________________________________ _______________________ 12. digoxin _____________________________________________ __________________________ 13. bruit _____________________________________________ __________________________ 14. thrill _____________________________________________ __________________________ 15. acute coronary syndromes _____________________________________________ _____________ 16. pericardial friction rub _____________________________________________ _______________ 17. deep vein thrombosis _____________________________________________ ______________


18. biventricular pacemaker _____________________________________________ ______________ H Match the following terms with their descriptions. aneurysm auscultation claudication emboli essential hypertension murmur peripheral arterial disease petechiae Raynaud disease rheumatic heart disease secondary hypertension vegetations 1. lesions that form on heart valves after damage by infection ______________________________ 2. clots that travel to and suddenly block a blood vessel ____________________________________ 3. small, pinpoint hemorrhages ____________________________________ 4. an extra heart sound, heard between normal beats and caused by a valvular defect or condition that disrupts the smooth flow of blood through the heart ____________________________ 5. listening with a stethoscope ____________________________________


6. heart disease caused by rheumatic fever ____________________________________ 7. high blood pressure in arteries when the etiology is idiopathic ____________________________ 8. high blood pressure related to kidney disease ____________________________________ 9. episodes of pallor, numbness, and cyanosis in fingers and toes caused by a temporary constriction of arterioles ____________________________________ 10. local widening of an artery ____________________________________ 11. pain, tension, and weakness in a limb after walking has begun _________________________ 12. blockage of arteries in the lower extremities; etiology is atherosclerosis ______________ I Give short answers for the following. 1. Types of drugs used to treat acute coronary syndromes include _____________________________________________ ___________________________________________. 2. When damaged valves in veins fail to prevent the backflow of blood, a condition (swollen, twisted vein) that results is ____________________________________. 3. Swollen, twisted veins in the rectal region are called _________________________________. 4. Name the four defects in tetralogy of Fallot from their descriptions:


a. narrowing of the artery leading to the lungs from the heart _______________________ b. gap in the wall between the ventricles _________________________________________ c. the large vessel leading from the left ventricle moves over the interventricular septum _______________ d. excessive development of the wall of the right lower heart chamber _____________________________________________ ____________________________________ J Select from the list of cardiac tests and procedures to complete the definitions that follow. angiography (arteriography) cardiac biomarkers cardiac MRI coronary artery bypass grafting defibrillation echocardiography electrocardiography endarterectomy lipid tests (profile) lipoprotein electrophoresis stress test thallium 201 scan 1. surgical removal of plaque from the inner lining of an artery ___________________________ 2. application of brief electrical discharges across the chest to stop ventricular fibrillation and pulseless


ventricular tachycardia __________________________________ 3. measurement of levels of fa y substances (cholesterol and triglycerides) in the bloodstream __________________________________ 4. measurement of the heart's response to physical exertion (patient monitored while jogging on a treadmill) __________________________________ 5. measurement of troponin-T and troponin-I after myocardial infarction _____________________ 6. injection of contrast into vessels and x-ray imaging __________________________________ 7. recording of the electricity in the heart __________________________________ 8. intravenous injection of a radioactive substance and measurement of its accumulation in heart muscle __________________________________ 9. use of echoes from high-frequency sound waves to produce images of the heart ______________ 10. separation of HDL and LDL from a blood sample __________________________________ 11. anastomosis of vessel grafts to existing coronary arteries to maintain blood supply to the myocardium __________________________________ 12. beaming of magnetic waves at the heart to produce images of its structure _________________ K Give the meanings for the following terms. 1. digital subtraction angiography _____________________________________________


2. heart transplantation _____________________________________________ __________ 3. ETT-MIBI _____________________________________________ __________ 4. Doppler ultrasound _____________________________________________ __________ 5. Holter monitoring _____________________________________________ __________ 6. thrombolytic therapy _____________________________________________ __________ 7. extracorporeal circulation _____________________________________________ __________ 8. cardiac catheterization _____________________________________________ __________ 9. percutaneous coronary intervention __________________________________________ 10. drug-eluting stent _____________________________________________ __________ 11. electron beam computed tomography _____________________________________________ ___ 12. CT angiography _____________________________________________


__________ L Identify the following cardiac dysrhythmias from their abbreviations. 1. AF _____________________________________________ ___ 2. VT _____________________________________________ ___ 3. VF _____________________________________________ ___ 4. PVC _____________________________________________ ___ 5. PAC _____________________________________________ ___ M Identify the following abnormal cardiac conditions from their abbreviations. 1. CHF _____________________________________________ _ 2. VSD _____________________________________________ _ 3. MI _____________________________________________ _


4. PDA _____________________________________________ _ 5. MVP _____________________________________________ _ 6. AS _____________________________________________ _ 7. CAD _____________________________________________ _ 8. ASD _____________________________________________ _ N Match the listed abbreviations for cardiac tests and procedures with the explanations/descriptions that follow. BNP CRT cTnI or cTnT ECHO ECMO ETT ETT-MIBI ICD LDL LVAD RFA


TEE 1. cardiac serum enzyme test for myocardial infarction _____________________ 2. booster pump implanted in the abdomen with a cannula leading to the heart as a “bridge to transplant” _____________________ 3. ultrasound imaging of the heart using transducer within the esophagus_____________________ 4. device implanted in the chest that senses and corrects arrhythmias by shocking the heart _____________________ 5. catheter delivery of a high-frequency current to damage a small portion of the heart muscle and reverse an abnormal heart rhythm _____________________ 6. procedure to determine the heart's response to physical exertion (stress) ___________________ 7. cardiac imaging using high-frequency sound waves pulsed through the chest wall and bounced off heart structures _____________________ 8. radioactive test of heart function with stress test _____________________ 9. technique using heart-lung machine to divert blood from the heart and lungs while the heart is being repaired _____________________ 10. biventricular pacing to correct serious abnormal ventricular rhythms _____________________ 11. lipoprotein sample is measured _____________________ 12. brain chemical measured to identify patients at risk for complications after MI and with CHF


_____________________ O Spell the term correctly from its definition. 1. pertaining to the heart: __________________________ ary 2. not a normal heart rhythm: arr __________________________ 3. abnormal condition of blueness: __________________________ osis 4. relaxation phase of the heartbeat: __________________________ tole 5. chest pain: __________________________ pectoris 6. inflammation of a vein: __________________________ itis 7. widening of a vessel: vaso __________________________ 8. enlargement of the heart: cardio __________________________ 9. hardening of arteries with fa y plaque: __________________________ sclerosis 10. swollen veins in the rectal region: __________________________ oids P Match the listed terms for cardiovascular procedures with the meanings/descriptions that follow. aneurysmorrhaphy atherectomy BNP test CABG catheter ablation embolectomy


endarterectomy PCI pericardiocentesis STEMI thrombolytic therapy valvotomy 1. incision of a heart valve __________________________ 2. removal of a clot that has traveled into a blood vessel and suddenly caused occlusion __________________________ 3. coronary artery bypass grafting (to relieve ischemia) __________________________ 4. surgical puncture to remove fluid from the pericardial space __________________________ 5. insertion of a balloon-tipped catheter and stents into a coronary artery _____________________ 6. removal of the inner lining of an artery to make it wider __________________________ 7. suture (repair) of a ballooned-out portion of an artery __________________________ 8. removal of plaque from an artery __________________________ 9. type of acute coronary syndrome __________________________ 10. use of streptokinase and tPA to dissolve clots __________________________ 11. brief delivery of radiofrequency energy to destroy areas of heart tissue for treating arrhythmias __________________________


12. measures a peptide elevated in patients with heart failure __________________________ Q Select the boldface terms that best complete each sentence. 1. Bill was having pain in his chest that radiated up his neck and down his arm. He called his family physician, who thought Bill should report to the local hospital's emergency department (ED) immediately. The first test performed in the ED was a/an (stress test, ECG, CABG). 2. Dr. Kelly explained to the family that their observation of the bluish color of baby Charles's skin helped her make the diagnosis of a/an (thrombotic, aneurysmal, septal) defect in the baby's heart, which needed immediate a ention. 3. Mr. Duggan had a fever of unknown origin. When the doctors completed an echocardiogram and saw vegetations on his mitral valve, they suspected (bacterial endocarditis, hypertensive heart disease, angina). 4. Claudia's fingers turned white or bluish whenever she went out into the cold or became stressed. Her physician thought it might be wise to evaluate her for (varicose veins, Raynaud's, intermi ent claudication). 5. Daisy's heart felt as if it was skipping beats every time she drank coffee. Her physician suggested that she wear a/an (Holter monitor, LVAD, CABG) for 24 hours to assess the nature of the arrhythmia. 6. Paola's father and grandfather died of heart a acks. Her physician tells her that she has inherited a


tendency to accumulate fats in her bloodstream. Blood tests reveal high levels of (enzymes, lipids, nitroglycerin). Discussing her family history with her (gynecologist, hematologist, cardiologist), she understands that she has familial (hypocholesterolemia, hypercholesterolemia, cardiomyopathy). 7. While exercising, Bernard experienced a pain (cramp) in his calf muscle. The pain disappeared when he was resting. After performing (Holter monitoring, Doppler ultrasound, echocardiography) on his leg to assess blood flow, Dr. Shaw found (stenosis, fibrillation, endocarditis), indicating poor circulation. She recommended a daily exercise program, low-fat diet, careful foot care, and antiplatelet drug therapy to treat Bernard's intermi ent (palpitations, hypertension, claudication). 8. Carol noticed that her 6-week-old son Louis had a slightly bluish or (jaundiced, cyanotic, diastolic) coloration to his skin. She consulted a pediatric (dermatologist, hematologist, cardiologist), who performed (echocardiography, PET scan, endarterectomy) and diagnosed Louis's condition as (endocarditis, congestive heart disease, tetralogy of Fallot). 9. Seventy-eight-year-old John Smith has had coronary artery disease and high blood pressure for the past 10 years. His history included an acute heart a ack, or (MI, PDA, CABG). He often was tired and complained of (dyspnea, nausea, migraine headaches) and swelling in his ankles. His physician diagnosed his condition as (aortic


p y g aneurysm, congestive heart failure, congenital heart disease) and recommended restricted salt intake, diuretics, and an (ACE inhibitor, antibiotic, analgesic). 10. Sarah had a routine checkup that included (auscultation, vasoconstriction, vasodilation) of her chest with a (catheter, stent, stethoscope) to listen to her heart. Her physician noticed a midsystolic murmur characteristic of (DVT, MVP, LDL). An echocardiogram confirmed the diagnosis.


Answers to Exercises A 1. tricuspid valve 2. capillary 3. pulmonary vein 4. aorta 5. superior vena cava 6. atrium 7. pulmonary artery 8. arteriole 9. mitral valve 10. inferior vena cava 11. venule 12. ventricle B 1. right atrium 2. tricuspid valve 3. right ventricle 4. pulmonary valve 5. pulmonary artery 6. capillaries of the lung 7. pulmonary veins


8. left atrium 9. mitral valve 10. left ventricle 11. aortic valve 12. aorta C 1. sinoatrial (SA) node 2. pericardium 3. interatrial septum 4. diastole 5. atrioventricular bundle or bundle of His 6. endocardium 7. systole 8. carbon dioxide (CO2) 9. atrioventricular (AV) node 10. visceral pericardium (the outer lining is the parietal pericardium) 11. murmur 12. pulse D 1. arteriosclerosis 2. cardiomyopathy 3. cardiomegaly


4. phlebitis 5. tachycardia 6. bradycardia 7. hypercholesterolemia 8. valvuloplasty 9. hypoxia 10. atrial 11. mitral stenosis 12. thrombolysis E 1. bluish discoloration of the skin owing to deficient oxygen in the blood 2. incision of a vein 3. new connection between arteries 4. circulatory failure due to poor heart function 5. mass of yellowish plaque (fa y substance) 6. abnormal heart rhythm 7. instrument to measure blood pressure 8. instrument to listen to sounds within the chest 9. inflammation of the mitral valve 10. hardening of arteries with a yellowish, fa y substance (plaque) 11. narrowing of a vessel 12. widening of a vessel


F 1. endocarditis 2. flu er 3. atrial septal defect 4. mitral valve prolapse 5. coronary artery disease 6. hypertensive heart disease 7. fibrillation 8. pericarditis 9. congestive heart failure 10. tetralogy of Fallot 11. coarctation of the aorta 12. patent ductus arteriosus G 1. failure of proper conduction of impulses through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) 2. sudden unexpected stoppage of heart action 3. uncomfortable sensations in the chest associated with arrhythmias 4. ba ery-operated device that is placed in the chest and wired to send electrical current to the heart to establish a normal sinus rhythm 5. blockage of a vessel by a clot


6. chest pain resulting from insufficient oxygen being supplied to the heart muscle (ischemia) 7. area of necrosis (tissue death in the heart muscle; heart a ack) 8. abnormal condition of death (dead tissue) 9. damage or death of tissue due to deprivation of oxygen 10. blood is held back from an area of the body 11. nitrate drug used in the treatment of angina 12. drug that treats arrhythmias and strengthens the heartbeat 13. abnormal sound (murmur) heard on auscultation 14. vibration felt on palpation of the chest 15. consequences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries; MI and unstable angina 16. scraping or grating noise on auscultation of heart; indicates pericarditis 17. clot formation in a large vein, usually in lower limb 18. device enabling ventricles to beat in synchrony; cardiac resynchronization therapy H 1. vegetations 2. emboli 3. petechiae 4. murmur


5. auscultation 6. rheumatic heart disease 7. essential hypertension 8. secondary hypertension 9. Raynaud disease 10. aneurysm 11. claudication 12. peripheral arterial disease I 1. beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, statins, aspirin, calcium channel blockers 2. varicose veins 3. hemorrhoids 4. a.pulmonary artery stenosis b. ventricular septal defect c. shift of the aorta to the right d. hypertrophy of the right ventricle J 1. endarterectomy 2. defibrillation 3. lipid tests (profile) 4. stress test 5. cardiac biomarkers


6. angiography (arteriography) 7. electrocardiography 8. thallium 201 scan 9. echocardiography 10. lipoprotein electrophoresis 11. coronary artery bypass grafting 12. cardiac MRI K 1. Video equipment and a computer produce x-ray pictures of blood vessels by taking two pictures (without and with contrast) and subtracting the first image (without contrast) from the second. 2. A donor heart is transferred to a recipient. 3. Exercise tolerance test combined with a radioactive tracer scan. 4. An instrument that focuses sound waves on a blood vessel to measure blood flow. 5. A compact version of an electrocardiograph is worn during a 24-hour period to detect cardiac arrhythmias. 6. Treatment with drugs (streptokinase and tPA) to dissolve clots after a heart a ack. 7. A heart-lung machine is used to divert blood from the heart and lungs during surgery. The machine oxygenates the blood and sends it back into the bloodstream.


8. A catheter (tube) is inserted into an artery or vein and threaded into the heart chambers. Contrast can be injected to take x-ray pictures, pa erns of blood flow can be detected, and blood pressures can be measured. 9. A balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open the artery; stents are put in place. 10. Stents are expandable slo ed tubes that are placed in arteries during PCI. They release polymers that prevent plaque from reforming. 11. Electron beams and CT identify calcium deposits in and around coronary arteries to diagnose CAD. 12. X-ray images of the heart and coronary arteries obtained using CT technology. L 1. atrial fibrillation 2. ventricular tachycardia 3. ventricular fibrillation 4. premature ventricular contraction 5. premature atrial contraction M 1. congestive heart failure 2. ventricular septal defect 3. myocardial infarction 4. patent ductus arteriosus


5. mitral valve prolapse 6. aortic stenosis 7. coronary artery disease 8. atrial septal defect N 1. cTnI or cTnT: cardiac troponin-I and troponin-T 2. LVAD: left ventricular assist device 3. TEE: transesophageal echocardiography 4. ICD: implantable cardioverter-defibrillator 5. RFA: radiofrequency catheter ablation 6. ETT: exercise tolerance test 7. ECHO: echocardiography 8. ETT-MIBI: exercise tolerance test with sestamibi scan 9. ECMO: extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 10. CRT: cardiac resynchronization therapy 11. LDL: low-density lipoprotein; high levels indicate risk for CAD 12. BNP: brain natriuretic peptide O 1. coronary 2. arrhythmia 3. cyanosis 4. diastole


5. angina pectoris 6. phlebitis 7. vasodilation 8. cardiomegaly 9. atherosclerosis 10. hemorrhoids P 1. valvotomy 2. embolectomy 3. CABG 4. pericardiocentesis 5. PCI 6. endarterectomy 7. aneurysmorrhaphy 8. atherectomy 9. STEMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction) 10. thrombolytic therapy 11. catheter ablation 12. BNP test Q 1. ECG 2. septal 3. bacterial endocarditis


4. Raynaud's 5. Holter monitor 6. lipids; cardiologist; hypercholesterolemia 7. Doppler ultrasound; stenosis; claudication 8. cyanotic; cardiologist; echocardiography; tetralogy of Fallot 9. MI; dyspnea; congestive heart failure; ACE inhibitor 10. auscultation; stethoscope; MVP Answers to Practical Applications Operating Room Schedule

1. E 2. C 3. H 4. I 5. D 6. A 7. B 8. J 9. G 10. F Clinical Cases: What's Your Diagnosis?

Case 1 1. b


Case 2 1. d 2. a 3. b Case 3 1. d 2. a Pronunciation of Terms

The terms you have learned in this chapter are presented here with their pronunciations. The meanings for all the terms are in the MiniDictionary beginning on page 897. You can also hear each term pronounced on the Evolve website (h p://

Vocabulary and Terminology


TERM angiogram angioplasty anoxia aorta aortic stenosis apex of the heart arrhythmia arterial anastomosis arteriography arteriole arteriosclerosis artery atherectomy atheroma atherosclerosis atrial atrioventricular bundle atrioventricular node atrium; pl. atria brachial artery bradycardia bundle of His capillary carbon dioxide cardiogenic shock cardiomegaly cardiomyopathy coronary arteries cyanosis deoxygenated blood diastole electrocardiogram endocardium endothelium hypercholesterolemia hypoxia interventricular septum mitral valve mitral valvulitis myocardium myxoma normal sinus rhythm oxygen pacemaker pericardiocentesis pericardium phlebotomy pulmonary artery pulmonary circulation pulmonary valve pulmonary vein pulse

PRONUNCIATION AN-je-o-gram AN-je-o-plas-te ah-NOK-se-ah a-OR-tah a-OR-tik steh-NO-sis A-pex of the hart a-RITH-me-ah ar-TE-re-al ah-nas-to-MO-sis ar-TE-re-OG-rah-fe ar-TE-re-ohl ar-te-re-o-skleh-RO-sis AR-teh-re ath-eh-REK-to-me ath-er-O-mah ath-er-o-skleh-RO-sis A-tre-al a-tre-o-ven-TRIK-u-lar BUN-dil a-tre-o-ven-TRIK-u-lar node A-tre-um; A-tre-ah BRA-ke-al AR-ter-e bra-de-KAR-de-ah BUN-dil of hiss KAP-ih-lah-re KAR-bon di-OX-ide kar-de-o-JEN-ik shok kar-de-o-MEG-ah-le kar-de-o-mi-OP-ah-the KOR-o-nair-e AR-teh-reez si-ah-NO-sis de-OX-ih-jeh-NA-ted blud di-AS-to-le eh-lek-tro-KAR-de-o-gram en-do-KAR-de-um en-do-THE-le-um hi-per-ko-les-ter-ol-E- me-ah hi-POX-e-ah in-ter-ven-TRIK-u-lar SEP-tum MI-tral valv MI-tral val-vu-LI-tis mi-o-KAR-de-um mik-SO-mah NOR-mal SI-nus RIH-thim OX-ih-jen PACE-ma-ker peh-rih-kar-de-o-sen- TE-sis peh-rih-KAR-de-um fleh-BOT-o-me PUL-mo-nair-e AR-teh-re PUL-mo-nair-e ser-ku-LA-shun PUL-mo-nair-e valv PUL-mo-nair-e vayn puls


TERM septum; pl. septa sinoatrial node sphygmomanometer stethoscope systemic circulation systole tachycardia thrombolysis thrombophlebitis tricuspid valve valve valvotomy valvuloplasty vascular vasoconstriction vasodilation vein vena cava; pl. venae cavae venipuncture venous ventricle venule

PRONUNCIATION SEP-tum; SEP-ta si-no-A-tre-al node sfig-mo-mah-NOM-eh-ter STETH-o-skope sis-TEM-ik ser-ku-LA-shun SIS-to-le tah-ke-KAR-de-ah throm-BOL-ih-sis throm-bo-fleh-BI-tis tri-KUS-pid valv valv val-VOT-o-me val-vu-lo-PLAS-te VAS-ku-lar vaz-o-kon-STRIK-shun vaz-o-di-LA-shun vayn VE-nah KA-vah; VE-ne KA-ve ve-nih-PUNK-chur VE-nus VEN-trih-kel VEN-ule

Pathology, Laboratory Tests, and Clinical Procedures


TERM ACE inhibitor acute coronary syndromes aneurysm angina angiography atrial fibrillation atrioventricular block auscultation beta blocker biventricular pacemaker BNP test bruit calcium channel blocker cardiac arrest cardiac biomarkers cardiac catheterization cardiac MRI cardiac tamponade cardioversion catheter ablation claudication coarctation of the aorta computerized tomography angiography congenital heart disease congestive heart failure coronary artery bypass grafting coronary artery disease deep vein thrombosis defibrillation digital subtraction angiography digoxin Doppler ultrasound dysrhythmia echocardiography electrocardiography electron beam computed tomography embolus; pl. emboli endarterectomy endocarditis extracorporeal circulation fibrillation flu er heart block heart transplantation hemorrhoids Holter monitoring hypertension hypertensive heart disease implantable cardioverter defibrillator infarction ischemia

PRONUNCIATION ACE in-HIB-ih-tor a-KYOOT KOR-o-nair-e SIN-drohms AN-yoo-rih-zim an-JI-nah an-je-OG-rah-fe A-tre-al fib-rih-LA-shun a-tre-o-ven-TRIK-u-lar blok aw-skul-TA-shun BA-tah BLOK-er bi-ven-TRIK-u-lar PACE-ma-ker BNP test BRU-e KAL-se-um CHA-nel BLOK-er KAR-de-ak KAR-de-ak BI-o-mar-kerz KAR-de-ak kath-eh-ter-ih-ZA-shun KAR-de-ak KAR-de-ak tam-po-NADE kar-de-o-VER-zhun KATH-eh-ter ab-LA-shun klaw-deh-KA-shun ko-ark-TA-shun of the a-OR-tah kom-PU-ted to-MOG-rah-fe an-je-OG-rah-fe kon-JEN-ih-tal hart dih-ZEEZ kon-JES-tiv hart FAIL-yur KOR-o-nair-e AR-teh-re BI-pas GRAF-ting KOR-o-nair-e AR-teh-re dih-ZEEZ deep vayn throm-BO-sis de-fib-rih-LA-shun DIJ-ih-tal sub-TRAK-shun an-je-OG-rah-fe dih-JOK-sin DOP-ler UL-trah-sound dis-RITH-me-ah ek-o-kar-de-OG-rah-fe eh-lek-tro-kar-de-OG- rah-fe eh-LEK-tron beem kom-PU-ted to-MOG-rah-fe EM-bo-lus; EM-bo-li en-dar-ter-EK-to-me en-do-kar-DI-tis eks-trah-kor-POR-e-al ser-ku-LA-shun fib-rih-LA-shun FLUH-ter hart blok hart tranz-plan-TA-shun HEM-uh-roydz HOL-ter MON-ih-teh-ring hi-per-TEN-shun hi-per-TEN-siv hart dih-ZEEZ im-PLANT-ah-bul kar-de-o-VER-ter de-FIB-rihla-tor in-FARK-shun is-KE-me-ah


TERM left ventricular assist device lipid tests lipoprotein electrophoresis mitral stenosis mitral valve prolapse murmur myocardial infarction nitrates nitroglycerin occlusion palpitations patent patent ductus arteriosus percutaneous coronary intervention pericardial friction rub pericarditis peripheral arterial disease petechiae positron emission tomography of the heart Raynaud disease rheumatic heart disease septal defects statins stress test technetium Tc99m sestamibi scan telemetry tetralogy of Fallot thallium 201 scan thrill thrombolytic therapy thrombotic occlusion transcatheter aortic valve replacement varicose veins vegetations

PRONUNCIATION left ven-TRIH-ku-lar ah-SIST de-vise LIH-pid tests li-po-PRO-teen eh-lek-tro-for-E-sis MI-tral steh-NO-sis MI-tral valv PRO-laps MUR-mer mi-o-KAR-de-al in-FARK-shun ni-TRAYTS ni-tro-GLIS-er-in o-KLU-zhun pal-pih-TA-shunz PA-tent PA-tent DUK-tus ar-te-re-O-sus per-ku-TA-ne-us KOR-in-air-e in-ter-VEN-shun peh-rih-KAR-de-al FRIK-shun rub peh-rih-kar-DI-tis peh-RIH-fer-al ar-TE-re-al dih-ZEEZ peh-TE-ke-i pos-ih-tron e-MIH-shun to-MOG-rah-fe of the heart ra-NO dih-ZEEZ ru-MAT-ik hart dih-ZEEZ SEP-tal DE-fekts STAT-inz STRESS test tek-NE-she-um Tc99m ses-tah-MIH-be skan tel-EM-et-re teh-TRAH-lo-je of fah-LO THAL-e-um 201 skan thril throm-bo-LIT-ik THER-ah-pe throm-BOT-ik o-KLU-zhun tranz-KATH-eh-ter a-OR-tik valv re-PLAYS-ment VAR-ih-kos vaynz vej-eh-TA-shunz

Review Sheet

Write the meanings of each word part in the space provided. Check your answers with the information in the chapter or in the Glossary (Medical Word Parts—English) at the end of the book.

Combining Forms


COMBINING FORM aneurysm/o angi/o aort/o arter/o, arteri/o ather/o atri/o axill/o brachi/o cardi/o cholesterol/o coron/o cyan/o isch/o my/o myx/o ox/o pericardi/o phleb/o pulmon/o rrhythm/o sphygm/o steth/o thromb/o valv/o valvul/o vas/o vascul/o ven/o, ven/i ventricul/o

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Suffixes SUFFIX -constriction -dilation -emia -graphy -lysis -megaly -meter -oma -osis -plasty -sclerosis -stenosis -tomy

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________



PREFIX a-, anbradydedysendohyperhypointerperitachytetratri-

MEANING ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Use the listed cardiovascular anatomy terms to complete the accompanying chart.

aorta inferior vena cava left atrium left ventricle lung capillaries mitral valve pulmonary artery pulmonary vein right atrium right ventricle superior vena cava tricuspid valve




Respiratory System CHAPTER SECTIONS: Introduction 432 Anatomy and Physiology of Respiration 432 Vocabulary 436 Terminology 437 Pathology 443 Clinical Procedures 450 Abbreviations 455 Practical Applications 457 In Person: Recurrent Pneumonia 458 Exercises 459 Answers to Exercises 466 Pronunciation of Terms 468 Review Sheet 471

CHAPTER GOALS • Name the organs of the respiratory system and their location and function. • Identify pathologic conditions that affect the respiratory system. • Learn medical terms that pertain to respiration. • Describe important clinical procedures related to the respiratory system, and recognize relevant abbreviations. • Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical terms in their proper contexts, such as medical reports and records.



Introduction We usually think of respiration as the mechanical process of breathing, the exchange of air between the lungs and the external environment. This exchange of air at the lungs is called external respiration. During inhalation, oxygen passes from the environment (inhaled air contains about 21%) into the lung air sacs and blood capillaries of lungs. Simultaneously, during exhalation carbon dioxide, a gas waste product produced when oxygen and food combine in cells, passes from the capillary blood vessels into the air sacs of the lungs to be exhaled. Whereas external respiration occurs between the outside environment and the capillary blood of the lungs, another form of respiration occurs between the individual body cells and the tiny capillary blood vessels that surround them. This is internal (cellular) respiration, which involves an exchange of gases at the level of the cells within all organs of the body. Here, oxygen passes out of the tissue capillaries into body cells. At the same time, carbon dioxide passes from body cells into the tissue capillaries to travel to the lungs for exhalation. See Figure 12-1.



Anatomy and Physiology of Respiration Label Figure 12-2 as you read the following paragraphs that describe the respiratory organs and their functions.

FIGURE 12-2 Organs of the respiratory system.

Air enters the body via the nose [1] through two openings called nostrils or nares. Air then passes through the nasal cavity [2], lined with a mucous membrane and fine hairs (cilia) to help filter out foreign bodies, as well as to warm and moisten the air. Paranasal sinuses [3] are hollow, air-containing spaces within the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity. They, too, have a mucous membrane lining. Besides producing mucus, a lubricating fluid, the sinuses lighten the bones of the skull and help produce sound. After passing through the nasal cavity, the air next reaches the pharynx (throat). There are three divisions of the pharynx. The first is the nasopharynx [4]. It contains the pharyngeal tonsils, or adenoids [5], which are collections of lymphatic tissue. They are more prominent in children and, if enlarged, can obstruct air passageways. Below the nasopharynx and closer to the mouth is the second division of the pharynx, the oropharynx [6]. The palatine tonsils [7], two rounded masses of lymphatic tissue, are in the oropharynx. The third division of the pharynx, the laryngopharynx [8],


serves as a common passageway for food from the mouth and air from the nose. It divides into the larynx (voice box) [9] and the esophagus [10]. The esophagus leads into the stomach and carries food to be digested. The larynx contains the vocal cords and is surrounded by pieces of cartilage for support and to keep the airway open. The thyroid cartilage is the largest and in men is commonly referred to as the Adam's apple. As expelled air passes the vocal cords, they vibrate to produce sounds. The tension of the vocal cords determines the high or low pitch of the voice. Because food entering from the mouth and air entering from the nose mix in the pharynx, what prevents food or drink from entering the larynx and respiratory system during swallowing? Even if a small quantity of solid or liquid ma er finds its way into the air passages, aspirated food can cause irritation in the lungs and breathing can stop. The epiglo is [11], a flap of cartilage a ached to the root of the tongue, prevents choking or aspiration of food. It acts as a lid over the opening of the larynx. During swallowing, when food and liquid move through the throat, the epiglo is closes over the larynx, preventing material from entering the lungs. Figure 12-3 shows the larynx from a superior view.

FIGURE 12-3 The larynx, viewed from above (superior view).

On its way to the lungs, air passes through the larynx to the trachea (windpipe) [12], a vertical tube about inches long and 1 inch in diameter. The trachea is kept open by 16 to 20 C-shaped rings of cartilage separated by fibrous connective tissue that stiffen the front and sides of the tube. The mediastinum [13] is a space in the center of the chest. In the region of the mediastinum, the trachea divides into two branches, the right and left bronchial tubes, or bronchi [14] (singular: bronchus). The bronchi are tubes composed of delicate epithelium surrounded by cartilage rings and a muscular wall. Each bronchus leads to a separate lung [15], where it divides and subdivides into smaller and finer tubes, somewhat like the branches of a tree. The small bronchial branches are the bronchioles. Each terminal bronchiole [16] narrows into alveolar ducts, which end in collections of air sacs called alveoli [17] (singular: alveolus). About 300 million alveoli are estimated to be present in both lungs. The total area of the alveoli is approximately the size of a tennis court. Each alveolus is lined with a one-cell-thick layer of epithelium. This very thin wall permits an exchange of gases between the alveolus and the capillary [18] surrounding it. Blood flowing through the capillary accepts oxygen from the alveolus while depositing carbon dioxide into the alveolus. Erythrocytes [19] in the blood carry oxygen away from the lungs to all parts of the body and carbon dioxide back to the lungs for exhalation.


Each lung is covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The outer layer of this membrane, nearer the ribs, is the parietal pleura [20], and the inner layer, closer to the lung, is the visceral pleura [21]. A serous (thin, watery fluid) secretion moistens the pleura and facilitates movements of the lungs within the chest (thorax). The two lungs are not quite mirror images of each other. The slightly larger right lung is divided into three lobes, whereas the smaller left lung has two lobes. One lobe of the lung can be removed without significantly compromising lung function. The uppermost part of the lung is the apex, and the lower area is the base. The hilum of the lung is the midline region in which blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic tissue, and bronchial tubes enter and exit. The lungs extend from the collarbone to the diaphragm [22] in the thoracic cavity. The diaphragm is a muscular partition separating the thoracic from the abdominal cavity and aiding in the process of breathing. It contracts and descends with each inhalation (inspiration) and relaxes and ascends with each exhalation (expiration). The downward movement of the diaphragm enlarges the area in the thoracic cavity, decreasing internal air pressure, so that air flows into the lungs to equalize the pressure. When the lungs are full, the diaphragm relaxes and elevates, making the area in the thoracic cavity smaller, thus increasing air pressure in the chest. Air then is expelled out of the lungs to equalize the pressure; this is exhalation (expiration). Figure 12-4 shows the position of the diaphragm in inspiration and in expiration.

FIGURE 12-4 Position of the diaphragm during inhalation (inspiration) and exhalation (expiration).

Figure 12-5 is a flow diagram of the pathway of air from the nose, where air enters the body, to the capillaries of the lungs, where oxygen enters the bloodstream.


FIGURE 12-5 Pathway of air from the nose to the capillaries of the lungs.


This list reviews terminology introduced in the preceding section. Short definitions and additional information will reinforce your understanding. Refer to the Pronunciation of Terms on page 468 for help with difficult or unfamiliar words.


adenoids alveolus (plural: alveoli) apex of the lung base of the lung bronchioles bronchus (plural: bronchi) carbon dioxide (CO2) cilia

Lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx; pharyngeal tonsils. Air sac in the lung. Tip or uppermost portion of the lung. An apex is the tip of a structure. Apical means pertaining to or located at the apex. Lower portion of the lung; from the Greek basis, foundation. Basilar means located at or in the base. Smallest branches of the bronchi. Terminal bronchioles lead to alveolar ducts. Branch of the trachea (windpipe) that is a passageway into the lung; bronchial tube. Gas produced by body cells when oxygen and carbon atoms from food combine; exhaled through the lungs.

Thin hairs a ached to the mucous membrane epithelium lining the respiratory tract. They clear bacteria and foreign substances from the lung. Cigare e smoke impairs the function of cilia. diaphragm Muscle separating the chest and abdomen. It contracts to pull air into the lungs and relaxes to push air out. epiglo is Lid-like piece of cartilage that covers the larynx, preventing food from entering the larynx and trachea during swallowing. exhalation Breathing out; expiration. glo is Slit-like opening to the larynx. hilum of the Midline region where the bronchi, blood vessels, and nerves enter and exit the lungs. Hilar lung means pertaining to (at) the hilum. inhalation Breathing in; inspiration. larynx Voice box; containing the vocal cords. lobe Division of a lung. mediastinum Region between the lungs in the chest cavity. It contains the trachea, heart, lymph nodes, major blood vessels, esophagus, and bronchial tubes. nares Openings through the nose carrying air into the nasal cavities; nostrils. oxygen (O2) Gas that makes up 21 percent of the air that we breathe. It passes into the bloodstream at the lungs and travels to all body cells. palatine One of a pair of almond-shaped masses of lymphatic tissue in the oropharynx (palatine means tonsil pertaining to the roof of the mouth). paranasal One of the air cavities in the bones near the nose. sinus parietal Outer layer of pleura lying closer to the ribs and chest wall. pleura pharynx Throat; including the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. pleura Double-layered membrane surrounding each lung. pleural Space between the layers of the pleura. cavity pulmonary Essential parts of the lung, responsible for respiration; bronchioles and alveoli. parenchyma respiration Exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) at the lung capillaries (external respiration or breathing) and at the tissue capillaries (internal respiration). trachea Windpipe. visceral Inner layer of pleura lying closer to the lung tissue. pleura


Write the meanings of the medical terms in the spaces provided.

Combining Forms


COMBINING MEANING FORM adenoid/o adenoids alveol/o bronch/o bronchi/o

bronchiol/o capn/o coni/o cyan/o epiglo /o laryng/o

lob/o mediastin/o nas/o orth/o

ox/o pector/o pharyng/o phon/o phren/o pleur/o

alveolus, air sac bronchial tube, bronchus

bronchiole, small bronchus carbon dioxide dust



adenoidectomy __________________________________ adenoid hypertrophy __________________________________ alveolar __________________________________ bronchospasm __________________________________ This tightening of the bronchi and smaller bronchial tubes (bronchioles) is a chief characteristic of bronchitis. bronchiectasis __________________________________ Caused by weakening of the bronchial wall from infection. bronchodilator __________________________________ This drug causes dilation, or enlargement, of the opening of a bronchus or bronchiole to improve ventilation to the lungs. An example is albuterol, delivered via an inhaler. bronchopleural __________________________________ A bronchopleural fistula is an abnormal connection between the bronchial tube and the pleural cavity (space). Occurring as a result of lung disease or surgical complication, this can cause an air leak into the pleural space. bronchiolitis __________________________________ This is an acute viral infection occurring in infants younger than 18 months of age. hypercapnia __________________________________

pneumoconiosis __________________________________ See page 447. blue cyanosis __________________________________ Caused by deficient oxygen in the blood. epiglo is epiglo itis __________________________________ Characterized by fever, sore throat, and an erythematous, swollen epiglo is. larynx, voice laryngeal __________________________________ box laryngospasm __________________________________ Spasm of laryngeal muscles that closes the larynx. laryngitis lobe of the lobectomy __________________________________ lung Figure 12-6 shows four different types of pulmonary resections. mediastinum mediastinoscopy __________________________________ An endoscope is inserted through an incision in the chest. nose paranasal sinuses __________________________________ Para- means near in this term. See Figure 12-7. nasogastric intubation __________________________________ straight, orthopnea __________________________________ upright An abnormal condition in which breathing (-pnea) is easier in the upright position. A major cause of orthopnea is congestive heart failure. Physicians assess the degree of orthopnea by the number of pillows a patient requires to sleep comfortably (e.g., two-pillow orthopnea). oxygen hypoxia __________________________________ Tissues have a decreased amount of oxygen, and cyanosis can result. chest expectoration __________________________________ Clearing of secretions from the airway by coughing or spi ing. This sputum can contain mucus, blood, cellular debris, pus, and microorganisms. pharynx, pharyngeal __________________________________ throat voice dysphonia __________________________________ Hoarseness or other voice impairment. diaphragm phrenic nerve __________________________________ The motor nerve to the diaphragm. pleura pleurodynia __________________________________ The suffix -dynia means pain. The intercostal muscles or pleura are inflamed, causing pain during breathing. pleural effusion __________________________________ An effusion is the escape of fluid from blood vessels or lymphatics into a cavity or into tissue spaces.


COMBINING MEANING FORM pneum/o, air, lung pneumon/o


rhin/o sinus/o spir/o


thorac/o tonsill/o trache/o



pneumothorax __________________________________ The suffix -thorax means chest. Because of a hole in the lung, air accumulates in the pleural cavity, between the layers of the pleura (Figure 12-8).

pneumonectomy __________________________________ pulmonary __________________________________ The pulmonary circulation carries oxygen-poor (deoxygenated) blood from the heart to the lungs and then returns oxygenated blood back to the heart for transportation throughout the body. nose rhinoplasty __________________________________ rhinorrhea __________________________________ Commonly known as “runny nose.” sinus, cavity sinusitis __________________________________ breathing spirometer __________________________________ expiration __________________________________ Note that the s is omi ed (when it's preceded by an x). respiration __________________________________ Cheyne-Stokes respirations are marked by rhythmic changes in the depth of breathing (rapid breathing and then absence of breathing). The pa ern occurs every 45 seconds to 3 minutes. The cause may be heart failure or brain damage, both of which affect the respiratory center in the brain. complete atelectasis __________________________________ Collapsed lung; incomplete expansion (-ectasis) of a lung (Figure 12-9). Atelectasis may occur after surgery when a patient experiences pain and does not take deep breaths, preventing full expansion of the lungs. chest thoracotomy __________________________________ thoracic __________________________________ tonsils tonsillectomy __________________________________ The oropharyngeal (palatine) tonsils are removed. trachea, tracheotomy __________________________________ windpipe tracheal stenosis __________________________________ Injury to the trachea from trauma, a burn, or serious infection can cause scarring and contraction that obstructs the flow of air. For example, having an endotracheal tube in place for a prolonged period may lead to tracheal injury or the formation of scar tissue. lung


FIGURE 12-6 Pulmonary resections. A, Wedge resection is the removal of a small, localized area of diseased tissue near the surface of the lung. Pulmonary function and structure are relatively unchanged after healing. B, Segmental resection is the removal of a bronchiole and its alveoli (one or more lung segments). The remaining lung tissue expands to fill the previously occupied space. C, Lobectomy is the removal of an entire lobe of the lung. After lobectomy, the remaining lung increases in size to fill the space in the thoracic cavity. D, Pneumonectomy is the removal of an entire lung. Techniques such as removal of ribs and elevation of the diaphragm are used to reduce the size of the empty thoracic space.


FIGURE 12-7 Paranasal sinuses. These are 4-paired, air-filled spaced in the bones of the skull surrounding the nasal cavity. Sinusitis is inflammation of the paranasal sinuses due to viral, bacterial, or fungal infections or allergic reactions.

FIGURE 12-8 Pneumothorax. Air gathers in the pleural cavity, causing the lung to collapse. When this happens, the lung cannot fill up with air, breathing becomes more difficult, and the body gets less oxygen. Onset of pneumothorax is marked by sudden, sharp chest pain with difficulty breathing.


FIGURE 12-9 Two forms of atelectasis. A, Bronchial obstruction prevents air from reaching distal airways, and alveoli collapse. The most frequent cause is blockage of a bronchus by a mucous or mucopurulent (pus-containing) plug, as might occur postoperatively. B, Accumulations of fluid, blood, or air within the pleural cavity collapse the lung. This can occur with congestive heart failure (poor circulation leads to fluid buildup in the pleural cavity), pneumonia, trauma, or a pneumothorax.

Suffixes SUFFIX MEANING TERMINOLOGY MEANING -ema condition empyema ______________________________________ Em- at the beginning of this term means in. Empyema (pyothorax) is a collection of pus in the pleural cavity. -osmia smell anosmia ______________________________________ -pnea breathing apnea ______________________________________ Sleep apnea is sudden cessation of breathing during sleep. It can result in hypoxia, leading to cognitive impairment, hypertension, and arrhythmias. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) involves narrowing or occlusion in the upper airway. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is gentle ventilatory support used to keep the airways open (Figure 1210). dyspnea ______________________________________ Dys- means abnormal here and is associated with shortness of breath (SOB). Paroxysmal (sudden) nocturnal (at night) dyspnea may be experienced by patients with congestive heart failure when they recline in bed. Patients often describe the sensation as “air hunger.” hyperpnea ______________________________________ An increase in the depth of breathing, occurring normally with exercise and abnormally with any condition in which the supply of oxygen is inadequate. tachypnea ______________________________________ Tachy- means fast. Excessively rapid and shallow breathing; hyperventilation. -ptysis spi ing hemoptysis ______________________________________ Blood is coughed up from the bronchial tubes and lungs; occurs with bronchitis or pneumonia, but also with tuberculosis, cancer, bronchiectasis, and pulmonary embolism. pulse asphyxia ______________________________________ sphyxia This condition, literally meaning lack of pulse, is severe hypoxia leading to hypoxemia, hypercapnia, loss of consciousness, and death. -thorax pleural hemothorax ______________________________________ cavity, pyothorax ______________________________________ chest Empyema of the chest.


FIGURE 12-10 This man is sleeping with a nasal CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) mask in place. The pressure supplied by air coming from the compressor opens the oropharynx and nasopharynx.


Pathology Diagnostic terms auscultation


pleural rub

rales (crackles) rhonchi (singular: rhonchus) sputum



Listening to sounds within the body. This procedure, performed with a stethoscope, is used chiefly for listening to the passage of air into and out of the lungs and listening to heart sounds. It is helpful to diagnose conditions of the lungs, pleura, heart, and abdomen, as well as to determine the condition of the fetus during pregnancy. Tapping on a surface to determine the difference in the density of the underlying structure. Tapping over a solid organ produces a dull sound without resonance. Percussion over an air-filled structure, such as the lung, produces a resonant, hollow note. When the lungs or the pleural space are filled with fluid and become more dense, as in pneumonia, resonance is replaced by dullness. Scratchy sound produced by pleural surfaces rubbing against each other. Pleural rub (also called a friction rub) occurs when the pleurae are roughened and thickened by inflammation, infection, scarring, or neoplastic cells. It is heard on auscultation and can be felt by placing the fingers on the chest wall. Fine crackling sounds heard on auscultation (during inhalation) when there is fluid in the alveoli. These popping or clicking sounds can be heard in patients with pneumonia, bronchiectasis, or acute bronchitis. The French word rale means ra le. Loud rumbling sounds heard on auscultation of bronchi obstructed by sputum. These coarse rumbling sounds resemble snoring and are usually caused by secretions in larger bronchial tubes. Material expelled from the bronchi, lungs, or upper respiratory tract by spi ing. Purulent (containing pus) sputum often is green or brown. It results from infection and may be seen with asthma. Blood-tinged sputum is suggestive of tuberculosis or malignancy. For a sputum culture, the specimen is maintained in a nutrient medium to promote growth of a pathogen. Culture and sensitivity (C&S) testing identifies the sputum pathogen and determine which antibiotic will be effective in destroying or reducing its growth. Strained, high-pitched sound heard on inspiration caused by obstruction in the pharynx or larynx. Common causes of stridor include throat abscess, airway injury, croup, allergic reaction, or epiglo itis and laryngitis. Continuous high-pitched whistling sounds produced during breathing. Wheezes are heard when air is forced through narrowed or obstructed airways. Patients with asthma or emphysema commonly experience wheezing as bronchi narrow and tighten.

Upper Respiratory Disorders


croup diphtheria



Acute viral infection of infants and children with obstruction of the larynx, accompanied by barking cough and stridor. The most common causative agents are influenza viruses or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Acute infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract caused by the diphtheria bacterium (Corynebacterium). Inflammation occurs, and a leathery, opaque membrane (Greek diphthera, leather membrane) forms in the pharynx and trachea. Immunity to diphtheria (by production of antibodies) is induced by the administration of weakened toxins (antigens) beginning between the sixth and eighth weeks of life. These injections usually are given as combination vaccines with pertussis and tetanus toxins and so are called DPT injections. Nosebleed. Epistaxis is a Greek word meaning a dropping. It commonly results from irritation of nasal mucous membranes, trauma, vitamin K deficiency, clo ing abnormalities, blood-thinning medications (such as aspirin and warfarin), or hypertension. Whooping cough; highly contagious bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea caused by Bordetella pertussis. Pertussis is characterized by paroxysmal (violent, sudden) spasms of coughing that ends in a loud “whooping” inspiration.

Bronchial Disorders asthma

Chronic inflammatory disorder with airway obstruction due to bronchial and bronchiolar edema and constriction. Associated signs and symptoms of asthma are dyspnea, wheezing, increased mucus production, and cough. Etiology can involve allergy or infection. Triggers for asthmatic a acks include exercise, strong odors, cold air, stress, allergens (e.g., tobacco smoke, pet dander, dust, molds, pollens, foods), and medications (aspirin, beta blockers). Asthma treatments are: • Fast-acting agents for acute symptoms; example is an albuterol inhaler (bronchodilator). • Long-acting agents for long-term control; examples are glucocorticoids (inhaled), oral steroids (anti-inflammatory drugs), and leukotriene blockers such as montelukast (Singulair). Other conditions, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), sinusitis, and allergic rhinitis, can exacerbate asthma. bronchiectasis Chronic dilation of a bronchus, usually secondary to infection. This condition is caused by chronic infection with loss of elasticity of the bronchi. Secretions puddle and do not drain normally. Signs and symptoms are cough, fever, and expectoration of foul-smelling, purulent (pus-containing) sputum. Treatment is palliative (noncurative) and includes antibiotics, mucolytics, bronchodilators, respiratory therapy, and surgical resection if other therapies are not effective. chronic Inflammation of bronchi persisting over a long time; type of chronic obstructive bronchitis pulmonary disease (COPD). Infection and cigare e smoking are etiologic factors. Signs and symptoms include excessive secretion of often infected mucus, a productive cough, and obstruction of respiratory passages. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema (lung disease in which air exchange at the alveoli is severely impaired) are types of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). cystic fibrosis Inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in thick mucinous secretions in the (CF) respiratory tract that do not drain normally. This is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in a gene. It can be diagnosed by newborn screening blood test, sweat test, and genetic testing. CF affects the epithelium (lining cells) of the respiratory tract, leading to chronic airway obstruction, infection, bronchiectasis, and sometimes respiratory failure. It also involves exocrine glands, such as the pancreas (insufficient secretion of digestive enzymes leads to poor growth) and sweat glands (salty tasting skin). There is no known cure, but therapy includes antibiotics, aerosolized medications, chest physiotherapy, and replacement of pancreatic enzymes. A new medication called ivacaftor (Kalydeco) helps prevent the buildup of thick mucus in the lungs. Lung transplantation becomes necessary for some patients. It can restore lung function and prolong life.

Lung Disorders



Collapsed lung; incomplete expansion of alveoli, (Figure 12-9, page 441). In atelectasis, the bronchioles and alveoli (pulmonary parenchyma) resemble a collapsed balloon. emphysema Hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls (Figure 12-11A and B). Loss of elasticity and the breakdown of alveolar walls result in expiratory flow limitation. There is a strong association between cigare e smoking and emphysema. As a result of the destruction of lung parenchyma, including blood vessels, pulmonary artery pressure rises and the right side of the heart must work harder to pump blood. This leads to right ventricular hypertrophy and right heart failure (cor pulmonale). Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are both forms of COPD. lung cancer Malignant tumor arising from the lungs and bronchi (Figure 12-12). This group of cancers, often associated with cigare e smoking, is the most frequent fatal malignancy. Lung cancers are divided into two general categories: non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). NSCLC accounts for 90% of lung cancers and comprises three main types: adenocarcinoma (derived from mucus-secreting cells), squamous cell carcinoma (derived from the lining cells of the upper airway), and large cell lung cancer. When lung cancer is diagnosed, physicians assess the stage of the tumor (determined by its size, lymph node involvement, and any distant areas of spread) to prepare a protocol for treatment. For localized tumors, surgery may be curative. Staging of NSCLC by assessing mediastinal lymph nodes is critical. If nodes are negative and there are no other medical problems, the patient is a good candidate for surgery. If nodes are positive, multimodality treatment (chemotherapy and irradiation), with or without surgery, may be an option. Doctors treat metastatic disease (to liver, brain, and bones) with palliative chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. In some patients, often nonsmokers, NSCLC may be caused by a mutation (change) in epithelial lung tissue. An example is a mutation in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is sensitive to treatment with EGFR inhibitors (Iressa and Tarceva). This is an example of targeted drug therapy for cancer. Examples of tumors treatable by interfering with mutated gene products are increasing. SCLC derives from small, round cells (“oat” cells) found in pulmonary epithelium. It grows rapidly and quickly spreads outside the lung. Treatment with surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy may lead to remissions. pneumoconiosis Abnormal lung condition caused by exposure to certain dusts; with chronic inflammation, infection, and bronchitis (Figure 12-13A). Various forms are named according to the type of dust particle inhaled: anthracosis— coal (anthrac/o) dust (black lung disease); asbestosis—asbestos (asbest/o) particles (in shipbuilding and construction trades); silicosis—silica (silic/o = rocks) or glass (grinder's disease). pneumonia Acute inflammation and infection of alveoli, which fill with pus or products of the inflammatory reaction. Etiologic agents are pneumococci, staphylococci, and other bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Infection damages alveolar membranes so that an exudate (fluid, blood cells, and debris) consolidates the alveoli (sacs become “glued” together, making air exchange less effective). An infiltrate is a fluid-filled area within the lungs as seen on a chest x-ray or CT scan. Lobar pneumonia (see Figure 12-13B) involves an entire lobe of a lung. Bronchopneumonia is a limited form of infection that produces patchy consolidation (abscesses) in the lung parenchyma. Treatment includes appropriate antibiotics and, if necessary, oxygen and mechanical ventilation in severe cases. See In Person: Recurring Pneumonia, page 458. Community-acquired pneumonia results from a contagious respiratory infection, caused by a variety of viruses and bacteria (including pneumococci and Mycoplasma bacteria). It usually is treated at home with oral antibiotics. Hospital-acquired pneumonia or nosocomial pneumonia is acquired during hospitalization (Greek nosokomeion means hospital). For example, patients may contract pneumonia while on mechanical ventilation or as a hospital-acquired infection. Aspiration pneumonia is caused by material, such as food or vomitus, lodging in bronchi or lungs. It is a danger in the elderly, Alzheimer disease patients, stroke victims, and people with esophageal reflux and feeding tubes. X-ray images of a normal chest and one with pneumonia are on page 450. pulmonary Large collection of pus (bacterial infection) in the lungs. abscess pulmonary Fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles. edema This condition most often is caused by the inability of the heart to pump blood (congestive heart failure). Blood backs up in the pulmonary blood vessels, and fluid


pulmonary embolism (PE)

pulmonary fibrosis sarcoidosis

tuberculosis (TB)

seeps out into the alveoli and bronchioles. Acute pulmonary edema requires immediate medical a ention, including drugs (diuretics), oxygen in high concentrations, and keeping the patient in a si ing position (to decrease venous return to the heart). Clot or other material lodges in vessels of the lung (Figure 12-14A and B). The clot (embolus) travels from distant veins, usually in the legs. Occlusion can produce an area of dead (necrotic) tissue; this is a pulmonary infarction. PE often causes acute pleuritic chest pain (pain on inspiration) and may be associated with blood in the sputum, fever, and respiratory insufficiency. CT angiography is the primary diagnostic tool for pulmonary emboli. Formation of scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lungs. This condition can be primary (idiopathic) or secondary as the result of chronic inflammation or irritation caused by tuberculosis, pneumonia, or pneumoconiosis. Chronic inflammatory disease in which small nodules (granulomas) develop in lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs. The cause of sarcoidosis is unknown. Bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy or lung involvement is visible on chest x-ray in most cases. Many patients are asymptomatic and retain adequate pulmonary function. Sarcoidosis may affect the brain, heart, liver, and other organs. Other patients have more active disease and impaired pulmonary function. Glucocorticoids are used to prevent progression of the illness. Infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis; lungs usually are involved, but any organ in the body may be affected. Rod-shaped bacteria called bacilli invade the lungs, producing small tubercles (from Latin tuber, a swelling) of infection. Early TB usually is asymptomatic and detected on routine chest x-ray studies. Signs and symptoms of advanced disease are cough, weight loss, night sweats, hemoptysis, and pleuritic pain. Antituberculosis chemotherapy (isoniazid, rifampin) is effective in most cases. Immunocompromised patients are particularly susceptible to antibiotic-resistant TB. It is important and often necessary to treat TB with several drugs at the same time to prevent drug resistance. The PPD skin test (see page 454) is given to most hospital and medical employees because TB is highly contagious. A positive PPD test, indicates exposure to TB, and treatment with isoniazid will be necessary even in the absence of lung infection.

FIGURE 12-11 A, Normal lung tissue. B, Emphysema. Notice the overinflation of air sacs and destruction of alveolar walls.


FIGURE 12-12 Lung cancer. The gray-white tumor tissue is infiltrating the substance of the lung. This tumor was identified as a squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinomas arise in major bronchi and spread to local hilar lymph nodes.

FIGURE 12-13 A, Anthracosis or black lung disease. Notice the dark black deposits of coal dust throughout the lung. B, Lobar pneumonia (at autopsy). Notice that the condition affects a lobe of the lung. The patient's signs and symptoms included fever, chills, cough, dark sputum, rapid shallow breathing, and hypoxia. If diagnosis is made early, antibiotic therapy is successful.


FIGURE 12-14 Pulmonary embolism (A and B).

Atelectasis Common Causes • Bronchial obstruction—by secretions or tumor • Complications following surgery—poor breathing ability • Chest wounds—air (pneumothorax), fluid (pleural effusion), or blood (hemothorax) accumulate in the pleural cavity

Pleural Disorders mesothelioma pleural effusion pleurisy (pleuritis) pneumothorax

Rare malignant tumor arising in the pleura. Mesotheliomas are derived from mesothelium, which forms the lining of the pleural surface. These tumors usually are caused by asbestos exposure. Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (cavity). Two types of pleural effusions are exudates (fluid from tumors and infections) and transudates (fluid from congestive heart failure, or cirrhosis). Inflammation of the pleura. This condition causes pleurodynia and dyspnea and, in chronic cases, pleural effusion. Collection of air in the pleural space. Pneumothorax may occur in the course of a pulmonary disease (emphysema, carcinoma, tuberculosis, or lung abscess) when a break in the lung surface releases air into the pleural space. This allows communication between an alveolus or bronchus and the pleural cavity. It may also follow trauma and perforation of the chest wall or prolonged high-flow oxygen delivered by a respirator in an intensive care unit (ICU). Pleurodesis (-desis means to bind) is the artificial production of adhesions between the parietal and visceral pleura for treatment of persistent pneumothorax and severe pleural effusion. This is accomplished by using talc powder or drugs, such as antibiotics, that cause irritation and scarring of the pleura.

Study Section

Practice spelling each term and know its meaning.


anthracosis asbestosis bacilli (singular: bacillus) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cor pulmonale exudates

Coal dust accumulates in the lungs. Asbestos particles accumulate in the lungs. Rod-shaped bacteria.

Chronic condition of persistent obstruction of air flow through bronchial tubes and lungs. COPD is caused by smoking, air pollution, chronic infection, and, in a minority of cases, asthma. Patients with predominant chronic bronchitis COPD may be referred to as “blue bloaters” (cyanotic, stocky build), whereas those with predominant emphysema may be called “pink puffers” (short of breath, but with near-normal blood oxygen levels, and no change in skin color). Failure of the right side of the heart to pump a sufficient amount of blood to the lungs because of underlying lung disease. Fluid, cells, and other substances (pus) that filter from cells or capillaries ooze into lesions or areas of inflammation. infiltrate Collection of fluid or other material within the lung, as seen on a chest film, CT scan, or other radiologic image. palliative Relieving symptoms, but not curing the disease. paroxysmal Pertaining to a sudden occurrence, such as a spasm or seizure; oxysm/o means sudden. pulmonary Area of necrosis (death of lung tissue). infarction purulent Containing pus. silicosis Disease due to silica or glass dust in the lungs; occurs in mining occupations.


Clinical Procedures X-Ray Tests chest x-ray (CXR) computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest

Radiographic image of the thoracic cavity (chest film). Chest x-rays are taken in the frontal (coronal) plane as posteroanterior (PA) or anteroposterior (AP) views and in the sagi al plane as lateral views. Figure 12-15A and B shows a normal chest film and an x-ray film of the chest with pneumonia. Computer-generated series of x-ray images show thoracic structures in cross section and other planes. This test is for diagnosis of lesions difficult to assess by conventional x-ray studies, such as those in the lungs, mediastinum, and pleura. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is the combination of CT scanning and angiography. It is useful to examine the pulmonary circulation in the diagnosis of a pulmonary embolism.

FIGURE 12-15 A, A normal chest x-ray appearance. The image is taken from the posteroanterior (PA) view (x-ray passes from back to front). The backward L in the upper corner is placed on the film to indicate the left side of the patient's chest. A, Diaphragm; B, costophrenic angle; C, left ventricle of the heart; D, right atrium of the heart; E, aortic arch; F, superior vena cava; G, trachea. Air-filled lung spaces appear black. B, Pneumonia of the right lung shown on an x-ray image of the chest.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest

Magnetic waves create detailed images of the chest in frontal, lateral (sagi al), and cross-sectional (axial) planes. This test is helpful in defining mediastinal tumors (such as those of Hodgkin disease) difficult to assess by CT scan.

Nuclear Medicine Tests


positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the lung ventilationperfusion (V/Q) scan

Radioactive glucose is injected, and images reveal metabolic activity in the lungs. This scanning technique can identify malignant tumors, which have higher metabolic activity. It is also used to assess small nodules seen on a CT scan. Detection device records radioactivity in the lung after intravenous injection of a radioisotope and inhalation of a small amount of radioactive gas (xenon). This test can identify areas of the lung not receiving adequate air flow (ventilation) or blood flow (perfusion) as well as areas where there is a mismatch in air flow (V) and blood flow (Q). Air flow without matched blood flow suggests a pulmonary embolus.

Other Procedures


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Fiberoptic endoscope examination of the bronchial tubes. A physician places the bronchoscope through the throat, larynx, and trachea into the bronchi for diagnosis, biopsy, or collection of secretions. In bronchoalveolar lavage (bronchial washing), fluid is injected and withdrawn. In bronchial brushing, a brush is inserted through the bronchoscope and is used to scrape off tissue (Figure 12-16). Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is performed during bronchoscopy to diagnose and stage lung cancer. An EBUS-guided biopsy allows for sampling of small (


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